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MEMORY AND FORGETTING
Presentor: Afshan Arzoo
Audience: 1st year,
2nd semester
Objectives
• Memory?
• Process of memory
• Brain parts involve in memory
• Stages of memory
• ATKINSON-SHIFFRIN MODEL
HUMAN BRAIN
Keep in Brain
Memory???
• The process by which information is Encoded,
Stored, and Retained.
Processes of Memory
• ENCODING: The Memory’s “Transformer”.
• First stage of memory processing.
Modifying information so that it can be placed
in memory.
• Psychological formats.
• Uses visual, acoustics and semantic codes as
a psychological formats to represent mental
images.
1. Visual Codes
• Mental representation of information as a picture.
EX: Artistic people
2. Acoustic codes
• Mental representation of information as a sequence of
sound.
Example: 2/3 syllabe words, “th un st of am”
3. Semantic code
Mental representation of information according to its
meaning.
Ex: food by its color, the difference btw cow and bird,
phone number by person name.
Storage: The memory’s “Save”
Function
• 2nd stage of memory processing
The maintenance of information over time.
• Storage through:
1. Maintenance Rehearsal
2. Metamemory
3. Elaborative rehearsal
Maintenance Rehearsal
• Mental repetition of information to keep it in
memory.
• Metamemory:
• Self awareness of the ways in which memory
functions allowing the person encode, store
and retrieve information effectively.
• Elaborative Rehearsal:
• The kind of coding in which new information is
related to information that is already known.
Retrieval: The memory’s “Search”
function
• 3rd process is retrieval.
Locating stored information and its return to
consciousness.
• Well known information: retrieval is effortless
and immediate. Ex: Names and occupation.
• Large amount of information, not perfectly
understood: retrieval is difficult or can fail.
• Retrieval of information from our memories
requires knowledge of proper cues.
Brain parts involve in memory Storage
• Location: Outermost layer of the
brain
Function: Responsible for
thinking and processing
information from the five senses.
• The cerebral cortex plays a key
role in memory, attention,
perceptual awareness, thought,
language and consciousness. It is
divided into four main regions
or lobes
• Frontal lobe (involved in conscious thought and
higher mental functions such as decision-making,
particularly in that part of the frontal lobe known
as the prefrontal cortex, and plays an important
part in processing short-term memories and
retaining longer term memories which are not
task-based)
• Parietal lobe (involved in integrating sensory
information from the various senses, and in the
manipulation of objects in determining spatial
sense and navigation).
• Temporal lobe (involved with the senses of smell
and sound, the processing of semantics in both
speech and vision, including the processing of
complex stimuli like faces and scenes, and plays a
key role in the formation of long-term memory).
• Medial temporal lobe (the inner part of the
temporal lobe, near the divide between the left
and right hemispheres) in particular is thought to
be involved in declarative and episodic memory.
• and the occipital lobe (mainly involved with the
sense of sight).
• Hippocampus, is essential for memory function,
particularly the transference from short- to long-term
memory and control of spatial memory and behaviour.
• The hippocampus also grows neurons so the brain can
retain these memories.
• The hippocampus is one of the few areas of the brain
capable actually growing new neurons, although this
ability is impaired by stress-related glucocorticoids.
• Amygdala also performs a primary role in the
processing and memory of emotional reactions and
social and sexual behaviour, as well as regulating the
sense of smell.
• Basal ganglia system, particularly
the striatum (or neostriatum) which is important in
the formation and retrieval of procedural memory.
RICHARD ATKINSON
&
RICHARD SHIFFRIN
1968
(ATKINSON-SHIFFRIN MODEL)
ATKINSON-SHIFFRIN MODEL
• Proposed 3 stages of memory.
1. Sensory memory
2. Short term memory (STM)
3. Long term memory (LTM)
( How long information retained)
Stages of Memory
Sensory Memory: Flashes on the
Mental Mirror
• Sensory memory is the type or stage of memory
that first encountered by stimulus.
• Hold impression briefly.
• Saccadic Eye Movement: the rapid jump made by
the person’s eyes as they fixate on different
points.
• Memory Trace: An assumed change in the NS
that reflect the impression made by a stimulus.
Memory traces are said to be held in “Sensory
register.”
Sensory Memory: Flashes on the
mental mirror (Cont…)
• Sensory Register: A system of memory that
hold the information briefly, but long enough
so that it can be processed further.
