© Cambridge International Examinations 2014
Janet Rees
June 2014
India
Assessment for learning
Training workshop
Housekeeping
• Health & Safety
• Fire alarms
• Fire safety
• Start-finish, breaks
• Washrooms
• Refreshments
• Plan of the...
Cambridge International Examinations
the world’s largest provider of international
qualifications for 5 – 19 year olds
d...
Session 1
Introduction to Course
Introduction to Assessment for Learning
Course aims
• To introduce assessment for learning
• To discuss school and subject leadership for AfL
• To examine the rol...
Structure of course
1. Introduction to Course:
Principles of Assessment for Learning
2. Formative and summative assessment...
Session 1
Principles of assessment for learning
Assessment for learning:
Key aspects of assessment
• Summative – to ‘sum up’ what students have achieved.
• Formative – to establish whether studen...
Assessment for learning
“Assessment for learning is the process of
seeking and interpreting evidence for use
by learners a...
Formative assessment consists of:
• the active involvement of students in their own
learning
• sharing learning goals with...
Aims:
• every child knows how they are doing, and
understands what they need to do to improve and
how to get there. They g...
• every school has in place structured and
systematic assessment systems for making
regular, useful, manageable and accura...
Learning, Teaching &
Assessment Cycle
Improvement
Planning
Learning
Intentions
Input
Success
Criteria
Learning
Activity
Fo...
Formative assessment:
• is a range of formal and informal assessment
procedures employed by teachers
• is used during the ...
Which is best?
Discuss and group the different forms of
assessment.
• Which will give the best information about
education...
Benefits of formative assessments for
teachers:
• Teachers are able to determine what students
already know and to what de...
Benefits of formative assessments for
students:
• Teachers can inform students about their current
progress in order to he...
The benefits of assessment for learning
• Assessment for learning is a powerful way of
raising pupils’ achievement.
• It i...
Questions
What questions can you ask students to help
them evaluate their own learning?
Question strategies
Evidence
• How do you know that?
• What evidence is there to support that position?
Clarification
• Ca...
Question strategies
Explanation
• Why might that be the case?
• How would we know that?
• Who might be responsible for…?
H...
Formative assessment types
Summaries and Reflections
• Writing in a journal is one way to assess student
understanding. St...
Lists, charts, and graphic organisers
• Students can graph their progress. Teachers help
students organise learned content...
Visual representations of information
• Using art with a lesson allows understanding and
memory. Pairing visual representa...
Collaborative activities
• When students divide into groups and work together, they
have the opportunity to communicate wi...
Types of collaboration
Envoy
Goldfish
Carousel
Paired
tutoring
Snow-
ball
Cascade
Students
as
teachers
Pair
swapping
Alloc...
Sources of assessment evidence
• Oral
• Written
• Graphic
• Product
• Performance
Collaboration
• Let’s work through these examples.
• Which worked best for you?
• Why do you think this is?
Assessment of and for Learning
Summative assessment:
• occurs after the learning
• used to prove learning
• measures learn...
Session 2
Formative and summative assessment:
Teaching and learning contexts.
Teaching and learning contexts:
Thinking point
• What do you think are some of the most
appropriate activities and learning/teaching
methods that will all...
The role of the teacher
There are three main activities that teachers have
to manage simultaneously:
• managing the class
...
Diversity in teaching in the classroom
Teaching Approaches:
• Teachers’ own preferred ways of learning tend to affect the
...
Diversity in teaching in the classroom
• An awareness of different learning styles can
help teachers to sustain motivation...
Some of the problems:
• the solutions to problems rather than discuss them.
• the teacher gives a lecture rather than cond...
Overcoming the problems.
• What do you do?
• Share your ideas with your group.
• Be careful you don’t become one of the
pr...
An effective teacher:
• is essential to ensuring that small groups
work well
• is enthusiastic
• has organised the session...
Effective teachers:
• has skills in teaching and managing learning
• is alert to context and ‘classroom’ events
• is teach...
Planning and preparation
• Who am I teaching? The number of learners and their study
level or stage in training.
• What am...
