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  1. 1. Chapter 8
  2. 2. Marketing Mix Consumer Behavior External Factors Values Subculture Internal Factors Family Perception Memory
  3. 3.  Individuals develop an understanding of the motivations behind their own behavior  Influences of perception: • Physiology – different in sensory abilities Age – change attitude on time Culture – different believes Social role – different role we take on during time Education – education level • • • •
  4. 4. Customer perception is typically affected by advertising, reviews, public relations, social media, personal experiences and other channels
  5. 5. Perception Exposure Deliberate Random Attention Lowinvolvement Lowinvolvement Highinvolvement Interpretation Short-term Active problem solving Memory Highinvolvement Long-term Stored experiences, values, decisions, rules etc. Purchase & consumption decisions
  6. 6. Selective Exposure:  Television : • • Zipping - occurs when one fast-forwards through a commercial on a prerecorded program. Zapping - involves switching channels when a commercial appears. Muting - is turning the sound off during commercial breaks.  21 % of U.S visit each aisle in the stores.  Pop-up (online). •
  7. 7.  Pop-up (click through) Visiting Homepages Ex: car buyers using the web visited up to seven sites and spent almost five hours online.   Registration online  Mobile Marketing
  8. 8.    Attention occurs when the stimulus activates one or more sensory receptor nerves, and the resulting sensations go to the brain for processing. N.B: Attention requires consumers to allocate limited mental resources toward the processing of incoming stimuli. "Very good and very effective advertising" that no one reads is neither good nor effective.
  9. 9.  Attention is determined by these three factors: Individual Stimulus Situation. Attention
  10. 10.   Stimulus factors are physical characteristics of the stimulus itself. Stimulus characteristics such as ad size and colour are under the marketer's control and can attract attention Size Isolation Intensity Format Attractive Visuals Contrast and Expectations Colour and Movement Interestingness Position Information Quantity Stimulus Attention
  11. 11.  Individual factors are characteristics that distinguish one individual from another. Generally speaking, consumer motivation and ability are the major individual factors affecting attention Motivation Ability Motivation is a drive state created by consumer interests and needs. Interests are a reflection of overall lifestyle as well as a result of goals Ability refers to the capacity of individuals to attend to and process information. Ability is related to knowledge and familiarity with the product, brand, or promotion Smart banners behavioral targeting strategies Brand familiarity . In contrast, the click-through rate is very low on the first exposure when brand familiarity is low, but increases dramatically on the fifth exposure. Individual Attention
  12. 12.  Situational factors include stimuli in the environment other than the focal stimulus. Situation.  Clutter and program involvement are two major situational factors affecting attention. Attention  density of stimuli in the environment too many point-of-purchase displays decreases the attention consumers how interested viewers are in the program or editorial content surrounding the ads Does involvement with the program or editorial content influence attention to the ad?
  13. 13.   far we have been discussing a fairly highinvolvement attention process in which the consumer focuses attention on some aspect of the environment as a result of stimulus, individual, or situational factors. However, stimuli may be attended to without deliberate
  14. 14. "it is the right brain's picture-taking ability that permits the rapid screening of the environment—to select what it is the left brain should focus on."
  15. 15.  message presented so fast or so softly or so masked by other messages that one is not aware of seeing or hearing it
  16. 16.  Information received is assigned to meaning  Aspects of perception process: • Relative • Subjective • Cognitive / Affective
  17. 17. Individual Situational Stimulus