Proxy wars2
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Proxy wars2 Proxy wars2 Presentation Transcript

  • Cold War:The Proxy Wars Vietnam
  • Background The French had controlled the area known as “Indochina” as a colony since the Age of Imperialism in the early 1900’s. After WWII, the French wanted to regain control of the region- which included the nation of Vietnam.
  • Vietnamese Nationalism The nationalism movement was led by a young cook who took the name Ho Chi Minh.  Ho Chi Minh had received support from various Communist groups. When the French tried to regain control after WWII, Ho Chi Minh and his followers known as the Viet Minh fought back. The French were defeated in 1954 in the city of Dien Bien Phu.
  • Geneva Conference 1954 The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the possibility of restoring peace in Vietnam The Soviet Union, the United States, France, the United Kingdom, and the People’s Republic of China were participants throughout the whole conference. The conference produced a set of documents known as the Geneva Accords.
  • Geneva Accords (Agreements)  These agreements separated Vietnam into two.  The north ruled by Ho Chi Minh’s communist forces.  The South ruled by a French educated Catholic man named Ngo Dinh Diem.  The Accords also said that there was to be a "general election" be held by July 1956 to create a unified Vietnamese state.  Ideally the people would vote who they wanted as their leader- Ho Chi Minh or Ngo Dinh Diem.
  • War in Vietnam Even though there were to be free elections, the southern leader Ngo Dinh Diem backed out.  Many believe it was because he knew that Ho Chi Minh would have easily won. This led to conflict between the North Vietnamese (with support from the Communists) and South Vietnamese (With support from the United States)
  • USA Supports South Vietnam President John F. Kennedy, who entered the White House in 1961, chose to initially to give full support to Diem and the South Vietnamese. President Kennedy increased financial aid to Diem’s regime & sent thousands of military advisers to help train South Vietnamese troops. By the end of 1963, 16,000 U.S. military personnel were in South Vietnam.
  • Unrest in South Vietnam  But military aid by itself could not ensure success. The problem was that Diem lacked support in his own country. Diem ruled south Vietnam as a dictator.  Anti-Communist- Allowed the torture and execution of thousands of communist supporters.  Money from the U.S. and others meant to help the South Vietnamese was often stolen by corrupt political officials.  When Diem insisted that Buddhists obey Catholic religious laws, serious opposition developed (almost 90% of Vietnam was Buddhist).
  • Buddhist Monk Thích Quảng Đức sets himself on fire as a protest of Ngo Dinh Diem’s treatment of the Buddhist population in South Vietnam. On June 11, 1963, a sixty-six year old monk, sat down in the middle of abusy Saigon road. He was then surrounded by a group of Buddhist monksand nuns who poured gasoline over his head and then set fire to him. One eyewitness later commented: "As he burned he never moved a muscle, never uttered a sound, hisoutward composure in sharp contrast to the wailing people around him."
  • The governments response to this suicidewas to arrest thousands of Buddhist monks.Many disappeared and were never seen again.By August another five monks had committedsuicide by setting fire to themselves. Onemember of the South Vietnamese governmentresponded to these self-immolations (Suicideby setting yourself on fire) by telling anewspaper reporter: "Let them burn, and weshall clap our hands."Another offered to supply Buddhists whowanted to commit suicide with the necessarygasoline!
  • Rise of the Vietcong As a result of Ngo Dinh Diem’s harsh policies, opposition in the south to his government grew. Communist militia’s (militia: an army of soldiers who are civilians) called Vietcong, began to gain strength and support in the South.
  • US Relations with Diem fail The United States, who had always supported Diem’s democratic government, began to question Diem’s leadership and his ability to keep communism from spreading into South Vietnam. US President JFK agreed that there needed to be a change in leadership in South Vietnam.
  • Coup détat and Assassination  The United States provided a group of South Vietnamese generals with $40,000 to carry out the coup with the promise that US forces would make no attempt to protect Diem.  At the beginning of November, 1963, President Diem was overthrown by a military coup.  After the generals had promised Diem that he would be allowed to leave the country they changed their mind and killed him.
  • US Military Enters Vietnam After Diem’s death in 1963 the U.S. wanted to make sure the battle again communist forces continued in Vietnam. American troops had been present in Vietnam since the 1950’s, but in 1964 the United States Congress agrees to send thousands more to fight in Vietnam. By 1968, more than 500,00 American troops were fighting to stop Communism from spreading into Vietnam.
  • United States Struggles in Vietnam The United States had the worlds most powerful , advanced, and best-equipped military, yet it struggled to defeat the communist backed opposition forces. WHY?They Fought a New Type of War • The Vietnamese opposition used guerilla warfare (the use of hit-and-run tactics by small groups of soldiers) in terrain that the United States soldiers were unfamiliar with (Vietnam is covered in jungles)
  • United States Struggles in Vietnam WHY? of South Vietnam.Lack of support from the people • The government that the United States was supporting was not popular among the people of South Vietnam. • Americans bombed farm land – this strengthened peasant’s opposition to the United States. • The Vietnamese were receiving support from both the Soviet Union and Communist China
  • United States Struggles in Vietnam•Lack of support from American Citizens •Widespread protests among young Americans led many to question why were at war. •Thousands of young Americans were being killed: in one week in May 1968, 5,550 U.S. soldiers were killed. •The war was widely reported. Every day people watched the news on television and saw the horrors of war.
  • End of Vietnam Conflict As the war grew increasingly unpopular, President Nixon began to withdraw American troops from Vietnam in 1969. Nixon called the plan Vietnamization. The goal was to have American troops slowly leave while the South Vietnamese would increase their role.
  • End of Vietnam Conflict The last WAR FACTS American U.S. Soldiers Killed 58,132 troops left U.S. Soldiers still missing M.I.A 1,689 Vietnam in Vietnamese Soldiers Killed (North & South) 1.1 Million Vietnamese Civilians Killed 500,000 1973. Cost to U.S. taxpayers $150 Billion Two years later the North Vietnamese, ba cked by communist nations, took control of South Vietnam.
  • Iconic Images of Vietnam Click each picture to read more. Image # 1 Image # 2 Image # 3 Image # 4
  • Iconic Images of Vietnam Click each picture to read more. Image # 1 Image # 2 Image # 3 Image # 4