Thinking point
Can you answer the above questions for all the
groups you teach? If not, how might you find
out the answers...
Lesson plan
• define your aims and learning outcomes or objectives
• think about the structure of the session and timing o...
Practical task
• How tall is the giant?
• How can we find out?
• What knowledge/skills did we need?
• What processes did w...
Assessment of learning
• aims to find out how much learners know
• summative assessments including end of module/ year tes...
Guided group work
What does the phrase ‘guided group work mean to
you?
Group work – discussion in pairs or small groups
• ...
Guided group work
• Informed by and creating opportunities for
assessment.
• Guided group work is based on flexible groupi...
Guided group work
• Guided groups provide opportunities for
learning more about the effect of teaching.
• Group size will ...
Guided Group Work
• Diamond ranking card sort
• 12 cards to sort
• You must reject 3 cards
Most important
Least important
Guided Group Work
• Encourage flexibility in the organisation of the
curriculum and the structure of mathematics lessons
•...
Guided Group Work
What adjustments would you need to make to
your practice in order to know you are doing
guided group wor...
Guided Group Work
• Reflect on some recent teaching and
assessment that you have done.
• Are there any students that you c...
Key elements of teaching approaches
Pupil perceptions
• Students appreciate teachers who value and appreciate
them as indi...
Being clear about learning purposes
and learning outcomes
• Be aware of differences among learners e.g. preferred
learning...
Using different interactions to match
different purposes and outcomes
(informing, describing, explaining, modelling, demon...
Let’s do maths!
• Work in pairs at your own level
• Discuss strategies
• Share ideas
• What have you found out?
Using different interactions to match
different purposes and outcomes
• Make specific links between what has gone before a...
Use flexible groupings
• Be clear about the appropriateness of group
work: the learning outcomes should
determine the meth...
Working as a group
As a group, work through the story activities
• What helped the group to succeed?
• What didn’t help?
Skilful use of questions
• Use a variety of questions
• Offering alternative answers gives additional
listening input to t...
Reflection and discussion
• Which of the above approaches do you
recognise in your current classroom practice?
• Are there...
Preparing students
• The teacher needs to be familiar with the prior
learning/achievement of students
• Students should be...
Independent Learning
Research suggests that people like to learn as follows:
• doing activities they want to do
• being ac...
Nature of independent learning work:
• students take more responsibility for their
learning
• students need to approach wo...
Reflection and Discussion
• What elements of your current teaching
devolve responsibility for learning onto the
students?
...
Summary: SMART
Before you can use Assessment for Learning
you must be clear:
• on what the student is expected to learn
• ...
Session 3
Planning to cater for different teaching
contexts and learning styles
What are Learning Styles?
There are three main aspects of how people
study:
• perceiving information
• processing informat...
Perceiving information
• Visual (sight)
• Auditory (hearing)
• Reading and
• Kinaesthetic (other sensations which
includes...
Processing information
You will have a natural preference for how you:
(a) grasp information
• do you prefer to deal with ...
Organising and presenting information
You will have a preference for how you:
• (a) organise information — with a holistic...
How do you learn best?:Activity
• Practical activities which will allow only one
type of learning style
• Discussion. What...
Advice for visual learners
• Use visual materials such as pictures, charts, and maps
• Use colour to highlight texts and o...
Advice for auditory learners
• Participate frequently in discussions and debates
• Make speeches and presentations
• Use a...
Advice for tactile/kinaesthetic learners
• Take frequent study breaks
• Move around to learn new things
• Stand up to work...
Group dynamics - group processes
Forming:
• is when a group comes together for the first time.
The teacher can help by allowing introductions,
using ice-br...
Storming:
• is when the group is actively trying to carry out a task
and there may be conflict between one or more group
m...
Teaching contexts
• Whole class
• Group work
• Individual work
Using different contexts and
differentiation
• Draw a large square:
Session 4
Target setting and leadership
Resources and practical ideas for using them
in the classroom
SESSION AIMS
• to explore and evaluate different ways of
marking and providing feedback
• to consider the role of marking ...
Marking and feedback
• What kind of work do you mark?
