Preventive Paediatric Osteopathy


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Preventive Paediatric Osteopathy

Document by Luc Peeters, MSc.Ost. and Grégoire Lason, MSc.Ost.
Joint principals of the International Academy of Osteopathy (I.A.O.)

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Preventive Paediatric Osteopathy

  1. 1. Preventive  Paediatric  Osteopathy    Luc  Peeters,  MSc.Ost.  &  Grégoire  Lason,  MSc.Ost.  The  International  Academy  of  Osteopathy  -­‐  IAO    Osteopaths often treat children with different kinds of disorders.Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), restlessness, food intolerance,behaviour problems, motoric retardation, sleep disorders, Minimal Brain Damage(MBD)… are all familiar disorders on which osteopathy, and craniosacral osteopathyin particular, tries to have a positive influence.Sometimes osteopaths have an effect on the health and functioning of these children(or they think they do), and sometimes they don’t.The well trained osteopath, who keeps up with recent scientific findings, must beaware that there is more and more proof that several of these disorders are causedduring pregnancy and that information towards pregnant women and towards womenwho want to get pregnant is of the outmost importance to have the maximum chanceon a healthy and happy baby that grows up with all possible chances to get a happyand healthy life.When a mother doesn’t consume enough essential fatty acids during pregnancy andlactation, brain, eyes and liver of a child will not develop properly. Long-chainpolyunsaturated fatty acids from biosynthesis in the mothers’ liver are essentialcomponents of the cell membranes of the brain, retina and liver, foetal and new-bornheart. (Bautista and Zambrano 2010) The mother’s liver must therefore workproperly.Glucose deficiency is the starting signal for childbirth. When a child uses some 15%of the mothers’ metabolism, childbirth is near. It is shown that girls that suffer fromeating disturbances such as anorexia, bulimia had often problems around childbirth.One can ask the question whether their hippocampus couldn’t sufficiently cope withglucose levels at that time. (Swaab 2010) Could the carbohydrate metabolism of the   1  
  2. 2. mother play a role? Even childhood adversities versus certain food that leads toweight problems during adolescence and early adulthood can be caused by parentalbehaviour. (Johnson et al 2002)Thyroid hormones are related with brain development and metabolic regulation.Mothers that have insufficient intake of Iodine increase the risk of neonatal mortality,decrease of intelligence, delayed growth and congenital deformities. Iodinesupplementation during pregnancy decreases these phenomena. (de Luis et al 2005)The antigens in the mother’s diet influence the risk of developing allergies duringpregnancy and therefore a high intake of carbohydrates and lipids may accelerateallergic disease (atopic dermatitis, food allergy, asthmatic bronchitis) in infants.(Ushiyama et al 2002)The study of Torres et al (2010) showed that protein restriction during pregnancycould negatively influence normal foetal brain development by changes in maternallipid metabolism.An altered neurochemical profile of the developing hippocampus may underlie someof the cognitive deficits observed in human infants with perinatal iron deficiency. (Raoet al 2003) Perinatal iron deficiency results in persistent hippocampus-basedcognitive deficits in adulthood despite iron supplementation. (Rao et al 2011)Elevated pre-pregnancy body mass index, excessive gestational weight gain, andgestational diabetes are known determinants of foetal growth.Severe antenatal stress following maternal bereavement, especially due to loss of achild or a husband, is associated with an increased risk of certain childhood cancersin the offspring, such as hepatic cancer and non-Hodgkin disease. (Vestergaard et al2012)Children have a high sensitivity to maternal stress in utero and in early childhood,those with higher stress in both periods were particularly at risk for wheeze andasthma. (Chiu et al 2012)Alcohol, morphine, nicotine, marijuana, and possibly cocaine can influencereproductive aspects of the neurobehavioral sexual differentiation process to varyingdegrees. (Mc Givern and Handa 1996)Maternal stress during pregnancy has been repeatedly associated with problematicchild development. Prenatal exposure to severe life events increases the risk ofhospitalization for asthma in the offspring. Foetal programming may be a plausibleexplanation for the association. (Khashan et al 2012)Prenatal exposure to drugs or alcohol is associated with physical birth defects and anincreased risk of neuropsychological problems. Other factors, such as maternalpsychopathology, stress and poor living circumstances, may influence childhooddevelopment in addition to the teratological effect of prenatal substance exposure.