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Esp

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Esp

  1. 1. Presented by: INTZAR AHMAD (Roll No: 14142020) SAIRA SADIQ (Roll No: 14242002) Presented to: SIR Dr. MUHAMMAD IQBAL BUTT
  2. 2. ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES
  3. 3. What is ESP? • ESP in brief is the use of a particular variety of English in a specific context of use and justified by learners’ needs. • English for specific purposes (ESP) is a sphere of teaching English language including Business English, Technical English, Scientific English, English for medical professionals, English for waiters, English for tourism, English for Art Purposes, etc.
  4. 4. What is ESP? • What distinguishes ESP is learners’ needs. • ESP requires analysing language that is required in the area/profession • conducting students’ needs analysis • conducting interviews with subject matter specialists in the area
  5. 5. Definition: • ‘ESP courses are those where the syllabus and materials are determined in all essentials by the prior analysis of the communication needs of the learner’ (p.2) Munby. (1978)
  6. 6. Definition: • Robinson (1980) has defined it as the teaching of English to the learners who have specific goals and purposes. According to him, these goals might be professional, academic, scientific etc. • Mackay and Mountford (1978, p. 2) have referred to it as the teaching of English for “clearly utilitarian purposes”. These specific purposes are academic, professional or scientific ones that clearly depend on the learners’ needs.
  7. 7. Definition: • ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as to content and method are based on the learners’ reasons for learning. (Tom Hutchinson and Alan Walters, 1990 - CUP)
  8. 8. Definition: • Dudley-Evans, T. & St. John, M.J. (cf. 1998) offer a modified definition and express their revised view on the essence of ESP from two perspectives: absolute characteristics and variable characteristics.
  9. 9. Absolute and Variable Characteristics of ESP • Absolute Characteristics • ESP is defined to meet specific needs of the learners • ESP makes use of underlying methodology and activities of the discipline it serves • ESP is centered on the language appropriate to these activities in terms of grammar, lexis, register, study skills, and discourse.
  10. 10. Variable characteristics • May be related to or designed for specific disciplines • May use, in specific teaching situations, a different methodology from that of General English • Likely to be assigned for adult learners • Generally designed for intermediate or advanced learners
  11. 11. ESP vs. EGP 1. Learners ESP – working adults EGP – high school students 2. Aims ESP – to meet the needs of particular learners EGP – to improve overall English competence involving a range of skills (reading, writing, speaking, listening, vocab, grammar, pronunciation etc)
  12. 12. Comparison of EGP and ESP • 1. the focus is often on education; • 2. As the learners’ future needs are impossible to predict, the course content is more difficult to select; • 3. Due to the above point it is important for the content in the syllabus to have a high surrender value. • 1. the focus is on training; • 2. As English is intended to be used in specific vocational contexts, the selection of the appropriate content is easier; • 3. It is important for the content in the syllabus to have a high surrender value, most relevant to the vocational context; • 4. The aim may be to create a restricted English competence.
  13. 13. ESP Family Tree ESP EOP EBP EMP EAP EST
  14. 14. ESP Family Tree ESP EOP EBP EMP EAP EST
  15. 15. ESP Family Tree • •
  16. 16. •EBP English for Business Purposes •EMP English for Medical Purposes •ERP English for Recreational Purposes •EEP English for Educational Purposes •EAP English for Business Purposes
  17. 17. Within ESP, Most courses begin with the word English • English for Electronic Engineering • English for Secretaries • English for Waiters • English for Computing scientist • English for Hotel Staff • English for Diplomats • English for Nurses • English for Airline pilots • English for Air Hostesses • English for Technicians • English for Managers
  18. 18. Brief History 3 main reasons to the emergence of ESP 1. Demands of the world after WW2  expansion in science and technology  English became the language of tech. and commerce, and research  This created a demand for a generation of learners who needed the language for the specific purposes of tech and commerce  The constraints of time and money created a need for cost-effective courses
  19. 19. Brief History 2. A revolution in linguistics - Shifted of focus from grammar to communication. - Realization of language variation from context to context: hence, differences in English for commerce and English for engineering. - As language varies from situation to situation, it should be possible to determine the features of specific situations, making them the basis of the learners’ courses. - A rise in the expansion of research in English for Science and Tech and English for Business.
  20. 20. Brief History 3. Developments in educational psychology  Focus on student-centred learning.  Learners are seen to have different needs and interests, which have an influence on their motivation to learn and therefore on the effectiveness of their learning.  The standard way of achieving this was to take texts from the learners’ specific area of study/work.  The assumption is that the relevance of the English course to their needs would improve the learners’ motivation and make learning better and faster.
  21. 21. Brief History • The growth of ESP was due to: • The expansion of demand for English to suit particular need • Developments in the field of linguistics • Developments in the field educational psychology. • All three factors pointed to the need for specialization in learning English.
  22. 22. Fundamental variables • Variables which are community-controlled • Variables which are teacher-controlled • Variables which are learner-controlled
  23. 23. Community controlled variables • Cultural restriction • Organizational and physical limits and possibilities • Teaching training standards • Sociolinguistic attitude and expectations • Educational framework of TEFL Teacher controlled variables • Syllabus design • Methodology • Material evaluation and production
  24. 24. Learner variables • Reason for learning • Expectation • Age • Proficiency • Educational level
  25. 25. Need analysis • Definition • A family of procedures for gathering information about learners and about communication tasks Nunan, 1988,p.75