• How do you mark?
• Who do you mark for?
• Why do you mark?
• What ...
Assessment for learning focuses on
how learners learn and requires them
to know:
• where they are in their learning
• wher...
What has
been done
well?
Target areas
to be
improved on
Ways
forward
Positive and
related to planning
learning objectives
...
Feedback is the central theme of
formative assessment
• Teacher to student
• Student to teacher
• Student to other student...
Feedback is the central theme of
formative assessment
The greatest motivational benefits come from
focussing feedback on:
...
What are the advantages of oral
feedback?
• Immediate - able to deal with misconceptions as
they occur
• Dynamic and adapt...
What are the advantages of oral
feedback?
• Stimulating – oral feedback can encourage,
enthuse and stimulate.
• Personalis...
Some characteristics of constructive
feedback include:
• focusing on the learning objectives selectively
• confirming that...
Feedback in marking can include:
• annotations
• annotations plus a mark or grade
• annotations plus a mark or grade plus ...
"If you can both listen to children and
accept their answers not as things to
just be judged right or wrong but as
pieces ...
Assessment for learning
• Whole class
• Group – peer assessment
• Individual- self assessment
Effective peer and self assessment
Key requirements in developing these skills:
• expected learning outcomes must be expli...
Key features of self-evaluation
• The emphasis is on thinking and articulating,
not writing.
• Questions are easier to ans...
Key features of self-evaluation
• Articulation can be by combining ideas, in
small groups or pairs.
• It cannot be systema...
Self-evaluation: thinking about what
happens when we are learning
• What did you find easy about learning to …?
• What are...
Self-evaluation: thinking about what
happens when we are learning
• How would you do things differently next time now
you ...
Implications for teaching
To develop peer and self assessment teachers need to:
• train students over time to assess their...
Twenty ideas for formative assessment
1. Let’s compare notes
2. Wait a minute
3. Venn Diagram
4. Thinking diagram
5. Seque...
I can …
I know …
I understand
Assessing student progress
• Assessment is at the heart of an effective
curriculum and is a fundamental part of good
teach...
Assessing pupil progress:
• reduces reliance on specific assessment tasks and
tests at key transitions
• provides a common...
Assessing pupil progress:
• raises pupils’ expectations by clarifying their
achievements and next steps in learning
• info...
4 key principles
• the learner is at the heart of assessment
• assessment needs to provide a view of the
whole learner
• a...
As part of a school development
programme, AfL can:
• use what teachers know about their pupils to
improve their learning
...
Talking points
• When do you stand back and reflect on your
assessment practice and discuss changes
with your colleagues?
...
Talking points
• When Assessing Pupil Progress is working
well, what would you expect to see and hear:
– from pupils?
– in...
When Assessment for Learning is working well,
what would you expect to see and hear:
• – from pupils?
• – in a learning co...
More talking points
• How do you involve pupils actively in their own
assessment?
• If you are starting to use AfL, how ca...
What next?
Guiding your thinking:
• consider what assessment in the future
should be like and how you want it to work in
y...
Moving on whole school AfL
• review the aims of your whole school
assessment policy, what you want to achieve
for the scho...
Impacting on pupils’ learning and
progress
Consider how you will evaluate the impact AfL
is having on:
• teachers’ curricu...
Summary
• every child knows how they are doing, and
understands what they need to do to improve and how
to get there.
• ev...
Summary
• every school has in place structured and
systematic assessment systems for making regular,
useful, manageable an...
Good assessment for learning makes:
• an accurate assessment – knowing what the
standards are, judging pupils’ work correc...
Good assessment for learning makes:
• a focused assessment – identifying areas of a
child’s learning where there are block...
Reminders
• How to keep in touch…
• info@cie.org.uk
• For more information about future courses
please go to the training ...
