Definitions:Gallebaya: long shirt like garment that is full length and has wide sleeves, there are usually slits at the side or open in the front.Kaftan: full length coat.
There are actually more ethnic groups that are not included, such as Italians, Turks, and Greeks, but they are indicative to the globalization aspect of influence on clothing.
PowerPoint-Egypt - Group 5, Ms. Sonandre
Communications Through CulturesEGYPT<br />Within each diverse culture in the world there stands a great barrier, communication. In Egypt, the culture is so diverse with great ethnic mixtures from the past, that we often must look at their past to understand their present time and future. The following guide is to prepare one’s ability to effectively communicate with this culture through key points assessed in historical facts and ideas expressed through Genders, Verbal and Nonverbal Uses of Clothing, and standard Rituals. <br />A. Torres, K. Torres, T. Wilson, A. Wylie<br />Ms. Sonandre – February 22, 2011<br />Photo by NatGeo.com<br />
Gender Roles wilson, Tisha – Torres, AlysonIn the home<br />Men are expected to be the providers for the family’s financial stability<br />Men currently are the only gender who may pass on Egyptian nationality to their children. <br />At home men have more power than women and are responsible for all of the major decisions. Women are to have some influences over household decisions.<br />Men teach their young boys their trade and men are the ones to deal more with society as a whole.<br />Males usually married around the age of 16 to 20 years old because they had to be able to show that they were able to support a family.<br />Communications Through Cultures: Egypt<br />2<br />Photo by Pietroporcinai.net<br />
Gender Roles In the home<br /><ul><li>The men in Egypt outnumber the women, the men will receive nutrition and health care while the female is deprived.
Education is compulsory between ages 6-15 more males begin school and more females drop out.
It is the woman’s job to bare and raise children and are responsible for the daily needs of their family; men interpreted this as woman serving them.
Sons are preferred so they can carry on the family name.</li></ul>Communications Through Cultures: Egypt<br />3<br />Photo by wunrn.com<br />
Gender Roles<br />Interpersonal Relationships<br />Many pictures portray women behind their men or smaller than their men. When standing by their man they often stand to the left or behind. <br />(This communicates them being inferior to their male counterpart. This represented mail dominance.)<br />Women are under male guardianship and this safe guards morality.<br />Communications Through Cultures: Egypt<br />4<br />Photo by Pietroporcinai.net<br />
Gender Roles<br />Interpersonal Relationships<br /> Women were looked at as objects of beauty. This was only for their husband to enjoy so they had to remain covered up as not to entice other men.<br />A fertile woman represented a successful women and being pregnant communicated success to your community.<br />Men often communicated manliness by making as many babies as possible. Babies were a reason for boasting within a community<br />When women were not fertile men sometimes divorced them. This was frowned upon so more often than not couples adopted as there were plenty of orphaned children.<br />Photo by radionetherlands.nl<br />Communications Through Cultures: Egypt<br />5<br />
Gender Roles<br />In Society<br />When greeting women in Egypt, the men must bow their heads as a show of respect. If the woman extends her hand it is then appropriate for them to shake the woman’s hand.<br />Men are not allowed to be taught by women in Egyptian culture. Many of these traditions are changing in Egypt and women are becoming more powerful. <br />Women are still not paid as much as men which still communicates male dominanance but times continue to change.<br />Photo by worldofstock.com<br />Communications Through Cultures: Egypt<br />6<br />
Gender RolesMarriage<br />In ancient Egypt if wives did not obey, husbands were allowed to lightly beat their wives.<br />Now, that is changing and they mostly separate if they have communication and conflict issues. <br />Their marriage is a negotiation contract. Even tough marriages themselves were not registered. The contract is requested by the man, he then has to get the approval of the woman’s family. He also has to provide a gift to the bride to be.<br />Virginity was not a necessity for marriage; indeed, premarital sex, or any sex between unmarried people, was socially acceptable. Once married, however, couples were expected to be sexually faithful to each other.<br />Although the institution of marriage was taken seriously, divorce was not uncommon.<br />Communications Through Cultures: Egypt<br />7<br />Photo by Pietroporcinai.net<br />
