Chapter 1Introduction: Describing and Explaining L2 Acquisition Second Language Acquisition (Rod Ellis) LUTFIANA TYAS MAHARANI 2201410072 Rombel 403-404
What is “Second Language Acquisition”?Second itself can refer to anylanguage that is learnedsubsequent to the mother tongue.L2 acquisition can be defined asthe way in which people learn alanguage other than mothertongue, inside or outside of aclassroom and Second LanguageAcquisitions as the study of this.
What are the Goals of SLA?• One of the goals of SLA is the descriptions of L2 acquisition.• Another is explanation.
Explanation means identifying The external The internal factors factorsthat account for why learnersacquire an L2 in the way they do.
The external factors are:• The social milieu in which learning take place. It can influence the opportunities that learners have to hear and speak the language and the attitudes that they develop towards it.• The input that learners receive.
The internal factor• Learners possess cognitive mechanisms which enable them to extract information about L2 from the input.
The goals of SLA, then, are todescribe how L2 acquisitionproceeds and to explain thisprocess and why some learnersseem to be better at it thanothers.
How language help to learn a particular language? Make anHow learned Possess effective use mother Learn L2 general of L2 tongue knowledge knowledge
The two case studies which we will examine are :• A case study of an adult learner learning English in surroundings where it serves as a means of daily communication.• A case study of two child learners learning English in classroom.
For example of a case study of anadult learner learning :Omit –s from plural nouns, rarelyput –s on the third person singularof verbs, and never used theregular past tense
For example of a case study oftwo child learners:R just pointed at a piece of cardto let the teacher know that hewanted him to put a staple in it.He saying „Sir, give me a paper‟Then sometimes after this, theylearned to use „Can I have _____?‟
The purposes• Raise a number of important methodological issues relating to the description of learner language.• Raise issues relating to the description of learner language.• Point to some of the problems researchers experience in trying to explain L2 acquisition.
Methodological Issues• Issues in the description of learner language• Issues in the explanation of L2 acquisition
Issues in the description of learner language1. Learners make errors of different kinds.2. Second language learners acquire a large number of formulaic chunks, which they use to perform communicative functions.3. Learners acquire the language systematically.
Issues in the explanation of L2 acquisition1. Learners internalize chunks of language structure but on the other hand they acquire rules. So, learners must engage in both of item learning and system learning.2. The systematic nature of second language acquisition also requires explanation.