• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
AP sensation perception
 

AP sensation perception

on

  • 741 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
741
Views on SlideShare
700
Embed Views
41

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

2 Embeds 41

http://connect.pasco.k12.fl.us 39
https://twitter.com 2

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • {"93":"OBJECTIVE 13| Explain how the research on distorting goggles increases our understanding of the adaptability of perception.\n","5":"Dalmatian Dog\n","99":"Portrait artists understood the importance of this recognition and therefore centered an eye in their paintings.\n","77":"Dinosaur \n","6":"Hidden Cow\n","100":"Portrait artists understood the importance of this recognition and therefore centered an eye in their paintings.\n","78":"Psychology\n","106":"OBJECTIVE 17| Identify the three most testable forms of ESP, and explain why most research psychologists remain, skeptical of ESP.\n","95":"OBJECTIVE 2| Explain how illusions help us understand some of the ways we organize stimuli into meaningful perceptions.\n","7":"Shadow Face\n","79":"OBJECTIVE 7| Explain how monocular cues differ from binocular cues, and describe several monocular cues for perceiving depth. \n","68":"OBJECTIVE 3| Describe Gestalt psychology's contribution to our understanding of perception.\n","13":"When the name and the ink colour are different, most people slow down.\nWhen you try to say the ink colour, you cannot avoid reading the word. \nIf the two bits of information conflict, your brain struggles to work out what the correct answer is, and it takes longer.\nThis test is very sensitive to subtle changes in brain function. \nLack of sleep, fatigue, minor brain injury and high altitudes will all increase the time it takes to do the test. \nThe test has even been used on Everest expeditions to see how altitudes are affecting different people.\n","85":"OBJECTIVE 8| State the basic assumption we make in our perceptions of motion, and explain how these perceptions can be deceiving.\n","74":"OBJECTIVE 5| Explain the importance of depth perception, and discuss the contribution of visual cliff research to our understanding of this ability.\n","91":"OBJECTIVE 11| Discuss lightness constancy and its similarity to color constancy.\n","80":"OBJECTIVE 7| Explain how monocular cues differ from binocular cues, and describe several monocular cues for perceiving depth. \n","69":"OBJECTIVE 4| Explain the figure-ground relationship and identify principles of perceptual grouping in form perception.\n","97":"OBJECTIVE 14| Define perceptual set, and explain how it influences what we do or do not perceive. Right half the class should close their eyes and the left half of the class should see the saxophonist for about 20 seconds. Then the left half of the class should close the eyes and the right half should see the woman’s face. All of them should then write their responses while watching the middle picture. Responses are compared to show perceptual set.\n","86":"OBJECTIVE 9| Explain the importance of perceptual constancy.\n","9":"OBJECTIVE 1| Describe the interplay between attention and perception.\n","4":"The forest has eyes\n","87":"OBJECTIVE 10| Describe the shape and size constancy, and explain how our expectations about perceived size and distance to some visual illusions.\n","76":"OBJECTIVE 6| Describe two binocular cues for perceiving depth, and explain how they help the brain to compute distance.\n","32":"Figure 3.8 from:\nKassin, S. (2001). Psychology, third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.\nSource:\nHubel, D. H.., & Wiesel, T.N. (196Davis 2). Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat’s visual cortex. Journal of Physiology, 160,106-154.\n"}

AP sensation perception AP sensation perception Presentation Transcript

  • Sensation and Perception AP Psychology Mr. Aguiar
  • Section 1: Sensing Our World • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What are sensation and perception? 2. What do we mean by bottom-up and top-down processing? 3. How are we affected by selective attention? Mr. Burnes 2
  • Sensation vs. Perception • Sensation • Detecting information from our environment • Perception • The process of selecting, organizing and interpreting information from our senses • Bottom-Up Processing • Using small components and building up • Top-Down Processing • Using the larger components and breaking down • Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtstiy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae.We raed the wrod as a wlohe. 3
  • Top Down vs. Bottom Up 4
  • Top Down vs. Bottom Up Processing 5
  • Top Down vs. Bottom Up Processing 6
  • Top Down vs. Bottom Up Processing 7
  • Sensation-to-Perception Process 8
  • Selective Attention (11 million/40 ratio) Perceptions about objects change from moment to moment. We can perceive different forms of the Necker cube; however, we can only pay attention to one aspect of the object at a time. ACCIDENTS 80% of crashes involve driver distraction Calling on a cell phone4x more at risk Talking to a person in the car1.6x more at risk Texting23x more at risk Necker Cube 9
  • Inattentional Blindness • Inattentional blindness refers to the inability to see an object or a person in our midst. Simmons & Chabris (1999) showed that half of the observers failed to see the gorilla-suited assistant in a ball passing game • 50% of people don’t notice • Cocktail Party Effect – Ability to attend to one voice at a party or restaurant 10
  • Change Blindness Change blindness is a form of inattentional blindness in which twothirds of individuals giving directions failed to notice a change in the individual asking for directions. (Change Deafness also occurs on the phone- 40% of people failed to notice a change in the voice) 11
  • Choice Blindness • When photos are switched of people we think are attractive we will defend our choice, even when it is not the original choice • 87% fail to notice the switch, although 84% would claim to notice in a hypothetical experiment 12
  • The Stroop Effect • Say the COLOR (not the word) as fast as you can.