( sensory register for every sense)
• Such as Iconic memory: for visual stimuli..
• Echoic memory: for sounds, auditory stimuli.
A T T E N T I O N
Short-term memory: Keeping things
“In Mind”
• The type or stage of memory that can hold
information for up to minute or so after the
trace of stimuli decay.
Also called working memory.
In STM, Images tend to fade significantly
after 10 to 12 seconds IF IT IS NOT REPEATED
OR REHEARSED.
Ex: encode visual stimuli as sound.
2 phenomenon used for STM
1. Serial-Position Effect: The tendency to recall
more accurately the first and last items in a
series. Ex: phone numbers, names..
2. Chunking: A stimulus or group of stimuli that are
perceived as a discrete piece of information.
Ex: Abbreviations, short forms.
 ( Psychologist says: appearance of new
information in STM displaces the old one)
 George Miller: average person can digest about
7 integers at a time. Ex: phone number.
Long-Term Memory:
your Memory’s “Hard Drive”
• Long-Term Memory: the type or stage of memory
capable of relative permanent storage.
What Freud said about memory.
 Repression: The rejection of anxiety evoking
ideas from conscious awareness.
What is Elizabeth loftus said about memory.
Schemas: A way of mental representation of the
world such as Belief or Expectation, that can
influence perception of persons, objects, and
situations.
• There is no evidence of replacement of older
information in the Long-term Memory.
 Your LTM is a biochemical “Hard Drive” with unlimited
Storage Capacity.
• Elaborative Rehearsal: A method for increasing
retention of new information by relating to information
that is well known.
• Fergus Craik & Robert Lockhart: pioneer of level of
processing information told that information is
processed Deeply, attended to, encoded carefully,
pondered and related things we already known.
Flashbulb Memories
(Preserve Experience in detail)
Where were you and what were you doing?
1. EARTH QUAKE.
2. APS SCHOOL BLAST.
3. YOUR OWN FLASHBULBS…
Events that are surprising, important and
emotionally stirring more clearly.
 Distinctness of memory.
Organization in LTM
• Storehouse of LTM is well organized.
1. Categorization.
2. Hierarchal structure. (common & distinct
features)
Context dependent memory
• Information that is better retrieved in the context
in which it was encoded and stored or learned.
( Ex: Library reading. Group presentation practice)
State dependent memory:
• Information that is better retrieved in the
physiological or emotional state in which it was
encoded and stored or learned.
(Ex: happy or sad events, occasions )
Forgetting
• Hermann Ebbinghaus
(Studied Memory and Forgetting)
• Nonsense Syllables: Meaningless sets of two
consonants, with a vowel sandwiched in
between.
• Well suited for use in the measurement of
forgetting.
Recognition Used in
Recall Measuring
Relearning Forgetting.
Interference Theory
• According to this view, we may forget stored
material because other learning interferes with it.
• Types of interference:
1. Retroactive Interference (retroactive inhibition);
new learning interfere with the retrieval of old
learning. For ex: Human Anatomy
2. Proactive Interference (Proactive Inhibition); old
learning interfere with the retrieval of material
learned recently. For ex: changing new phone.
Repression (Motivated forgetting)
Ejecting the Unwanted from
Consciousness.
• According to Freud, Repression is an
automatic ejection of painful memories and
unacceptable urges from conscious
awareness.
• It is heart of disorder called dissociative
Amnesia. (thought to stem from psychological
conflict or trauma).
Enhance Memory
 Drill and practice: (rote maintenance rehearsal)
Relate new information to what is already known.
(Elaborative Rehearsal)
Use the method of Loci. (Juice, bread for toast
and eggs. Fruits for cereals, milk for tea or coffee)
Mediation: build a conceptual bridge.
Use mnemonic device. ( chunks of information
into formats such as acronyms or phrase.)
Neural activity and Memory
(Better Living through chemistry)
• Serotonin: Efficiency of Learning.
• Acetylcholine (ACh). Vital in memory formation. Low
level of Ach in Alzheimer’s disease
• Glutamate: same like Serotonin.
• Adrenaline and nor adrenaline (epinephrine and nor
epinephrine): strengthen memory when they are
released in bloodstream.
• Stressful events stimulate release of stress hormones
from adrenal glands --- adrenaline & steroids
limbic system (amygdala) release noradrenaline
heighten memory for stressful events.
