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The nature of learner language


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The nature of learner language

  1. 1. Group Members : Pandu D. Prakoso 2201410087 Kasanah 2201411035 Dian Ayu Titisari 2201411037 Solekah 2201411041 THE NATURE OF LEARNER LANGUAGE
  2. 2. Learner Language Learner language is the written or spoken language produced by a learner. It is also the main type of data used in second-language acquisition research. Much research in second- language acquisition is concerned with the internal representations of a language in the mind of the learner, and in how those representations change over time.
  3. 3. Errors and error analysis There are some reason for focusing on error: 1. They are a conspicious. 2. It is useful for teacher to know what error learners make. 3. Paradoxically = making error help the learner to learn.
  4. 4. Identifying errors How to analysing learner errors?  To identify errors we have to compare the sentence learners produce with what seem to be the normal or ‘correct’ sentences in the target language with correspondent with them.
  5. 5. Example:  A man and a little boy was watching him. The correct sentence should be:  A man and a little boy were watching him.
  6. 6. Describing Error Errors that have been identified can be described and classified into some types. 1. To classify errors into grammatical categories by gathering all the errors relating to verb and then identifying error in our sample. 2. Try to identifying general ways in which the ‘learners’ utterance differ from the the reconstructed target-language utterances. 3. Include ‘ommision’ (i.e. Leaving out an item that is required for an utterances to be considered grammatical.
  7. 7. 4. Misordering (i.e. Putting the words in an utterance in the wrong order). 5. Misinformation (i.e. Using one grammatical form in place of another grammatical form)
  8. 8. Explaining Error  Errors are systematicity Jean’s verb errors described above do not involve haphazard substitutions of past tense verb. This systematicity suggests that Jean has constructed some kind of rule, albeit a rule different from that of the target language.  Errors are universal The kind of past tense error found in Jean’s speech has been attested in the speech of many learners where they substitute the simple form of the verb for the past tense form.
  9. 9. Errors can have different sources :  Omission They leave out the articles ‘a’ and ‘the’ and leave the –s of plural nouns.  Overgeneralization error The use of ‘eated’ in place of ‘ate’  Transfer error Learners are to be seen as actively involved in shaping the ‘grammars’ they are learning. They ‘create’ their own rules.
  10. 10. Error Evaluation  Global error The policeman was in this corner whistle . . . Which is difficult to understand because the basic stucture of the sentence is wrong.  Local error affect only a single constituent in the sentence (for example, the verb).
  11. 11. Developmental patterns The early stages of L2 acquisition  Some L2 learners, particularly if they are children, undergo a silent period.  When learners do begin to speak in the L2 their speech is likely to manifest two particular characteristics. 1. The kind of formulaic chunks 2. Proposional simplification
  12. 12. The order of acquisition To investigate the order of acquisition: 1. Researchers choose a number of grammatical structure to study 2. They collect samples of learner language and identify how accurately each feature is used by different learners. 3. They rank the features according to how accurately each feature is used by the learners.
  13. 13. Sequence of acquisition  A process involving transitional construction.  Learners acquire a grammatical structure gradually, moving through a series of stages en route to acquiring the native speaker rule. Some implications  The discovery of common patterns in the way in which learner language changes over time is one of the most important findings of SLA. It provides further support for the conclusions reached from the study of learner errors.
  14. 14. •Learner vary in their use of second languafe(L2) according to; 1) Linguistic Context 2) situational context 3) psycholinguistic context/the availability of planning time Variability in Learner Language
  15. 15. 1. Linguistic Context • In one context the learners use one form while in other contexts they use alternate forms. For exmple: • the choice of past tense marker is created by the verb itself. • Depending on whether or not an adverb of frequency. 2. Situational Context Learners are no different from native speakers
  16. 16. 3. Psycholinguistic context/the availability of planning time •learners have the opportunity to plan their production. •Learners do build variable systems by trying to map particular forms on to particular function •Particular form-function mapping not always conform in the target language.
  17. 17. References  Ellis, Rod.2003.Second Language Acquisition.Hong Kong:Oxford University Press.
  18. 18. Thank you