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Second Language Acquisition: An Introduction

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Second Language Acquisition: An Introduction

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  1. 1. Chapter 14 - Second Language Acquisition and Learning In a French class for foreigners in France, David Sedaris and his classmates attempt to explain Easter to a Muslim student in broken French… and he discovers that the Easter Bunny is not universal. http://youtu.be/N5apZmwR9UI (Specifically 4:38-6:35)
  2. 2.  learners are rarely corrected  language is not presented step by step  learner is exposed to the language for hours  multiple interlocutors, mostly native speakers of the language  modified input is only sometimes available • learners are corrected • language is presented step by step • learner is exposed to the target language for a few hours each week • single interlocutor (teacher), not necessarily a native speaker • modified input is the norm Where do people learn second languages? Natural Environment Classroom Environment
  3. 3. Second Language Acquisition Acquisition Learning
  4. 4. Stephen Krashen “Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules, and does not require tedious drill." ~Stephen Krashen
  5. 5. Krashen on how to teach English “The best methods are therefore those that supply „comprehensible input‟ in low anxiety situations, containing messages that students really want to hear. These methods do not force early production in the second language, but allow students to produce when they are „ready,‟ recognizing that improvement comes from supplying communicative and comprehensible input, and not from forcing and correcting production.” ~Stephen Krashen
  6. 6. Krashen‟s 5 Hypotheses:  Acquisition-Learning hypothesis  Monitor hypothesis  Natural Order hypothesis  Input hypothesis  Affective Filter hypothesis
  7. 7.  Gradual development of ability  It happens naturally in communicative situations  It happens through interaction with the ones who speak the language natively, where the language is spoken  Focus on meaning and communication not on grammatical forms  Applies to a conscious process of accumulation of knowledge  Vocabulary, grammar, rules are presented and learned in controlled environments  Schools, language schools, immersion programs  Activities and methods are designed to allow this conscious process to occur Krashen‟s Acquisition and Learning Hypothesis Acquisition Learning
  8. 8. Krashen‟s Monitor Hypothesis:  Learned items become part of a Monitor  They will be used if: - they are simple enough - the speaker is focused on form (grammar, structure) - there is time to apply them  Learners must be exposed to language (input) that they can understand  The monitor „alerts‟ learners for mistakes
  9. 9. Krashen‟s Natural Order Hypothesis:  The rules of language will be acquired in a predictable order  This order is not necessarily determined by simplicity  This order is independent of the order taught in language classes  Criticism about this hypothesis as being based mainly on morpheme studies
  10. 10. English Second Language Word Order Acquisition  ~ing (sitting, eating)  copula be (I am happy; It is a cat)  helping verb be (He is studying)  plural ~s ending (dogs, birds)  irregular past (went, ate)  regular past ~ed ending (walked, talked)  third person ~s ending (He wants; She eats)  possessive ‘s (The teacher’s book; The dog’s bone.)
  11. 11. Krashen‟s Input Hypothesis:  Input: language the learner is exposed to  Output: language that is produced by learner  The Input Hypothesis states that input should be comprehensible to be beneficial  Use of foreigner talk is important  i + 1 stages
  12. 12. Krashen‟s Affective Filter Hypothesis: An imaginary barrier that prevents learners from acquiring language from the available input Motives, needs, attitudes and emotional states Someone who is angry or tense „filters out‟ input, making it unavailable for acquisition A negative attitude towards the target language might affect learner‟s progress and cause failure Can you think of an example of high affective filter situation?