  • Section 1: Sensing Our World • Reflect on Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What are sensation and perception? 2. What do we mean by bottom-up and top-down processing? 3. How are we affected by selective attention? Good Good Understanding Understanding Fair Fair Understanding Understanding Mr. Burnes Little Little Understanding Understanding 14
  • Section 1: Test Your Knowledge Which of the following terms best explains why you didn‘t hear your Mom tell you to take out the trash while you were intensely watching the World Series game on TV? A)Change Blindness B)Selective Attention C)Selective Hearing D)Choice Blindness
  • Section 2: Thresholds • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What are absolute and difference thresholds, and do stimuli below the absolute threshold have any influence? 2. What is the function of sensory adaption? 16
  • Sensory Thresholds • Absolute Threshold – The minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimuli (50% of the time) – Examples of Absolute Thresholds • Vision: Light from a candle 30 miles away on a dark night • Hearing: Ticking of a watch from 20 feet away • Smell: One drop of perfume in a small apartment • Taste: One teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water • Touch: The wing of a fly on your cheek from .4 inch away 17
  • Sensory Thresholds • Difference Threshold – Minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time – Also called Just Noticeable Differences – Weber’s Law: Two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage in order to be noticed (revised by Fetchner) • In other words- it must be out of proportion • Example: Lights must differ in intensity by 8% • Another way to look at it: 1$ makes a difference to 10$, but not to 1000$. (its proportional) • Subliminal Messages – “Drink more Coke” & “Eat more Popcorn” – Info processed just below surface of thresholds can influence minor decision making – Conclusion: subliminal adverting does not work 18
  • Signal Detection Theory • Hit or miss in detection of stimuli when we are uncertain • Ability to detect stimuli based on: • • • • • Person’s experience Expectations Motivation Level of Fatigue States that fear increases your sensitivity to even small pain because of the anticipation of pain You Recognize it You Miss it STIMULUS PRESENT Hit Miss STIMULUS NOT PRESENT False Alarm Correct Rejection 19
  • Sensory Adaptation • Our diminishing sensitive to unchanging stimulus • Keep things novel, so we pay attention • Examples – you blast your music in the car, but fail to notice how loud it is – Jumping into a pool seems cold at first, but you eventually get comfortable 20
  • Section 2: Thresholds • Reflect on Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What are absolute and difference thresholds, and do stimuli below the absolute threshold have any influence? 2. What is the function of sensory adaption? Good Good Understanding Understanding Fair Fair Understanding Understanding Little Little Understanding Understanding 21
  • Section 2: Test Your Knowledge 1. 2. Danny sometimes mistakenly hears his mom call him from the other room of their house. What term would be used to explain this phenomenon? A. Sensory Adaptation B. Weber’s Law C. Selective Hearing D. Signal Detection Theory A person with normal vision being able to see a candle flame 30 miles away on a clear dark night is an example of: A. Difference Threshold B. Signal Detection Theory C. Absolute Threshold D. Sensory Adaptation 22
  • Section 3: Vision- Part I • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What is the energy that we see as visible light? 2. How does the eye transform light energy intro neural messages? 23
  • Vision & Energy • Light Characteristics 1. Hue (color) – the dimension of color determined by the wavelength of the light 2. Wavelength – Different wavelengths of light 3. Intensity – Amount of energy in a wave determined by amplitude. It is related to brightness 24
  • Parts of the Eye • • • • Cornea: Protective tissue of the lens Iris: Colored muscle that controls pupil dilation & regulates the amount of light entering the eye Lens: Focuses the light rays on the retina Retina: Contains sensory receptors (rods and cones) Blind Spot 25
  • Functions of the Retina • Retina – The light sensitive part of the eye – Light Image Transduction: 1. Rods/Cones 2. Bipolar Cells 3. Ganglion Cells 4. Optic Nerve 26
  • Other Parts of the Eye • Optic Nerve – Carries neural impulses from the eye to the thalamus to the occipital lobes • Blind Spot – Point where the optic nerve leaves the eye (no receptor cells present) • Fovea – Central point of the retina which contains more cones than rods 27
