Group Members :
Pandu D. Prakoso 2201410087
Dian Ayu Titisari 2201411037
THE NATURE OF LEARNER
Learner language is the written or spoken
language produced by a learner. It is also the
main type of data used in second-language
acquisition research. Much research in second-
language acquisition is concerned with the
internal representations of a language in the mind
of the learner, and in how those representations
change over time.
Errors and error analysis
There are some reason for focusing on error:
1. They are a conspicious.
2. It is useful for teacher to know what error
3. Paradoxically = making error help the learner to
How to analysing learner errors?
To identify errors we have to compare the sentence
learners produce with what seem to be the normal
or ‘correct’ sentences in the target language with
correspondent with them.
A man and a little boy was watching him.
The correct sentence should be:
A man and a little boy were watching him.
Errors that have been identified can be described and
classified into some types.
1. To classify errors into grammatical categories by
gathering all the errors relating to verb and then
identifying error in our sample.
2. Try to identifying general ways in which the
‘learners’ utterance differ from the the
reconstructed target-language utterances.
3. Include ‘ommision’ (i.e. Leaving out an item that
is required for an utterances to be considered
4. Misordering (i.e. Putting the words in an
utterance in the wrong order).
5. Misinformation (i.e. Using one grammatical form
in place of another grammatical form)
Errors are systematicity
Jean’s verb errors described above do not involve
haphazard substitutions of past tense verb. This
systematicity suggests that Jean has constructed
some kind of rule, albeit a rule different from that
of the target language.
Errors are universal
The kind of past tense error found in Jean’s
speech has been attested in the speech of many
learners where they substitute the simple form of
the verb for the past tense form.
Errors can have different sources :
They leave out the articles ‘a’ and ‘the’ and leave the
–s of plural nouns.
The use of ‘eated’ in place of ‘ate’
Learners are to be seen as actively involved in
shaping the ‘grammars’ they are learning. They
‘create’ their own rules.
The policeman was in this corner whistle . . .
Which is difficult to understand because the basic
stucture of the sentence is wrong.
affect only a single constituent in the sentence
(for example, the verb).
The early stages of L2 acquisition
Some L2 learners, particularly if they are
children, undergo a silent period.
When learners do begin to speak in the L2
their speech is likely to manifest two particular
1. The kind of formulaic chunks
2. Proposional simplification
The order of acquisition
To investigate the order of acquisition:
1. Researchers choose a number of grammatical
structure to study
2. They collect samples of learner language and
identify how accurately each feature is used by
3. They rank the features according to how
accurately each feature is used by the learners.
Sequence of acquisition
A process involving transitional construction.
Learners acquire a grammatical structure
gradually, moving through a series of stages en
route to acquiring the native speaker rule.
The discovery of common patterns in the way in
which learner language changes over time is one
of the most important findings of SLA. It provides
further support for the conclusions reached from
the study of learner errors.
•Learner vary in their use of second languafe(L2)
1) Linguistic Context
2) situational context
3) psycholinguistic context/the availability of
Variability in Learner Language
1. Linguistic Context
• In one context the learners use one form while in
other contexts they use alternate forms.
• the choice of past tense marker is created by the
• Depending on whether or not an adverb of
2. Situational Context
Learners are no different
from native speakers
3. Psycholinguistic context/the availability of planning
•learners have the opportunity to plan their
•Learners do build variable systems by
trying to map particular forms on to
•Particular form-function mapping not always
conform in the target language.
Ellis, Rod.2003.Second Language
Acquisition.Hong Kong:Oxford University Press.