PPT on curriculum
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PPT on curriculum

  1. 1. © Cambridge International Examinations 2014 Janet Rees June 2014 India Assessment for learning Training workshop
  2. 2. Housekeeping • Health & Safety • Fire alarms • Fire safety • Start-finish, breaks • Washrooms • Refreshments • Plan of the day
  3. 3. Cambridge International Examinations the world’s largest provider of international qualifications for 5 – 19 year olds develops successful learners in over 160 countries valued by over 9,000 schools worldwide part of the University of Cambridge – renowned worldwide for excellence in education
  4. 4. Session 1 Introduction to Course Introduction to Assessment for Learning
  5. 5. Course aims • To introduce assessment for learning • To discuss school and subject leadership for AfL • To examine the role of questioning • To discuss different styles of teaching • To plan for different teaching contexts and learning styles • To look at different resources for use in the classroom
  6. 6. Structure of course 1. Introduction to Course: Principles of Assessment for Learning 2. Formative and summative assessment: teaching and learning contexts 3. Planning – different teaching contexts and learning styles; questioning 4. School and subject leadership for AfL.
  7. 7. Session 1 Principles of assessment for learning
  8. 8. Assessment for learning:
  9. 9. Key aspects of assessment • Summative – to ‘sum up’ what students have achieved. • Formative – to establish whether students have met the learning objective or are on track to do so, and to use the information to direct or re-direct the teaching. • Formative assessment can also include: – Diagnostic – to identify why students do not understand, or have difficulty with some topic or idea and to use this information to take appropriate action to correct mistakes/misconceptions. – Evaluative – to determine whether the action following the diagnosis has resolved the student’s difficulties.
  10. 10. Assessment for learning “Assessment for learning is the process of seeking and interpreting evidence for use by learners and their teachers to decide where the learners are in their learning, where they need to go and how best to get there.” Assessment Reform group (2002).
  11. 11. Formative assessment consists of: • the active involvement of students in their own learning • sharing learning goals with students • involving students in self-assessment • effective questioning • providing feedback which leads students to recognise their next steps and how to take them • adjusting teaching to take account of the results of assessment.
  12. 12. Aims: • every child knows how they are doing, and understands what they need to do to improve and how to get there. They get the support they need to be motivated, independent learners. • every teacher is equipped to make well-founded judgements about pupils’ attainment, understands the concepts and principles of progression, and knows how to use their assessment judgements to forward plan, particularly for pupils who are not fulfilling their potential;
  13. 13. • every school has in place structured and systematic assessment systems for making regular, useful, manageable and accurate assessments of pupils, and for tracking their progress; • every parent and carer knows how their child is doing, what they need to do to improve, and how they can support the child and their teachers.
  14. 14. Learning, Teaching & Assessment Cycle Improvement Planning Learning Intentions Input Success Criteria Learning Activity Formative Feedback Peer & Self- Assessment & Evaluation The assessment cycle
  15. 15. Formative assessment: • is a range of formal and informal assessment procedures employed by teachers • is used during the learning process in order to modify teaching and learning activities to improve student attainment • typically involves qualitative feedback (rather than scores) for both student and teacher which focus on the details of content and performance • is commonly contrasted with summative assessment, which seeks to monitor educational outcomes.
  16. 16. Which is best? Discuss and group the different forms of assessment. • Which will give the best information about educational outcomes(knowledge)? When could this be used? • Which will give the best information about the processes of learning? When could you use this? • Be prepared to give reasons for your choices.
  17. 17. Benefits of formative assessments for teachers: • Teachers are able to determine what students already know and to what degree. • Teachers can decide what minor modifications or major changes in teaching they need to make so that all students can make progress. • Teachers can create appropriate lessons and activities for groups of learners or individual students.
  18. 18. Benefits of formative assessments for students: • Teachers can inform students about their current progress in order to help them set goals for improvement. • students are more motivated to learn • students take responsibility for their own learning • students can become users of assessment alongside the teacher • students learn valuable lifelong skills such as self- evaluation, self-assessment and goal setting.
  19. 19. The benefits of assessment for learning • Assessment for learning is a powerful way of raising pupils’ achievement. • It is based on the principle that pupils will improve most if they understand the aim of their learning, where they are in relation to the aim. • It is central to effective teaching and learning.
  20. 20. Questions What questions can you ask students to help them evaluate their own learning?
