THE NATURE OF LEARNER LANGUAGE -Rod Ellis- Ridha Ayu Karisma Dewi 2201410050
WHAT IS LANGUAGE LEARNER?• Learner language is the written or spoken language produced by a learner. It is also the main type of data used in second-language acquisition research. Much research in second-language acquisition is concerned with the internal representations of a language in the mind of the learner, and in how those representations change over time.
• The main way of investigating L2 acquisition is by collecting and describing samples of learner language. The description may focus on the kinds of errors learners make and how these errors change over time, or it may identify developmental by describing in the grammatical features.
Errors and error analysisReason for focusing on error They are a conspicious It is useful for teacher to know what error learners make. Paradoxically= making error help the learner to learn
Identifying errors• How to analysing learner errors ??• To identify errors we have to compare the sentence learners produce with what seem to be the normal or ‘correct’ sentences in the target language with correspondent with them.
Example:• A man and a little boy was watching him. It is not difficult to see that the correct sentence should be:• A man and a little boy were watching him.
Describing Error• Errors that have been identified can be described and classified into some types.1. To classify errors into grammatical categories by gathering all the errors relating to verb and then identifying error in our sample.2. Try to identifying general ways in which the ‘learners’ utterance differ from the the reconstructed target-language utterances.
3. Include ‘ommision’ (i.e. Leaving out an item that is required for an utterances to be considered grammatical.4. Misinformation (i.e. Using one grammatical form in place of another grammatical form).5. Misordering (i.e. Putting the words in an utterance in the wrong order).
Explaining error• The identification and description of errors are preliminaries to the much more interesting task of trying to explain why they occur.
Error Evaluation• Where the purpose of error analysis is to help leanrners learn an L2, there is a need to evaluate errors.
There are two errors:1. Global errors.2. Local errors.
Developmental Patterns• We have seen that many of the errors that L2 learners make are universal. We can also explore the universality of L2 acquisition by examining the developmental pattern learners follow.
1. The Early Stage of L2 Acquisition• Silent period: they make no attemp to say anything to begin with.• Their speech is likely to manifest two particular characteristics (formulaic chunks and performinguseful language functions such as greetings and requests)• The speech is proporsitional simmplification.2. The Order of Acquisition• Rank the feature according to how occurately learners.
3. . Sequence of acquisition where particular grammatical features in a language have a fixed sequence of development, but the overall order of acquisition is less rigid.Example:• Plural –s = Girls go.• Progressive –ing = Girls going.• Copula forms of be = Girls are here.
Variability in learner language1. Linguistic context: in one context they use one form while in other context they use alternate forms.2. Situational context: learners are no different from native speaker. When native speaker of English are talking to friends, they tend to speak informally, using colloquial expression.
3. Psycolinguistic context: It is more likely to use target –language forms when he has time to plan.4. Free variation A small fraction of variation in interlanguage is free variation, when the learner uses two forms interchangeably.