Gender Roles<br />Status<br />Today in Egyptian society women have more status then they used to. <br />Women’s access to power has varied overtime. In general men were in charge of the temples and temple administration, but in the pharaonic period woman filled a variety of the religious offices.<br />Photo by brooklynmuseum.org<br />In literary works females voices are rare. They are possibly heard in the love poetry, but the vast majority were men.<br />Cleopatra<br />Communications Through Cultures: Egypt<br />8<br />achanjati.wordpress.com<br />
Gender Roles<br />Women through Dynasties<br />Historians divide ancient Egyptian history into 30 dynasties (3100 BC - 332 BC). A dynasty is a series of rulers belonging to the same family. Egypt's pre-dynastic era lasted until 3100 BC, when the country was united and the dynasties began to rule.<br />During the 1st dynasties woman belonging to the elite at least received post mortem treatment similar to that of men; they were buried in individual tombs, with statues of themselves alone.<br />From the 5th dynasty onward woman are frequently shown as part of a group statue.<br />Communications Through Cultures: Egypt<br />9<br />Photo by Arttattler.com<br />Photo by Watroushigh.edu.glogster.com<br />
Use of Clothing – verbal/nonverbal Ancient Egypt Wylie, Angela<br />Representation:<br />Honoring the gods and belief in magical healing:<br />Make-up: Every age wore make-up such as “Kohl” which was an black powder and oil based mix that was placed on the lower and upper eyelids to “restore poor eyesight”. In fact, all make-up were considered to have healing powers (St. Petersburg Times, 1999). <br />Status/Gender differences:<br />Upper class: The women wore beaded dresses that were fitting, while the noblemen wore a kilt with a long robe over them. Some wore ceremonial clothing that had feathers and sequins which would indicate queen/kingship status (St. Petersburg Times, 1999).<br />Lower class: Men wore shore kilts while working and women wore<br /> regular straight fitted dresses with straps.<br />Climate adaptation:<br />Everyone wore sandals or went barefoot.<br />Hot weather equals less clothes. Colder: More clothes.<br />Communications Through Cultures: Egypt<br />10<br />
Use of Clothing – verbal/nonverbal Religious affiliations<br />Christianity: (less than 10% of the population-orthodox Coptic Christians), in which can be reflected by the minority who do dress informally from a “Western” influential standpoint (Levinson,D., 1998, p127).<br />Islam: (90-94% of the population). Although not as strict in other Islamic countries, most of the cultures try to maintain the integrity of the clothing in their religion.<br />Their long flowing garments, that cover up the majority of the body, shows their belief that one should be “judge on their character and actions and not on their appearance (e-How, inc, 1999-2011)” and shows their reverence to God.<br />Egyptian Galabya<br />Photo by Pyramidimports.com<br />Communications Through Cultures: Egypt<br />11<br />
Use of Clothing – verbal/nonverbal Effect of Globalization<br />Countries such as Southern Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and Islamic Middle East make up the population of Egypt (Levinson, D, 1998, p126 ). <br />Tarboosh Photo by:raqs.com<br /> Example of how globalization effected clothing:<br />1882-1920: Britain had ruled Egypt, then shortly after, European influenced group had ruled and were shown to be elite would wear European clothing but still keep the headwear still be worn which is called the “tarboosh (Egyptian Traditional Clothing, 2008)”. <br />Greece, Rome, Persia, Turkey, Great Britain, Islamic countries and African cultures (Levinson, D., 1998, p127) have influenced the hybrid of what style and how clothing is worn.<br />Photo by about-ancient-egypt.com<br />Communications Through Cultures: Egypt<br />12<br />
Use of Clothing – verbal/nonverbal Egypt Ethnic groups: Separate clothing styles<br />General Egyptian etiquette in clothing: <br />Style is still debated, but there still is a code of modesty:<br />Women: wear head scarves covering the entire head (sometimes a portion of the head, depending on how deep Islam is rooted in them.) The veil is sometimes worn (these days it is not just religious but also “in fashion”). The entire body should be covered and loosely fitted clothing should not show the shape of the body (Advameg, MenInc., 2011). The dress that is worn a tob sebleh with trousers underneath the dress.<br />: Loose trouser with a loose fitting shirt that has long sleeves. Generally, codes of modesty are not as strict for men (Advameg, Inc., 2011). They wear a *gallebaya with a *kaftan that is tied with a belt.<br /> Easter Hamitic Arabs: (94% of the population)<br />Adhere to the general Islamic clothing guidelines, and have been influenced by various rules, such as the European rule in the past.<br />Communications Through Cultures: Egypt<br />13<br />
Use of Clothing – verbal/nonverbal Egypt Ethnic groups: Separate clothing styles<br />Fellahin (farmers):<br />Both men and woman would wear a gallibaya (long shirt like garment that is full length with long sleeves), so they would easily be able to wrap up the skirt around their thighs while working (Egyptian Traditional Clothing, 2008).<br />Nubians: (South of Egypt)<br />Men: Wear turbans, vest, shirts, and trousers.<br />Women: Fadija tribe wears a sari-like wrapped garment and the Kanuz tribal women wear horizontal length fabric and put a transparent material over that when they get married (Egyptian Traditional Clothing, 2008).<br />Communications Through Cultures: Egypt<br />14<br />Photo by Raqs.com<br />Photo by Raqs.com<br />