• Vasopressin: ( Antidiuretic Hormones ):
Multiple tasks, one of which is facilitating
memory functioning, particularly working
memory.
• Estrogen and testosterone: ( Sex Hormones)
Boost working memory.

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memory .pptx

  • 1. MEMORY AND FORGETTING Presentor: Afshan Arzoo Audience: 1st year, 2nd semester
  • 2. Objectives • Memory? • Process of memory • Brain parts involve in memory • Stages of memory • ATKINSON-SHIFFRIN MODEL
  • 4. Memory??? • The process by which information is Encoded, Stored, and Retained.
  • 5. Processes of Memory • ENCODING: The Memory’s “Transformer”. • First stage of memory processing. Modifying information so that it can be placed in memory. • Psychological formats. • Uses visual, acoustics and semantic codes as a psychological formats to represent mental images.
  • 6. 1. Visual Codes • Mental representation of information as a picture. EX: Artistic people 2. Acoustic codes • Mental representation of information as a sequence of sound. Example: 2/3 syllabe words, “th un st of am” 3. Semantic code Mental representation of information according to its meaning. Ex: food by its color, the difference btw cow and bird, phone number by person name.
  • 7. Storage: The memory’s “Save” Function • 2nd stage of memory processing The maintenance of information over time. • Storage through: 1. Maintenance Rehearsal 2. Metamemory 3. Elaborative rehearsal
  • 8. Maintenance Rehearsal • Mental repetition of information to keep it in memory. • Metamemory: • Self awareness of the ways in which memory functions allowing the person encode, store and retrieve information effectively. • Elaborative Rehearsal: • The kind of coding in which new information is related to information that is already known.
  • 9. Retrieval: The memory’s “Search” function • 3rd process is retrieval. Locating stored information and its return to consciousness. • Well known information: retrieval is effortless and immediate. Ex: Names and occupation. • Large amount of information, not perfectly understood: retrieval is difficult or can fail. • Retrieval of information from our memories requires knowledge of proper cues.
  • 10.
  • 11. Brain parts involve in memory Storage • Location: Outermost layer of the brain Function: Responsible for thinking and processing information from the five senses. • The cerebral cortex plays a key role in memory, attention, perceptual awareness, thought, language and consciousness. It is divided into four main regions or lobes
  • 12. • Frontal lobe (involved in conscious thought and higher mental functions such as decision-making, particularly in that part of the frontal lobe known as the prefrontal cortex, and plays an important part in processing short-term memories and retaining longer term memories which are not task-based) • Parietal lobe (involved in integrating sensory information from the various senses, and in the manipulation of objects in determining spatial sense and navigation).
  • 13. • Temporal lobe (involved with the senses of smell and sound, the processing of semantics in both speech and vision, including the processing of complex stimuli like faces and scenes, and plays a key role in the formation of long-term memory). • Medial temporal lobe (the inner part of the temporal lobe, near the divide between the left and right hemispheres) in particular is thought to be involved in declarative and episodic memory. • and the occipital lobe (mainly involved with the sense of sight).
  • 14. • Hippocampus, is essential for memory function, particularly the transference from short- to long-term memory and control of spatial memory and behaviour. • The hippocampus also grows neurons so the brain can retain these memories. • The hippocampus is one of the few areas of the brain capable actually growing new neurons, although this ability is impaired by stress-related glucocorticoids. • Amygdala also performs a primary role in the processing and memory of emotional reactions and social and sexual behaviour, as well as regulating the sense of smell. • Basal ganglia system, particularly the striatum (or neostriatum) which is important in the formation and retrieval of procedural memory.
  • 16. ATKINSON-SHIFFRIN MODEL • Proposed 3 stages of memory. 1. Sensory memory 2. Short term memory (STM) 3. Long term memory (LTM) ( How long information retained)
  • 18. Sensory Memory: Flashes on the Mental Mirror • Sensory memory is the type or stage of memory that first encountered by stimulus. • Hold impression briefly. • Saccadic Eye Movement: the rapid jump made by the person’s eyes as they fixate on different points. • Memory Trace: An assumed change in the NS that reflect the impression made by a stimulus. Memory traces are said to be held in “Sensory register.”