  13. 13. Negotiating Meaning/Input John: Hey man, how is it going? Marcos: Huh? Going? Where? John: What‟s up? Marcos: Up? Where? John: I mean are you ok? Marcos: Yes! I‟m good! John: You look exhausted! Have you been studying hard? Marcos: Exha…? Hard? John: Studying a lot? Marcos: Oh, yes, a lot. John: I see… Marcos:*What see? Where? John: I mean I understand…
  14. 14. Focus on message, not form "Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding." Stephen Krashen
  15. 15. Acquisition Issues  L2 experience is different from L1  L2: Teenage or adult years, school (controlled) environment and artificial settings  Learner already has a previous available language  Insufficient time  Motivation issues  Few adults will effectively master L2
  16. 16. EFL vs. ESL EFL & ESL: What do you think is the difference between them? EFL: English as a Foreign Language  Typically taught in a student‟s home country or in a short-term program for foreign students in a country where English is spoken  Motivation and time for learning can vary ESL: English as a Second Language  Students study English in an English-speaking country  Typically students have moved (permanently or long-term) to a country where English is spoken  Motivation tends to be higher, because English is needed to survive
  17. 17. Do children learn languages more effectively? Do children learn languages more effectively than adults? What do you think? Myth 1: Children learn second languages quickly and easily Myth 2: The younger the child the better for learning an L2 Myth 3: Students learn faster in a full immersion setting Myth 4: Once a child can speak an L2, he/she has acquired that language Myth 5: All children learn an L2 the same way For more information, read Myths and Misconceptions About Second Language Learning, by Barry McLaughlin (Posted on our class website under „Class Content.‟)
  18. 18. Motivation  Integrative: Learners want to learn L2 for social purposes; to become accepted, to integrate and identify with the target language  Instrumental: Learners want to learn L2 to achieve a practical goal, such as get a job  How do you think motivation varies between EFL and ESL students?
  19. 19. Interlanguage: Between Languages Interlanguage – A “language” system that forms as a learner is learning an L2. It contains some features of the L1, some features of the L2, and some independent features. Interlanguage involves both positive and negative transfer from the L1. Positive Transfer – Use of a feature from the learner‟s L1 that is similar to the L2. Negative Transfer – Use of a feature from the learner‟s L1 that is substantially different from the L2.
  20. 20. Positive Transfer Cognates: Related words in different languages that have the same linguistic origin Examples: 컴퓨터 (Korean) = computer компьютер (Russian) = computer Positive Grammatical Transfer 1 cat, 2 cats; 1 gato, 2 gatos
  21. 21. Negative Transfer False Friends: Words in different languages that sound similar, but which have very different meanings embarazada (Spanish) ≠ embarrassed (English) ~embarazada means pregnant demande (French) ≠ demand (English) ~demande means request Negative Grammatical Transfer: una blusa blanca ≠ a blouse white (In Spanish, the adjective comes after the noun; in English, the adjective comes before the noun as in “a white blouse.”)
  22. 22. Larry Selinker: Fossilization Fossilization is the process in which an interlanguage containing many non L2 features stops evolving towards the correct L2 form.
  23. 23. Methods of Second Language Instruction  Grammar-translation method - focus on grammar rules, memorization and written ability; leads to poor speaking skills  Audio-lingual Method - emphasis on spoken language, from simple to more complex oral drills, habit formation pattern, language lab  Communicative Approach – reaction against the pattern-practice; grammar-oriented instruction is not desired; function is emphasized over form; oral communication is emphasized in the classroom setting, as are realistic materials and real-life scenarios
  24. 24. Error vs. Mistake Error – an inaccurate statement that the student does not know is inaccurate and/or does not know how to correct. Mistake – an inaccurate statement that, if pointed out, the student can correct. Often the student will notice the inaccuracy on his/her own and self-correct.