Use of Clothing – verbal/nonverbalEgypt Ethnic groups: Separate clothing styles<br />Bedouins:<br />Men: Wear a thobe, which is a long dress with long triangular sleeves and is usually earth colors. The long triangular sleeves are tied with a cord. Then a striped sleeveless coat is worn (stripes represent Bedouins). On the head a “kefeya is worn with an igal of camel wool (Bedouin Traditional Clothing, 2008)”.<br />Women: Wear a thobe ,which is usually in dark or light blue. A wet coat is wrapped over the top & sometimes on their head (Bedouin Traditional Clothing, 2008).<br />Unmarried women wear a hatta ( a baggish head covering), while a rolled hattah signifies that woman is married.<br />Jewelry represents family wealth or is used for mystical protection.<br />Communications Through Cultures: Egypt<br />15<br />Photo by Raqs.com<br />Photo by Raqs.com<br />
Rituals Torres, KarlaCustoms, Traditions, and Everyday Life<br /> Egyptian culture and traditions are based on a mix of tribal cultures which can be presently observed throughout the country.<br />Photo by Lifesahuman.com<br />“The customs and mentality tends to be full of warmth towards visitors and foreigners.” (MapsXL, 2011)<br />Communications Through Cultures: Egypt<br />16<br />
RitualsReligious Customs<br />“Egypt consist of Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94%, Coptic Christian and other 6%” (kwintessential.com)<br /> Muslims customs obligate them to pray a<br />total of 5 times a day ask God for his love.<br />They pray, “Oh God! You are Peace and<br />from you, is Peace; Blessed are you, O<br /> Lord of Majesty and Bounty.”(Butler, 2008)<br />Friday being Muslim holy day, everything is<br />closed and often shop owners will close early<br /> on Thursdays as well. <br />All Muslims fast during Ramadan, or the holy <br />month from dawn until dusk. Families and friends <br />get together to break the fasting at sunset and <br />continue through the night.<br />There are rituals marking every single stages of life.<br />Communications Through Cultures: Egypt<br />17<br />Photo by nimis540.wordpress.com<br />
RitualsGreeting Customs<br />Class and Religion determine the type of greeting to be performed. It is best to follow the lead of greeter to prevent disrespect or humiliation.<br />The standard greeting within the same sex is a handshake followed by a kiss on one cheek once you have already developed a friendship.<br />When Muslims greet each other, instead of saying, “good morning” or “hello” they say “Assalamo Alaikum,” which means “May peace be upon you and may God's blessings be with you.” This greeting makes a Muslim aware that he has to spread love and peace wherever he goes. (Butler, 1998-2008)<br />Photo by Life Magazine<br />Communications Through Cultures: Egypt<br />18<br />
RitualsDaily Life<br />Egyptian people are very inviting and will insist for your company through dinner. Declining such invitation, may be impolite if not agreeing to return.<br />Everyone is addressed by their name and their title such as uncle or aunt, old man, or woman. A name alone will be an impolite gesture.<br />Photo by Sacbee.com<br />Anyone joining in a conversation must greet every person in the group. Failure to abide by this social norm displays disrespect to the others and may result in uninviting gestures from the rest of the group members. <br />Communications Through Cultures: Egypt<br />19<br />
Ritualstraditional customs<br />A Family celebrates a special Naming ritual called the Sebou Naming Ceremony. This ceremony usually occurs one week after birth.<br />Egyptians often bury their dead the same day they leave the world.<br />It is believed that the soul exists before ones birth and after death.<br />All boys are circumcised usually around birth. Young girls are also still circumcised before puberty.<br />Photo by sciforums.com<br />Communications Through Cultures: Egypt<br />20<br />
Conclusion<br />Communications Through Cultures: Egypt<br /> Within every culture exists distinct communication. In understanding one, one must understand the past and present of that culture and where the future may reside. Once we can accept the differences we will be able to understand each other and communicate effectively in hopes that we can eliminate the barriers of communication.<br /> Through the nonverbal use of clothing, one can identify many factors of the Egyptian culture based on the vast differences of each person's appearance. Clothing can distinguish groups, genders, etiquette, religious affiliation, and show the influence of globalization throughout time. Yes, clothing can speak and can articulate the mysteries behind what the Egyptian culture represents.