  • 19. Sensory Memory: Flashes on the mental mirror (Cont…) • Sensory Register: A system of memory that hold the information briefly, but long enough so that it can be processed further. ( sensory register for every sense) • Such as Iconic memory: for visual stimuli.. • Echoic memory: for sounds, auditory stimuli. A T T E N T I O N
  • 20. Short-term memory: Keeping things “In Mind” • The type or stage of memory that can hold information for up to minute or so after the trace of stimuli decay. Also called working memory. In STM, Images tend to fade significantly after 10 to 12 seconds IF IT IS NOT REPEATED OR REHEARSED. Ex: encode visual stimuli as sound.
  • 21. 2 phenomenon used for STM 1. Serial-Position Effect: The tendency to recall more accurately the first and last items in a series. Ex: phone numbers, names.. 2. Chunking: A stimulus or group of stimuli that are perceived as a discrete piece of information. Ex: Abbreviations, short forms.  ( Psychologist says: appearance of new information in STM displaces the old one)  George Miller: average person can digest about 7 integers at a time. Ex: phone number.
  • 22. Long-Term Memory: your Memory’s “Hard Drive” • Long-Term Memory: the type or stage of memory capable of relative permanent storage. What Freud said about memory.  Repression: The rejection of anxiety evoking ideas from conscious awareness. What is Elizabeth loftus said about memory. Schemas: A way of mental representation of the world such as Belief or Expectation, that can influence perception of persons, objects, and situations.
  • 23. • There is no evidence of replacement of older information in the Long-term Memory.  Your LTM is a biochemical “Hard Drive” with unlimited Storage Capacity. • Elaborative Rehearsal: A method for increasing retention of new information by relating to information that is well known. • Fergus Craik & Robert Lockhart: pioneer of level of processing information told that information is processed Deeply, attended to, encoded carefully, pondered and related things we already known.
  • 24. Flashbulb Memories (Preserve Experience in detail) Where were you and what were you doing? 1. EARTH QUAKE. 2. APS SCHOOL BLAST. 3. YOUR OWN FLASHBULBS… Events that are surprising, important and emotionally stirring more clearly.  Distinctness of memory.
  • 25. Organization in LTM • Storehouse of LTM is well organized. 1. Categorization. 2. Hierarchal structure. (common & distinct features)
  • 26. Context dependent memory • Information that is better retrieved in the context in which it was encoded and stored or learned. ( Ex: Library reading. Group presentation practice) State dependent memory: • Information that is better retrieved in the physiological or emotional state in which it was encoded and stored or learned. (Ex: happy or sad events, occasions )
  • 27. Forgetting • Hermann Ebbinghaus (Studied Memory and Forgetting) • Nonsense Syllables: Meaningless sets of two consonants, with a vowel sandwiched in between. • Well suited for use in the measurement of forgetting. Recognition Used in Recall Measuring Relearning Forgetting.
  • 28. Interference Theory • According to this view, we may forget stored material because other learning interferes with it. • Types of interference: 1. Retroactive Interference (retroactive inhibition); new learning interfere with the retrieval of old learning. For ex: Human Anatomy 2. Proactive Interference (Proactive Inhibition); old learning interfere with the retrieval of material learned recently. For ex: changing new phone.
  • 29. Repression (Motivated forgetting) Ejecting the Unwanted from Consciousness. • According to Freud, Repression is an automatic ejection of painful memories and unacceptable urges from conscious awareness. • It is heart of disorder called dissociative Amnesia. (thought to stem from psychological conflict or trauma).
  • 30. Enhance Memory  Drill and practice: (rote maintenance rehearsal) Relate new information to what is already known. (Elaborative Rehearsal) Use the method of Loci. (Juice, bread for toast and eggs. Fruits for cereals, milk for tea or coffee) Mediation: build a conceptual bridge. Use mnemonic device. ( chunks of information into formats such as acronyms or phrase.)
  • 31. Neural activity and Memory (Better Living through chemistry) • Serotonin: Efficiency of Learning. • Acetylcholine (ACh). Vital in memory formation. Low level of Ach in Alzheimer’s disease • Glutamate: same like Serotonin. • Adrenaline and nor adrenaline (epinephrine and nor epinephrine): strengthen memory when they are released in bloodstream. • Stressful events stimulate release of stress hormones from adrenal glands --- adrenaline & steroids limbic system (amygdala) release noradrenaline heighten memory for stressful events.
  • 32. • Vasopressin: ( Antidiuretic Hormones ): Multiple tasks, one of which is facilitating memory functioning, particularly working memory. • Estrogen and testosterone: ( Sex Hormones) Boost working memory.