  • Foveal Vision 28
  • Section 3: Vision- Part I • Reflect on Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What is the energy that we see as visible light? 2. How does the eye transform light energy intro neural messages? Good Good Understanding Understanding Fair Fair Understanding Understanding Little Little Understanding Understanding 29
  • Section 4: Vision- Part II • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How does the brain process visual information? 2. What theories help us understand color vision? 30
  • Parallel Processing in the Brain • • Parallel Processing – We process several aspects of stimulus simultaneously – Synchronized Brain Waves The brain divides a visual scene into subdivisions such as color, depth, form and movement all at once 31
  • Hubel & Wiesel’s Experiment • Some cells in the visual cortex respond only to certain types of visual information, for example, a diagonal line moving up and down (Like Hands On a Clock). • These cells are called feature detectors. 32
  • Color Vision Theories • Trichromatic (Young-Helmholtz) • Because the retina contains three color sensors (R, B, G) our brain combines information to see various colors • This helps to explain color blindness • Opponent Processing • Hering proposed that we process colors in the OP cells in the retina and thalamus that can be over stimulated to see afterimages • Red - Green • Blue - Yellow • Black- White 33
  • Different Forms of Color Blindness Trichromats - People who have normal color vision. Dichromats - People who are blind to either red-green (most common) or yellow-blue. Monochromats - People who are totally color blind. (Rare) 34
  • Section 4: Vision- Part II • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How does the brain process visual information? 2. What theories help us understand color vision? Good Good Understanding Understanding Fair Fair Understanding Understanding Little Little Understanding Understanding 35
  • Section 4: Test Your Knowledge 1. Where does transduction take place concerning vision? (A) The Pupil (B) The Retina (C) The Thalamus (D) The Occipital Lobe 2. Which theory of color BEST explains color blindness? (A) Opponent Processing (B) Wavelength Theory (C) Place Theory (D) Trichromatic Theory 36
  • Section 5: Hearing • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How does the ear transform sound energy into neural messages? 2. What theories help us understand pitch perception? 3. How do we locate sounds? 4. What are the common causes of hearing loss, and why does controversy surround cochlear implants? 37
  • Hearing: Parts of the Ear HEARING BY AGE 20,000 Hz- 18 & younger 17,000 Hz- 24 & younger 16,000 Hz- 30 & younger 15,000 Hz- 39 & younger 14,000 Hz- 49 & younger 12,000 Hz- 55 & younger 10,000 Hz- 60 & younger 8,000 Hz- Everyone EAR PARTS Outer Ear: Pinna. Collects sounds. Middle Ear: Chamber between eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea’s oval window. Inner Ear: Innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs. 38
  • Parts of the Ear • Eardrum (Tympanic) Membrane • Three Bones (middle ear) • Cochlea – Outer Ear Protection – Smallest bones in the human body – Mechanical: Stirrup, Hammer, Anvil (Ossicles) – Coiled, bony, fluidfilled tube in the inner ear that transduces sound vibrations into auditory signals – Much like the retina of the eye 39
  • Theories of Hearing • Place Theory – Different pitches are heard at different places in the cochlea’s basilar membrane • Frequency Theory – The rate of sounds matches the rate traveling up the auditory nerve 40
  • Sound Localization • We hear from two ears that are located on either side of our head. • One ear will pick up the sound .000027 times faster than the other to help us find the sound. 41
  • Hearing Loss • Conduction Hearing Loss – Mechanical damage to tiny bones or eardrum – Can be improved by use of hearing aid • Sensorineural Hearing Loss – Most common type of deafness – Nerve deafness due to damage in cochlea or auditory nerve – Sometimes can be fixed by cochlear implant 42
  • Section 5: Hearing • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How does the ear transform sound energy into neural messages? 2. What theories help us understand pitch perception? 3. How do we locate sounds? 4. What are the common causes of hearing loss, and why does controversy surround cochlear implants? Good Good Understanding Understanding Fair Fair Understanding Understanding Little Little Understanding Understanding 43