<br /> Rituals contribute to the Egyptian culture’s way of life. From naming ceremonies to daily prayers, we must understand these rituals to understand the importance of Egyptian traditions and customs, in order to communicate with the different types of personalities and upbringings this country brings. In then, perhaps we can understand one another and appreciate and accept our different way of life without bias, enabling us to have a great communicative relationship. <br />Men and women each have significant roles in the Egyptian culture. While men are responsible for being the wage earners and the leaders in the household, women are responsible for keeping the family and home running like a well oiled machine and being praised for carrying the children, men on how many they father. Although the roles are currently becoming more equal, at this time men still have a little more status then women in this culture. As time passes, some aspects of these roles may change and communication with men and women will be viewed as they are in the United States with equal importance.<br />21<br />
Questions for further discussion<br />1. "In Egypt, a male circumcision is removing some or all of the foreskin from the penis for religious and/or cultural reasons. This has also been known to reduce certain health risks for men. For women, the circumcision is from complete removal of the clitoris, the most sensitive area of the female genitals which promote sexual excitement and orgasm, up to complete removal of labia minor with sewing of labia major only leaving small enough hole for urine and menstrual fluid. Though, there are no known benefits for this female procedure, it is still commonly practiced. What human rights may or may not be violated in these procedures all together?“<br />2. Explain how the religion of Islam is communicated through the use of clothing. What is the main message?<br /> What is the difference in clothing worn between women who are married and unmarried? Do you think these restrictions are fair to women and why?<br />3. What is a key way that women communicate that they are successful in the Egyptian culture? What two things can happen if women are not able to be successful? When a woman took on a typically male role in public what did they do? Why do you think it is this way for women in this culture and so much different here in the United States, or is it really any different?<br />Communications Through Cultures: Egypt<br />22<br />
CREDITS<br />Gender Roles<br />Use of Clothing-Verbal/Non Verbal<br />Rituals<br />Questions for Further Discussion<br />Reference Pages<br />Construction of Slides<br />Editing<br />Music (Kboush al Touti - Melhem Barakat)<br />Torres, Alyson & Wilson, Tisha<br />Wylie, Angela <br />Torres, Karla<br />Wilson, Tisha<br />Wylie, Angela<br />Torres, Karla<br />Communications Through Cultures: Egypt<br />23<br />
References<br />Communications Through Cultures: Egypt<br />24<br />Advameg, Inc. (n.d.). Countries and Their Cultures-Egypt. Retrieved February 15, 2011 from http://everyculture.com. <br />Bedouin Traditional Clothing. (2008). Retrieved on February 19, 2011 from http://www.raqs.co.nz/me/clothing_bedouin.html.<br />Burden, G. & Matney, M. (n.d). Life As A Human-The lifezine that celebrates, explores & discusses the experience of being human. Retrieved February 15, 2011 from http://Lifeasahuman.com. <br />Buttler, Patty. (n.d.). GeertHofstede Analysis Egypt. Retrieved February 21, 2011 from http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/egypt.html. <br />Egypt Culture and Tradition. (n.d.). Retrieved February 18, 2011 from http://www.egypt-cairo.com.<br />Egypt Traditional Clothing. (2008). Retrieved on February 19, 2011 from http://www.raqs.co.nz/me/clothing_egypt.html. <br />EHow, Inc. (1999). What Type of Clothing Do Muslims Wear? Retrieved February 13, 2011 <br /> from http://www.ehow.com/list_6588690_types-clothing-do-muslims-wear_.html. <br />Female Genital Cutting. (n.d.). Retrieved February 15, 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Female_genital_cutting. <br />Kwintessential Ltd. (2011, January 1) Egypt - Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette. Retrieved February 13, 2011 from http://www.kwintessential.co.uk. <br />.<br />
Communications Through Cultures: Egypt<br />25<br />REFERENCES CONTINUED…<br />Levinson,D. (1998). Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook. Retrieved on February 13, 2011<br /> from http://books.google.com/books?id=uwi-rv3VV6cC&pg=PA126&lpg=PA126&dq=What+ethnic+groups+influenced+egypt&source=bl&ots=AFO30_QCPY&sig=F70EA7pIah_W6xnI6Okv-8eOuTE&hl=en#v=onepage&q=What%20ethnic%20groups%20influenced%20egypt&f=false<br />Maps XL Inc. (n.d). Egypt Culture. Retrieved February 18, 2011 from http://mapsoftheworld.com. <br />St. Petersburg Times. (1999). Retrieved February 12, 2011 from http://www2sptimes.com/Egypt/EgyptCredit. 4.2.html. <br /> <br />Web References:<br />http://family.jrank.org/pages/443/Egypt.html. <br />http://www.kingtutshop.com/freeinfo/Marrage-in-Ancient-Egypt.html. <br />http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/people/gender.html. <br />