(Irner et al 2012)Anxiety, depression, and stress during pregnancy are associated with offspringchildhood overweight at age 7. (Ingstrup et al 2012)   2  
  3. 3. Androgens are deficient in the Central Nervous System (CNS) of male homosexuals.Hormonal factors (gonadal and adrenal hormones, hormone receptors, transductionmechanism of the hormonal signal, neurosteroids, neurotransmitters etc.) play adetermining role in the formation of gender identity. (Corsello et al 2011, Giordanoand Giusti 1995) Can it be that the nutrition of pregnant mothers (antiandrogenscoming from pesticides, insecticides, cosmetic parabens, spearmint, some herbs)plays a role in gender identity? (Gray et al 2001)Maternal neuroticism, which predisposes to negative mood, may be a risk factor forfoetal growth restriction. (Chatzi et al 2012)Stress in the intrauterine milieu may impact brain development and emergentfunction, with long-term implications in terms of susceptibility for affective disorders.(Buss et al 2012)All these data (and there is much more research to be done in this area) suggest thatdifferent problems in childhood can be prevented during pregnancy and duringlactation.The major problem is that mothers and future mothers are not always well enoughinformed that the influence of their lifestyle, stress level and nutrition is of the outmostimportance to deliver a healthy baby with all possible chances in life.We see here a major role, not only for general practitioners, gynaecologists and evenschools but also for osteopaths to deliver that necessary information to pregnantwomen and future mothers.Even the social health care system will benefit from a major information campaign inschools and in the practices of medical doctors, gynaecologists and osteopaths.Healthy children cost less and when eventual problems persist during later life thesociety pays for the treatments.Major advices to be given: No alcohol, tobacco or drug use minimum 3 months before and during pregnancy and lactation. Do not get pregnant in life periods with lots of stress. Choose life moments with no stress and lots of happiness. No stress and sufficient relaxation as well physically as mentally during pregnancy and lactation. Use no medication of whatever kind when possible (there are of course exceptions but get informed by your medical doctor on the possible risk for the pregnancy and foetus). See to it that you have a normal BMI before getting pregnant and see to it that your body weight doesn’t change drastically during pregnancy. See to it that you have a healthy diet with sufficient polyunsaturated fatty acids, normal amounts of carbohydrates, sufficient Iodine, proteins, vitamins and minerals. Avoid working with chemicals of whatever kind.   3  
  4. 4. Avoid food and products with anti-androgen effect and xeno-oestrogens or other toxic substances. Use non-medical remedies for problems like nausea, heartburn, constipation… Exercise but don’t exaggerate. Practice relaxation, yoga, meditation, mindfulness, … Avoid illness. Check your family and partners’ health for genetic disorders. Eventually consult your doctor. If you have a medical condition, make sure it is under control, eventually with medication but ask your doctor about the influence on the pregnancy. Your male partner also has to be informed. Male partners can improve their own reproductive health and overall health by limiting alcohol, quitting smoking or drug use, making healthy food choices, and reducing stress. Studies show that men, who drink a lot, smoke, or use drugs can have problems with their sperm quality. These might cause you to have problems getting pregnant. Your partner should also talk to his doctor about his. Get treated by an osteopath, even when there are no complaints. He/she will optimize your health with the possibilities he/she has. Go to your dentist before