  • Section 5: Test Your Knowledge 1. The general function of the bones in the middle ear is to: (A) Convert the incoming sound from pounds per square inch to decibels. (B) Protect the cochlea (C) Transfer sound information from the tympanic membrane to the oval window (D) Provide information to the vestibular system 1. _____ are the receptor cells for audition and ______ are receptor cells for vision. (A) Olfactory cells; rods & cones (B) Taste buds; hair cells (C) Hair cells; rods & cones (D) Proprioceptors; rods & cones 44
  • Section 6: Other Senses- Part I • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How de we sense touch and sense our body’s position and movement? How do we experience pain? 45
  • Touch & Pain • Touch Senses • Warm, Cold, Pressure, Pain • Pain • Tells your body something is wrong • Phantom Sensations • Amputees may experience this because parietal lobe neurons are still dedicated to area of missing limb 46
  • Fun Facts: Touch Receptors • Touch Senses • Different pathways for warm/cold • Touching cold and pressure spots yields a wet sensation. • Touching warm and cold together yields a hot sensation • Gently stroking of a painful spot produces an itching sensation • Stroking adjacent pressure spots induces a tickle* * Note: You can’t tickle yourself What do you think this person feels? 47
  • Gate Control Theory (Melzack & Wall, 1965) • Gate Control Theory • Small nerves in the spinal cord carry pain, large nerves in the spinal cord carry other sensations • Only one type of nerve fiber can go through the gate at a time • Rubbing sore area may reduce pain as interneurons in spinal cord control the “gate of information” • You can also close the pain gate mentally: i.e.- Not feeling pain while concentrating on other things 48
  • Body Position & Movement • The sense of our body parts’ position and movement is called kinesthesis. (ex. Movement while running without thinking about the body’s movement) • The vestibular sense monitors our balance. Vestibular sense can tell if you are vertical or horizontal. (ex. Spinning in a chair makes you dizzy) 49
  • Section 6: Other Senses- Part I • Reflect on Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How de we sense touch and sense our body’s position and movement? How do we experience pain? Good Good Understanding Understanding Fair Fair Understanding Understanding Little Little Understanding Understanding 50
  • Section 7: Other Senses- Part II • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How do we experience taste? 2. How do we experience smell? 51
  • Taste as a chemical sense • Basic Chemical Tastes – Also known as gustatory sense – Sweet, Sour, Bitter, Salty, Umami – Taste may be based on survival (bitter food is toxic) – Taste receptors reproduce every two weeks – Taste sensitivity decreases with age Sweet Sour Salty Bitter Umami (Fresh 52 Chicken)
  • Smell as a Chemical Sense • Chemical Sense or Olfactory Sense • Smell involves the detection of molecules • Scents play an important role in attachment • Smell & Memory • Because smell runs close to the limbic system, it ties closely to memory pathways • We have a hard time describing a smell, but can relate to personal stories • Herz’s Brown University Study 1. Students played an impossible game in a scented room 2. The same students were then given a complex (not impossible task) 3. The same scent was pumped into the experimental room and the students gave up easily 53
  • Smell: Age & Gender • Ability to identify smell peaks during early adulthood, but steadily declines after that. Women are better at detecting odors than men 54
  • Sensory Interaction • Sensory Interaction • Smell + Texture + Taste = Flavor • Visual Capture • Vision dominates all senses when conflicts appear • McGurk Effect • Hear one syllable while seeing another lipped causes us to interpret a third • Synesthesia • Rare disorder in which people combine senses 55
  • Section 7: Other Senses- Part II • Reflect on Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How do we experience taste? 2. How do we experience smell? Good Good Understanding Understanding Fair Fair Understanding Understanding Little Little Understanding Understanding 56
  • Mini FRQ Review Jimmy is a contestant on a game show where people must run an oddly-shaped maze with obstacles in a dimly-lit building as fast as they can. Explain how the following terms would affect Jimmy’s performance in running the maze. • Kinesthesis • Retina • Hippocampus 57
  • Section X: Perceptual Organization • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How did the Gestalt psychologists understand perceptual organization? 2. How do figure-ground and grouping principles contribute to our perceptions? 58
