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  1. 1. Chapter 41 Animal Nutrition Kaia Morrow, Jeff Cooper, Kat Malek and Zo ë Atlas
  2. 2. Glucose Regulation <ul><li>Energy is stored as glycogen, which can be secreted if needed </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin decreases blood glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Glucagon increases blood glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose regulation is maintained by a negative feedback mechanism </li></ul>
  3. 3. Deficiency Diseases <ul><li>Malnutrition - lack of essential nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. The protein deficiency Kwashiorkor causes the swelling of the belly because blood cannot absorb as much water from the body cavity through osmosis because of the lack of blood proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Undernourishment - calorie deficiency that can lead to starvation and death </li></ul>
  4. 4. Essential Nutrients - Proteins, Carbohydrates and Lipids <ul><li>Proteins - broken down and used as fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates - oxidized for the generation of ATP, energy-rich, organic </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids - provide ATP when oxidized during cellular respiration, energy-rich, organic, stores energy in the form of glycogen </li></ul>
  5. 5. Essential Nutrients - Vitamins and Water <ul><li>Vitamins - organic molecules, necessary in small amounts (0.01 to 100 mg/day), have diverse physiological functions </li></ul><ul><li>Water - used by water-soluble vitamins that function as coenzymes in metabolic processes </li></ul>
  6. 6. Essential Nutrients - Minerals <ul><li>Minerals - inorganic compounds, required in small amounts (less than 1 to 2,500 mg/day) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Essential Amino Acids <ul><li>Amino acids are required to make proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Essential amino acids cannot be synthesized by the body, so they must be consumed though diet </li></ul>
  8. 8. Modes of Heterotrophic Nutrition <ul><li>Carnivores - eat meat </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivore - eat vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Omnivores - eat both meat and vegetation </li></ul>
  9. 9. Four Main Stages of Food Processing <ul><li>Ingestion - the act of eating </li></ul><ul><li>Digestion - the act of breaking up food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption - animal cells take up small molecules such as amino acids and simple sugars from the digestive compartment </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination - wastes are eliminated from the body </li></ul>
  10. 10. Intracellular Digestion <ul><li>Food particles are taken in by endocytosis and digested inside of food vacuoles </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs safely within a compartment that is enclosed by a membrane </li></ul>food vacuole
  11. 11. Food Vacuoles <ul><li>Simplest digestive compartment </li></ul><ul><li>Used by heterotrophic protists </li></ul><ul><li>Fuse with lysosomes </li></ul>
  12. 12. Extracellular Digestion <ul><li>In extracellular digestion, Hydrolysis occurs outside of cells (in an alimentary canal or gastrovascular cavity) </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage - it allows an animal to digest larger prey than can be intracellularly digested </li></ul>
  13. 13. Adaptive Value of the Alimentary Canal <ul><li>The alimentary canal moves food one way down the canal and can be organized into special regions for digestion </li></ul>
  14. 14. Changes to Food in the Mouth <ul><li>Bacteria is killed by the saliva in the mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Food shape </li></ul><ul><li>changes and </li></ul><ul><li>becomes a </li></ul><ul><li>bolus </li></ul>
  15. 15. Oral Cavity, Pharynx, and Esophagus <ul><li>Lubricate food and begin digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Carry food into the stomach through peristalsis </li></ul><ul><li>Salivary amylase breaks down food for preparation of full digestion </li></ul>
  16. 16. Stomach <ul><li>Churns and digests food with hydrochloric acid and the enzyme pepsin </li></ul><ul><li>Porous walls of stomach secrete hydrochloric acid and pepsin to digest food </li></ul><ul><li>Walls of the stomach are coated with mucus to protect them from gastric juices </li></ul>
  17. 17. Secretions of the Duodenum <ul><li>Acid chyme from the </li></ul><ul><li>stomach is combined </li></ul><ul><li>with digestive juices from </li></ul><ul><li>the pancreas, gallbladder, </li></ul><ul><li>liver, and gland cells of </li></ul><ul><li>the intestinal wall </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrolytic enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>from the pancreas are </li></ul><ul><li>activated in the duodenum </li></ul><ul><li>Bile is produced by the liver and secreted into the duodenum, aiding in fat digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive enzymes enter the duodenum from the epithelial lining </li></ul>
  18. 18. Pancreas Peptidases <ul><li>The pancreas prevents digesting itself by producing enzymes and bicarbonate-rich solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Bicarbonate is a buffer that offsets the enzyme’s acidity, and allows their secretion in an inactive form </li></ul><ul><li>Once in the intestine, the enzymes are activated </li></ul>
  19. 19. Human Digestive System
  20. 20. Location of Carbohydrate, Protein, Nucleic Acid, and Fat Digestion <ul><li>Carbohydrates- oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, lumen of small intestine, epithelium of small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Protein – stomach, lumen of small intestine, epithelium of small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleic Acid – lumen and epithelium of small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Fat – lumen of small intestine </li></ul>
  21. 21. Small Intestine and Features that Improve Its Function <ul><li>Major organ of digestion and absorption </li></ul><ul><li>The brush border, or epithelial lining of the duodenum, provides many digestive enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Microvilli increase the surface area and rate of nutrient absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Lacteals are vessels of villi that carry lymph and absorb nutrients, putting them into the bloodstream </li></ul><ul><li>The hepatic portal vein leads directly to the liver, ensuring that it is supplied with the nutrients absorbed in the small intestine </li></ul>
  22. 22. Roles of Gastrin, Secretin, and Cholecystokinin <ul><li>Gastrin - begins gastric juice production </li></ul><ul><li>Secretin - discharge into the filtrate from wastes of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Cholecystokinin - </li></ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><li>digestive </li></ul><ul><li>enzyme </li></ul><ul><li>release </li></ul>
  23. 23. Large Intestine <ul><li>Functions as a home for vitamin-synthesizing bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Aids in the absorption of water </li></ul>
  24. 24. Dental Adaptations <ul><li>Dentistry of </li></ul><ul><li>mammals is usually </li></ul><ul><li>specialized for their </li></ul><ul><li>diet </li></ul>
  25. 25. Stomach and Intestinal Adaptations of Herbivores <ul><li>As vegetation has cell walls that are difficult to digest, herbivores have longer alimentary canals than carnivores </li></ul><ul><li>Many herbivores have fermentation chambers specialized for cellulose digestion </li></ul>