BLOOD & CIRCULATION
1. What is the composition of blood? <ul><li>Red blood cells (contain haemoglobin) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain iron, whi...
2. How is blood carried?
Order of the blood vessels
The blood vessels <ul><li>Blood is carried from the heart via the  aorta  (primary artery) which splits in to: </li></ul><...
Arteries & arterioles
Capillaries <ul><li>Oxygen in delivered to the cells of our body via capillaries </li></ul>
Veins & Venules Note the one-way valve
Peristalsis in veins & venules
<ul><li>Blood leaves the heart via  arteries  and return via  veins </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all arteries carry oxygenated...
Blood types – the ABO system <ul><li>There are 4 blood types – A, B, AB & O </li></ul><ul><li>Each type of blood contains ...
Percentages of each blood type in the Australian population
Blood types – the ABO system <ul><li>Antibodies are part of our defence system and will clot and destroy its target antige...
Blood types – the Rhesus system <ul><li>The other main blood type is Rhesus (Rh), for this you can only be positive or neg...
Putting it all together <ul><li>So, we have a total of 8 blood types to consider when giving someone a transfusion: </li><...
Recipient Donor AB + AB - A + A - B + B - O + O - AB + AB - A + A - B + B - O + O -
Recipient Donor X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X AB + AB - A + A - B + B - O + O ...
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13 Blood & Circulation

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13 Blood & Circulation

  1. 1. BLOOD & CIRCULATION
  2. 2. 1. What is the composition of blood? <ul><li>Red blood cells (contain haemoglobin) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain iron, which gives the red colour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transports oxygen around the body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>White blood cells (many different types) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fight disease, destroys foreign matter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Platelets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broken up blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms clots to prevent excessive bleeding when cut </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plasma (55% of blood) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90% water, but also waste (specifically bicarbonate – dissolved CO 2 ) and nutrients </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. 2. How is blood carried?
  4. 4. Order of the blood vessels
  5. 5. The blood vessels <ul><li>Blood is carried from the heart via the aorta (primary artery) which splits in to: </li></ul><ul><li>Arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Arterioles </li></ul><ul><li>Capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>In the various organs and tissues capillaries exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide and nutrients for waste then return to the heart via: </li></ul><ul><li>Venules </li></ul><ul><li>Veins </li></ul><ul><li>Superior & inferior vena cava (primary veins) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Arteries & arterioles
  7. 7. Capillaries <ul><li>Oxygen in delivered to the cells of our body via capillaries </li></ul>
  8. 8. Veins & Venules Note the one-way valve
  9. 9. Peristalsis in veins & venules
  10. 10. <ul><li>Blood leaves the heart via arteries and return via veins </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all arteries carry oxygenated blood (exception: pulmonary artery) </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all veins carry deoxygenated blood (exception: pulmonary vein) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Blood types – the ABO system <ul><li>There are 4 blood types – A, B, AB & O </li></ul><ul><li>Each type of blood contains its own antigen </li></ul><ul><li>Each blood type has antibodies against the other antigens </li></ul>Blood type A B AB O Antigen A B AB - Antibody B A - AB
  12. 12. Percentages of each blood type in the Australian population
  13. 13. Blood types – the ABO system <ul><li>Antibodies are part of our defence system and will clot and destroy its target antigen </li></ul><ul><li>When blood is donated, it contains its own antigens but carries no antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>If you have no antibodies, then you can receive any type of blood </li></ul><ul><li>If your blood contains no antigens it can be given to anyone </li></ul>
  14. 14. Blood types – the Rhesus system <ul><li>The other main blood type is Rhesus (Rh), for this you can only be positive or negative. </li></ul><ul><li>Rh + carries the Rh antigen </li></ul><ul><li>Rh - people produce the Rh antibody </li></ul>
  15. 15. Putting it all together <ul><li>So, we have a total of 8 blood types to consider when giving someone a transfusion: </li></ul><ul><li>A + , A - , B + , B - , AB + , AB - , O + , O - </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains body temperature by delivering heat from the liver to other parts of the body. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Recipient Donor AB + AB - A + A - B + B - O + O - AB + AB - A + A - B + B - O + O -
  17. 17. Recipient Donor X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X AB + AB - A + A - B + B - O + O - AB + AB - A + A - B + B - O + O -

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