getting pregnant. Don’t ask for medication during labour and childbirth.BibliographyBautista, C. J., & Zambrano, E. (n.d.). (2010) [Biology and biochemical aspects oflong-chains polyunsaturated fatty acid during gestation]. Revista de investigaciónclínica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición, 62(3), 267-75.Retrieved from, L., Koutra, K., Vassilaki, M., Vardiampasis, A., Georgiou, V., Koutis, A.,Lionis, C., et al. (2012). Maternal personality traits and risk of preterm birth and fetalgrowth restriction. European psychiatry  : the journal of the Association of EuropeanPsychiatrists. Retrieved from, S. M., Di Donna, V., Senes, P., Luotto, V., Ricciato, M. P., Paragliola, R. M.,& Pontecorvi, A. (2011). Biological aspects of gender disorders. Minervaendocrinologica, 36(4), 325-39. Retrieved from Chiu, Y.-H., Coull, B. A., Cohen, S., Wooley, A., & Wright, R. J. (2012).Prenatal and postnatal maternal stress and wheeze in urban children: effect ofmaternal sensitization. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine,186(2), 147-54. Retrieved from Luis, D. A., Aller, R., & Izaola, O. (2005). [Iodine deficiency during pregnancy ].Anales de medicina interna (Madrid, Spain  : 1984), 22(9), 445-8. Retrieved from   4  
  5. 5. Gray LE, Ostby J, Furr J, Wolf CJ, Lambright C, Parks L, Veeramachaneni DN,Wilson V, Price M, Hotchkiss A, Orlando E, Guillette L. (2001). "Effects ofenvironmental antiandrogens on reproductive development in experimental animals".Human Reproduction Update 2 (3): 248–64.Irner, T. B., Teasdale, T. W., & Olofsson, M. (2012). Cognitive and socialdevelopment in preschool children born to women using substances. Journal ofaddictive diseases, 31(1), 29-44. Retrieved from, K. G., Schou Andersen, C., Ajslev, T. A., Pedersen, P., Sørensen, T. I. A.,& Nohr, E. A. (2012). Maternal Distress during Pregnancy and Offspring ChildhoodOverweight. Journal of obesity, 2012, 462845. Retrieved from, J. G., Cohen, P., Kasen, S., & Brook, J. S. (2002). Childhood adversitiesassociated with risk for eating disorders or weight problems during adolescence orearly adulthood. The American journal of psychiatry, 159(3), 394–400. Retrievedfrom, A. S., Wicks, S., Dalman, C., Henriksen, T. B., Li, J., Mortensen, P. B., &Kenny, L. C. (2012). Prenatal stress and risk of asthma hospitalization in theoffspring: a Swedish population-based study. Psychosomatic medicine, 74(6), 635-41. Retrieved from, R. F., & Handa, R. J. (1996). Prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse:methodological considerations and effects on sexual differentiation. NIDA researchmonograph, 164, 78-124. Retrieved from, R., Tkac, I., Townsend, E. L., Gruetter, R., & Georgieff, M. K. (2003). Perinataliron deficiency alters the neurochemical profile of the developing rat hippocampus.The Journal of nutrition, 133(10), 3215-21. Retrieved from, R., Tkac, I., Schmidt, A. T., & Georgieff, M. K. (2011). Fetal and neonatal irondeficiency causes volume loss and alters the neurochemical profile of the adult rathippocampus. Nutritional neuroscience, 14(2), 59-65. Retrieved from D. (2010) Wij zin ons brein. Van baarmoeder tot Alzheimer. Ed. Contact,Nederland.Torres, N., Bautista, C. J., Tovar, A. R., Ordáz, G., Rodríguez-Cruz, M., Ortiz, V.,Granados, O., et al. (2010). Protein restriction during pregnancy affects maternal liverlipid metabolism and fetal brain lipid composition in the rat. American journal ofphysiology. Endocrinology and metabolism, 298(2), E270-7. Retrieved from   5  
  6. 6., Y., Matsumoto, K., Shinohara, M., Wakiguchi, H., Sakai, K., Komatsu, T.,& Yamamoto, S. (n.d.). (2002) Nutrition during pregnancy may be associated withallergic diseases in infants. Journal of nutritional science and vitaminology, 48(5),345-351. Center for Academic Publications Japan. Retrieved from, J., Vestergaard, M., Obel, C., Cnattingus, S., Gissler, M., Ahrensberg, J., & Olsen,J. (2012). Antenatal maternal bereavement and childhood cancer in the offspring: apopulation-based cohort study in 6 million children. British journal of cancer.Retrieved from     No   part   of   this   article   may   be   All  rights  reserved.  ©  2012.     reproduced   or   made   public   by   printing,   photocopying,   microfilming,   or   by   any   means   without   the   prior   written  permission  of  the  publisher.                   iNeuro  APP   iCranialNerves  APP     6