  25. 25. Error Analysis Errors: developmental: errors that stem from students experimenting with language and building on what they know overgeneralization: errors that stem from students over- using a rule and applying the rule to irregular forms simplification: errors stemming from students trying to simplify language tasks transfer: errors that stem from students using their native language (L1) to form rules for the second language (L2) avoidance: errors that stem from students trying to avoid complex structures that they're not comfortable with yet
  26. 26. Communicative Competence Communicative Competence is the general ability to use language accurately, appropriately, and flexibly, and it consists of three main parts: • Grammatical Competence (accuracy) • Sociolinguistic Competence (pragmatics; understanding social nuances, double meanings, etc.) • Strategic Competence (compensation)

Editor's Notes

  • http://enotes.wordpress.com/2011/04/18/the-rabbit-of-easter-he-brings-the-chocolate/ For the full text
    1. 1. Chapter 14 - Second Language Acquisition and Learning In a French class for foreigners in France, David Sedaris and his classmates attempt to explain Easter to a Muslim student in broken French… and he discovers that the Easter Bunny is not universal. http://youtu.be/N5apZmwR9UI (Specifically 4:38-6:35)
    2. 2.  learners are rarely corrected  language is not presented step by step  learner is exposed to the language for hours  multiple interlocutors, mostly native speakers of the language  modified input is only sometimes available • learners are corrected • language is presented step by step • learner is exposed to the target language for a few hours each week • single interlocutor (teacher), not necessarily a native speaker • modified input is the norm Where do people learn second languages? Natural Environment Classroom Environment
    3. 3. Second Language Acquisition Acquisition Learning
    4. 4. Stephen Krashen “Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules, and does not require tedious drill." ~Stephen Krashen
    5. 5. Krashen on how to teach English “The best methods are therefore those that supply „comprehensible input‟ in low anxiety situations, containing messages that students really want to hear. These methods do not force early production in the second language, but allow students to produce when they are „ready,‟ recognizing that improvement comes from supplying communicative and comprehensible input, and not from forcing and correcting production.” ~Stephen Krashen
    6. 6. Krashen‟s 5 Hypotheses:  Acquisition-Learning hypothesis  Monitor hypothesis  Natural Order hypothesis  Input hypothesis  Affective Filter hypothesis
    7. 7.  Gradual development of ability  It happens naturally in communicative situations  It happens through interaction with the ones who speak the language natively, where the language is spoken  Focus on meaning and communication not on grammatical forms  Applies to a conscious process of accumulation of knowledge  Vocabulary, grammar, rules are presented and learned in controlled environments  Schools, language schools, immersion programs  Activities and methods are designed to allow this conscious process to occur Krashen‟s Acquisition and Learning Hypothesis Acquisition Learning
    8. 8. Krashen‟s Monitor Hypothesis:  Learned items become part of a Monitor  They will be used if: - they are simple enough - the speaker is focused on form (grammar, structure) - there is time to apply them  Learners must be exposed to language (input) that they can understand  The monitor „alerts‟ learners for mistakes
    9. 9. Krashen‟s Natural Order Hypothesis:  The rules of language will be acquired in a predictable order  This order is not necessarily determined by simplicity  This order is independent of the order taught in language classes  Criticism about this hypothesis as being based mainly on morpheme studies
    10. 10. English Second Language Word Order Acquisition  ~ing (sitting, eating)  copula be (I am happy; It is a cat)  helping verb be (He is studying)  plural ~s ending (dogs, birds)  irregular past (went, ate)  regular past ~ed ending (walked, talked)  third person ~s ending (He wants; She eats)  possessive ‘s (The teacher’s book; The dog’s bone.)
    11. 11. Krashen‟s Input Hypothesis:  Input: language the learner is exposed to  Output: language that is produced by learner  The Input Hypothesis states that input should be comprehensible to be beneficial  Use of foreigner talk is important  i + 1 stages
    12. 12. Krashen‟s Affective Filter Hypothesis: An imaginary barrier that prevents learners from acquiring language from the available input Motives, needs, attitudes and emotional states Someone who is angry or tense „filters out‟ input, making it unavailable for acquisition A negative attitude towards the target language might affect learner‟s progress and cause failure Can you think of an example of high affective filter situation?
