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11 Digestive system
11 Digestive system
11 Digestive system
11 Digestive system
11 Digestive system
11 Digestive system
11 Digestive system
11 Digestive system
11 Digestive system
11 Digestive system
11 Digestive system
11 Digestive system
11 Digestive system
11 Digestive system
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11 Digestive system

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  • 1. The digestive system
  • 2. A Mouth B B Salivary gland Salivary glands Pharynx C D Epiglottis E Oesophagus Stomach F Liver G Gall bladder H I Pancreas J Duodenum K Small intestine L Colon M Caecum N Appendix Large intestine O Rectum P Q Anus
  • 3. Mouth <ul><li>Mechanical breakdown of food </li></ul><ul><li>Saliva – lubrication </li></ul><ul><li>Salivary amylase – breakdown of starch and carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Tongue – gathers food in to a bolus </li></ul>
  • 4. Oesophagus <ul><li>Entry regulated by epiglottis </li></ul><ul><li>Soft muscular tube </li></ul><ul><li>Moves food through rhythmic muscular movement called peristalsis </li></ul><ul><li>DEMONSTRATION </li></ul>
  • 5. Stomach <ul><li>Can expand from an empty volume of 50ml to a full volume of 1.5 L </li></ul><ul><li>Gastric juices are a mixture of mucouse, enzymes, hydrochloric acid and water </li></ul><ul><li>Pepsin – breaks down proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular contractions – further mechanical breakdown </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones secreted to pre-warn pancreas and gall bladder of incoming chyme </li></ul>
  • 6.  
  • 7. Pancreas <ul><li>Creates enzymes and other products and secretes them in to the common bile duct: </li></ul><ul><li>Bicarbonate – neutralise stomach acid </li></ul><ul><li>Amylase – continue breakdown of carbs </li></ul><ul><li>Protease – continue breakdown proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Lipase – breaks down lipids </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleases – breaks down DNA, RNA and cellular organelles </li></ul>
  • 8. Liver & Gall Bladder <ul><li>The liver secretes bile (greenish fluid containing bile salts, cholesterol & pigment) in to common bile duct. </li></ul><ul><li>Bile stored in gall bladder if no digestion is taking place. </li></ul><ul><li>Bile salts emulsify fat (break it in to smaller droplets (eg milk & detergent) </li></ul>
  • 9. Pancreatic disorders – Cystic Fibrosis <ul><li>A CF patient’s blocked pancreatic duct </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of enzyme replacement capsules required to be taken every day </li></ul>
  • 10. Small Intestine <ul><li>Composed of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum </li></ul><ul><li>Food spends 3 to 6 hours here </li></ul><ul><li>Around 90% of absorption of nutrients takes place here </li></ul><ul><li>Surface area is greatly increased by entire inner lining covered in villi, and each of these villi covered in microvilli. </li></ul><ul><li>Also approx. 8.5L of water is absorbed from food daily. </li></ul>
  • 11. Villi <ul><li>Each villus has a huge network of capillaries running through it. </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption of nutrients is by means of diffusion and active transport. </li></ul>
  • 12. Large Intestine <ul><li>Composed primarily of the colon, caecum and the rectum </li></ul><ul><li>Any undigested food gets further processed by bacterial breakdown </li></ul><ul><li>Another 0.5L of water is reabsorbed daily </li></ul><ul><li>Waste called faeces (undigested food, water, dead cells & bacteria) passes out of the rectum through the anus. </li></ul>
  • 13. Flatus <ul><li>A gas called flatus also passes through the anus, it is the result of swallowed air or gas produced during bacterial breakdown </li></ul>
  • 14.  

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