  26. 26. Need analysis Profile of Communication Needs: Ex: waiter/waitress 1.personal: who the employees are, their ages , education; background 2.purpose: the types of communicative skills the clients need to develop 3.setting: restaurant 4.Interactional variables: waiter/waitress to customer 5. Medium, mode and channel: whether spoken or written; face to face 6.dialects:formal or casual styles 7.Target level: basic, intermediate. 8.Anticpated communicated events: greeting, taking picture 9.key: politely, quietly
  27. 27. Needs • The concept of needs in ESP can be understood in relations to: a. goal-oriented needs (target needs) b. process oriented needs (learning needs)
  28. 28. Needs • Target needs are “what the learner needs to do in the target situation”. What the learner has to know in order to function effectively in the target situation. Eg: A businessman will need to understand business letters, communicate at sales conferences, get necessary info from sales catalogues and so on. He will presumably need to know linguistic features – lexical, structural, functional, discoursal – which are commonly used in the situations identified. • Learning needs are “what the learner needs to do in order to learn” and includes affective and cognitive factors.
  29. 29. Approaches to Needs Analysis • Target Situation Analysis (TSA) seeks to establish what learners need to know in order to function effectively in the target situation. • Learning Situation Analysis (LSA) seeks to establish the pedagogical and methodological factors which affect decisions about the language learning course. • Present Situation Analysis (PSA) seeks to establish what the students are like at the beginning of their language course, investigating strengths and weaknesses.
  30. 30. Methods of needs analysis • Tests • Questionnaires • Interviews • Observation • Case studies
  31. 31. Approaches Theoretical views about the nature of language 1. The structural view (Grammatical) 2. The functional view (semantic) 3. The interactional view (interpersonal, social) Theoretical views about language learning 1. Behaviorist 2. Cognitive
  32. 32. Approaches • Language structure • Sample: 1. Ancient Rope-Making(compound noun, passive voice without agent) 2. Expansion of Liquids and Gases(on/after….ing; was seen& infinitive, passive with and without agent) 3. Sources of Energy(which & passive & ’to be’& past participle) (From beginning scientific English, Royads-Irmark, 1975)
  33. 33. Approaches • Language function and discourse analysis • Sample 1. Properties and shapes 2. Locations 3. Measurement 4. Definitions 5. Impersonal scientific statements (From Nucleus: General science, Bates and Dudley Evans, 1976)
  34. 34. Approaches • Language skill • Sample 1. Organizing your studies 2. Improving your reading efficiency 3. Taking notes 4. Writing an essay (From study skills in English, Wallace, 1980)
  35. 35. Course Design • Refers to the process of interpreting information about learners needs for the purpose of producing teaching-learning experiences such as course objectives, timetabling, materials and so on. • Issues in course design a) How specific should ESP courses be? b) Should the four skills always be integrated? c) Are there special methodologies for ESP courses?
  36. 36. Course Design Approaches about • Language • Learning Overall organization Dependent choices • Skill covered • Text choices • Topic area covered • Grading and sequencing
  37. 37. Curriculum approach in language teaching The Focuses on the Curriculum Development: 1. Needs Analysis 2. Situational Analysis 3. Learning Outcome 4. Course Organization 5. Selecting Teaching Material 6. Preparing Teaching Material 7. Providing for Effective Teaching 8. Evaluation
  38. 38. Techniques and Activities in ESP class room • Simulation: Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. • Pairs and small groups • Requesting assistance from supervisor • One to one teaching • Team teaching ESP practitioner combines with subject specialist
  39. 39. Testing in ESP • Need for testing in ESP • To decide for an appropriate grouping at the beginning • To diagnose learners’ specific linguistic problems • To evaluate how much has been learnt during an English course • To survey in general terms the language level of a large group of professionals or academics • To decide whether a particular individual has sufficient language for a job, post or study place
  40. 40. Need for testing in ESP • To measure linguistic proficiency in relation to demand of the a particular target situation • To fulfill an institution’s or a company’ examination requirements and expectations • To fulfill learners’ expectation
  41. 41. Types of testing • Direct testing: • It would be able to assess whether a person has sufficient English to carry out a job or follow a course of specialist study. Language test Study/job demand Language course
  42. 42. Types of testing • Indirect testing • It would assess the details of performance on an English language course and achievement of the learner. Need analysis Language course Assessment of achievements
  43. 43. The ESP practitioner • Dudley Evans describes the true ESP teacher or ESP Practitioner (Swales, 1988) as needing to perform five different roles. These are: • Teacher, • Collaborator, • Course designer and materials provider, • Researcher • Evaluator.
  44. 44. As a teacher • The first role as 'teacher' is synonymous with that of the General English' teacher.
  45. 45. As a collaborator • In order to meet the specific needs of the learners and adopt the methodology and activities of the target discipline, the ESP Practitioner must first work closely with field specialists.
  46. 46. AS Course designer and materials provider • The teacher`s role in planning the course and providing materials for it. • Provision of materials does not only mean choosing materials and making a suitable number of copies for the class • the teacher `s task also includes adapting material when published materials are unsuitable or writing hisher own materials.
  47. 47. As researcher • Non availability of the ready-made material • It is here that the ESP practitioner's role as 'researcher' is especially important, with results leading directly to appropriate materials for the classroom.
  48. 48. As evaluator • All teachers should be involved in various types of evaluation and the most popular one is testing students. • Tests are conducted to evaluate the students 'progress and teaching effectiveness. • However, in ESP classes an additional kind of testing should take place, which is the evaluation of course and teaching materials.
  49. 49. Training of ESP teacher • Training of the teachers is very important for ESP courses • they should be trained and well specialized so that they can meet students` needs.
  50. 50. • Selection • Continuing personal education • General professional training as an educator and teacher • Special training as a teacher of a foreign or second language
  51. 51. The End Thanks for your listening

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