    13. 13. Negotiating Meaning/Input John: Hey man, how is it going? Marcos: Huh? Going? Where? John: What‟s up? Marcos: Up? Where? John: I mean are you ok? Marcos: Yes! I‟m good! John: You look exhausted! Have you been studying hard? Marcos: Exha…? Hard? John: Studying a lot? Marcos: Oh, yes, a lot. John: I see… Marcos:*What see? Where? John: I mean I understand…
    14. 14. Focus on message, not form "Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding." Stephen Krashen
    15. 15. Acquisition Issues  L2 experience is different from L1  L2: Teenage or adult years, school (controlled) environment and artificial settings  Learner already has a previous available language  Insufficient time  Motivation issues  Few adults will effectively master L2
    16. 16. EFL vs. ESL EFL & ESL: What do you think is the difference between them? EFL: English as a Foreign Language  Typically taught in a student‟s home country or in a short-term program for foreign students in a country where English is spoken  Motivation and time for learning can vary ESL: English as a Second Language  Students study English in an English-speaking country  Typically students have moved (permanently or long-term) to a country where English is spoken  Motivation tends to be higher, because English is needed to survive
    17. 17. Do children learn languages more effectively? Do children learn languages more effectively than adults? What do you think? Myth 1: Children learn second languages quickly and easily Myth 2: The younger the child the better for learning an L2 Myth 3: Students learn faster in a full immersion setting Myth 4: Once a child can speak an L2, he/she has acquired that language Myth 5: All children learn an L2 the same way For more information, read Myths and Misconceptions About Second Language Learning, by Barry McLaughlin (Posted on our class website under „Class Content.‟)
    18. 18. Motivation  Integrative: Learners want to learn L2 for social purposes; to become accepted, to integrate and identify with the target language  Instrumental: Learners want to learn L2 to achieve a practical goal, such as get a job  How do you think motivation varies between EFL and ESL students?
    19. 19. Interlanguage: Between Languages Interlanguage – A “language” system that forms as a learner is learning an L2. It contains some features of the L1, some features of the L2, and some independent features. Interlanguage involves both positive and negative transfer from the L1. Positive Transfer – Use of a feature from the learner‟s L1 that is similar to the L2. Negative Transfer – Use of a feature from the learner‟s L1 that is substantially different from the L2.
    20. 20. Positive Transfer Cognates: Related words in different languages that have the same linguistic origin Examples: 컴퓨터 (Korean) = computer компьютер (Russian) = computer Positive Grammatical Transfer 1 cat, 2 cats; 1 gato, 2 gatos
    21. 21. Negative Transfer False Friends: Words in different languages that sound similar, but which have very different meanings embarazada (Spanish) ≠ embarrassed (English) ~embarazada means pregnant demande (French) ≠ demand (English) ~demande means request Negative Grammatical Transfer: una blusa blanca ≠ a blouse white (In Spanish, the adjective comes after the noun; in English, the adjective comes before the noun as in “a white blouse.”)
    22. 22. Larry Selinker: Fossilization Fossilization is the process in which an interlanguage containing many non L2 features stops evolving towards the correct L2 form.
    23. 23. Methods of Second Language Instruction  Grammar-translation method - focus on grammar rules, memorization and written ability; leads to poor speaking skills  Audio-lingual Method - emphasis on spoken language, from simple to more complex oral drills, habit formation pattern, language lab  Communicative Approach – reaction against the pattern-practice; grammar-oriented instruction is not desired; function is emphasized over form; oral communication is emphasized in the classroom setting, as are realistic materials and real-life scenarios
    24. 24. Error vs. Mistake Error – an inaccurate statement that the student does not know is inaccurate and/or does not know how to correct. Mistake – an inaccurate statement that, if pointed out, the student can correct. Often the student will notice the inaccuracy on his/her own and self-correct.
    25. 25. Error Analysis Errors: developmental: errors that stem from students experimenting with language and building on what they know overgeneralization: errors that stem from students over- using a rule and applying the rule to irregular forms simplification: errors stemming from students trying to simplify language tasks transfer: errors that stem from students using their native language (L1) to form rules for the second language (L2) avoidance: errors that stem from students trying to avoid complex structures that they're not comfortable with yet
    26. 26. Communicative Competence Communicative Competence is the general ability to use language accurately, appropriately, and flexibly, and it consists of three main parts: • Grammatical Competence (accuracy) • Sociolinguistic Competence (pragmatics; understanding social nuances, double meanings, etc.) • Strategic Competence (compensation)

    Editor's Notes

  • http://enotes.wordpress.com/2011/04/18/the-rabbit-of-easter-he-brings-the-chocolate/ For the full text
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