  • Perception Review The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory information, which enables us to recognize meaningful objects and events. Old Lady or Young Woman 59
  • What are we actually seeing according to Gestalt Principles? The Necker Cube Revisited 60
  • Optical Illusions (for fun) 61
  • Optical Illusions (for fun) anomalous motion illusion 62
  • Optical Illusions (for fun) anomalous motion illusion 63
  • Optical Illusions (for fun) anomalous motion illusion 64
  • Hermann Grid (for fun) 65
  • Optical Illusions (for fun) anomalous motion illusion 66
  • Optical Illusions (for fun) 67
  • Perceptual Organization • • When vision competes with our other senses, vision usually wins – a phenomena called visual capture. – Example: When sound comes from behind us at a movie theater, we perceive it as coming from the screen in front of us. – Example: When watching a first person view of a roller coaster, we can get nauseated – Example: The rubber hand illusion Vision captures our other senses! 68
  • Figure Ground Perspective Organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground). If you are looking at the vase, then the white part is the figure and the black becomes the ground. 69
  • Gestalt Groupings Gestalt Psychology: Looking at the WHOLE. Closure Law of Common Fate law of pragnanz 70
  • Section X: Perceptual Organization • Reflect on Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How did the Gestalt psychologists understand perceptual organization? 2. How do figure-ground and grouping principles contribute to our perceptions? Good Good Understanding Understanding Fair Fair Understanding Understanding Little Little Understanding Understanding 71
  • Section X: Test Your Knowledge 1. Hold your writing instrument in front of your face and focus past it so that this question is easily read. What is the figure and what is the ground in your vision? – Hold up 3 fingers if you could easily answer this question. – Hold up 2 fingers if you think you got the answer. – Hold up 1 finger if you don’t know. 1. Watching a football game, young Johnny thought that the two halves were actually two different games because they were split between a halftime. Which Gestalt grouping best explains Johnny’s top-down processing error?
  • Section X: Depth Perception • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How do we see the world in three dimensions? 73
  • Visual Cliff Study Gibson and Walk (1960) suggested that human infants (crawling age) have depth perception that is learned. Even certain newborn animals show depth perception. 74
  • Binocular Cues • Retinal disparity: Images from the two eyes differ, so we are able to better judge distance of two objects. • Used in 3-D motion picture to mimic the offset eyes. TRY THIS Two eyes are better than one: Close one eye an touch two pencil tips together 75
  • Binocular Cues Convergence: Neuromuscular cues. When two eyes move inward (towards the nose) to see near objects and outward (away from the nose) to see faraway objects. The more we have to strain our eyes the closer the image is to our face. 76
  • Binocular Cues: Stereogram 77
  • Binocular Cues: Stereogram 78
  • Monocular Cues • Relative Size: If two objects are similar in size, we perceive the one that casts a smaller retinal image to be farther away. • Interposition: If one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer • Relative Clarity: Hazy objects appear farther away than near objects • Texture Gradient: Fine textures indicate a close object; course textures indicate an object is far away 79
  • More Monocular Cues •Relative Motion (motion parallax): When we are moving, objects that are stable appear to move- objects that are farther away move slower than closer objects •Light & Shadow: Nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes Linear Perspective: Parallel lines converge in the distance 80
  • Monocular Cue Review How many monocular cues can you identify? 81
  • Section X: Depth Perception • Reflect on Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How do we see the world in three dimensions? Good Good Understanding Understanding Fair Fair Understanding Understanding Little Little Understanding Understanding 82
  • Mini FRQ Review Mr. Burnes’ car breaks down on a long, deserted highway with no cell service. In the distance he sees a gas station, but knows it will be a long walk. Explain how each of the following concepts helps him determine it will be a long walk: – Relative size – Texture Gradient – Linear Perspective 83
  • Section X: Perceptual Interpretation • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What does research on sensory deprivation and restored vision reveal about the effects of experience on perception? 2. How adaptable is our ability to perceive? 3. How do our expectations, contexts and emotions influence our perceptions? 84
  • Stroboscopic Motion and Phi Phenomenon • Stroboscopic Motion: 24 still pictures flashing within one second create the illusion of motion (example: flip books and cartoons) • Phi Phenomenon: Lights blinking next to each will create the illusion of motion (neon or scrolling signs) 85
  • Shape Constancy Perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change. Perceptual constancies include constancies of shape and size. Shape Constancy 86
  • Size Constancy Stable size perception amid changing size of the stimuli. We know the one car is just farther away, but still the same size. 87
  • Size-Distance Relationship The distant monster (below, left) and the top red bar (below, right) appear bigger because of distance cues. The moon appears larger on the horizon because of context effects make it look farther away like the monster Ponzo Illusion 88
  • Size-Distance Relationship 89
  • Ames Room The Ames room is designed to demonstrate the size-distance illusion. 90
  • Lightness Constancy The color and brightness of square A and B are the same. 91
  • Color Constancy Objects will change color depending on the CONTEXT of surrounding objects or colors Color Constancy 92
  • Perceptual Adaptation You have the ability to adapt to distortion goggles rather quickly. Usually in a couple of hours to days. Some animals can never adapt. 93
  • Testing Perceptual Adaptation 94
  • Muller-Lyer Illusion Illusions provide good examples in understanding how perception is organized. Studying faulty perception is as important as studying other perceptual phenomena. 95
  • Culture and Perception 96
  • Perceptual Set A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another. What you see in the center picture is influenced by flanking pictures. Half the class close your eyes while the other half looks at an image: 97
  • Perceptual Set Other examples of perceptual set. (c) (a)Loch ness monster or a tree trunk; (b)Flying saucers or clouds? (c) The face on mars because of perceptual schema 98
  • Eye & Mouth Schemas 99
  • Eye & Mouth Schemas 100
  • Motivation and Emotion influence Perception If you are rewarded for seeing a farm animal, you will see a farm animal • Walking destinations look farther way when fatigued • Hills look steeper when carrying a heavy backpack • Targets seem father away when throwing a heavy object • When you are driving you hate pedestrians, when you are a pedestrian you hate drivers 101
  • Section X: Perceptual Interpretation • Reflect on Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What does research on sensory deprivation and restored vision reveal about the effects of experience on perception? 2. How adaptable is our ability to perceive? 3. How do our expectations, contexts and emotions influence our perceptions? Good Good Understanding Understanding Fair Fair Understanding Understanding Little Little Understanding Understanding 102
  • Section X: Human Factors and ESP • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What are human factors? 2. What are the claims of ESP, and what have most research psychologists concluded after putting these claims to the test? 103
  • What are Human Factors? • Human factors is the study of how to make machines and objects interface better with humans based on perception. • Also know as ergonomics • Examples: • Car Stereo Controls • Oven/Stove Knobs 104
  • More Human Factors 105
  • Is There Extrasensory Perception? Perception without sensory input is called extrasensory perception (ESP). A large percentage of scientists do not believe in ESP. 106
  • Claims of ESP Paranormal phenomena include astrological predictions, psychic healing, communication with the dead, and out-of-body experiences, but most relevant are telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition. 107
  • Claims of ESP 1. Telepathy: Mind-to-mind communication. One person sending thoughts and the other receiving them. 2. Clairvoyance: Perception of remote events, such as sensing a friend’s house on fire. 3. Precognition: Perceiving future events, such as a political leader’s death. “Visions of psychics that help the police solve crimes are no more accurate than guesses” 108
  • Section X: Human Factors and ESP • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What are human factors? 2. What are the claims of ESP, and what have most research psychologists concluded after putting these claims to the test? Good Good Understanding Understanding Fair Fair Understanding Understanding Little Little Understanding Understanding 109