  21. 21. Question strategies Evidence • How do you know that? • What evidence is there to support that position? Clarification • Can you put that another way? • Can you give me an example? • Can you explain that term? Linking and extending • Is there any connection between what you have just said and what Y said earlier? • How does this idea support/challenge what we explored earlier in the session?
  22. 22. Question strategies Explanation • Why might that be the case? • How would we know that? • Who might be responsible for…? Hypothetical • What might happen if…? What would be the potential benefits of X? Cause and effect • What would happen if we increased/decreased X? Summary and synthesis • What remains unsolved/uncertain? What else do we need to know or do to understand this better/be better prepared?
  23. 23. Formative assessment types Summaries and Reflections • Writing in a journal is one way to assess student understanding. Students: – stop and reflect on the lesson and their work. – take a moment alone to think about what they have learned and how they understand the material before the teacher moves forward with the lesson. – can write about the lesson and also their feelings. • Writing in journals is one way to implement this type of ‘formative assessment’. • Teachers may gain a lot of insight using this method.
  24. 24. Lists, charts, and graphic organisers • Students can graph their progress. Teachers help students organise learned content and display it on a list, chart or graph. • Using these tools, students make connections between concepts and learn how different content may relate. • Students may be asked to list as many concepts as they can remember from the lesson. They might also have the opportunity to graph their level of comprehension on a daily basis and see their progress as time goes by.
  25. 25. Visual representations of information • Using art with a lesson allows understanding and memory. Pairing visual representations with learned information encourages understanding and memory. • When the teacher pairs a picture with a word or phrase, it increases the likelihood of the student remembering the concept later because they have used more than one kind of learning. • An assignment that includes art is one way to use this type of "formative assessment." Art allows individual self expression, which helps the teacher understand each student and his needs.
  26. 26. Collaborative activities • When students divide into groups and work together, they have the opportunity to communicate with others and assess their level of comprehension as it compares to others. • They gain an opportunity to learn from their peers as well as help them. • Assigning a group project, such as class presentations performed by group members, is an example of this type of ‘formative assessment’.
  27. 27. Types of collaboration Envoy Goldfish Carousel Paired tutoring Snow- ball Cascade Students as teachers Pair swapping Allocated roles Jigsaw
  28. 28. Sources of assessment evidence • Oral • Written • Graphic • Product • Performance
  29. 29. Collaboration • Let’s work through these examples. • Which worked best for you? • Why do you think this is?
  30. 30. Assessment of and for Learning Summative assessment: • occurs after the learning • used to prove learning • measures learning • is done to learners • widens the ability range • is externally referenced • is outcome focused Formative assessment: • occurs during the learning • to improve learning • grows learning • is done with learners • narrows the ability range • is personally referenced • is process focused
  31. 31. Session 2 Formative and summative assessment: Teaching and learning contexts.
  32. 32. Teaching and learning contexts:
  33. 33. Thinking point • What do you think are some of the most appropriate activities and learning/teaching methods that will allow both achievement of the set task (summative)as well as group processes (formative)? • On your own, make a list, share with a friend, share as a group.
  34. 34. The role of the teacher There are three main activities that teachers have to manage simultaneously: • managing the class • managing activities • managing the learning. The role of the teacher is that of facilitator of learning: leading discussions, asking open-ended questions, guiding both process and task, and enabling active participation of learners and engagement with ideas.
  35. 35. Diversity in teaching in the classroom Teaching Approaches: • Teachers’ own preferred ways of learning tend to affect the ways in which they teach • A greater awareness of learning preferences in general, and of their own in particular, can help teachers to be more aware of their own personal teaching ‘style’ • Learning more about their own teaching style does not necessarily mean that teachers should be encouraged to change their style • Teachers tend to be most effective when they teach to their own preferred style, but do so in a way that takes account of and respects different learning preferences.
  36. 36. Diversity in teaching in the classroom • An awareness of different learning styles can help teachers to sustain motivation by encouraging and allowing students’ use of preferred styles but also providing support when using alternative approaches. • Effective teaching involves effective organisation and management, but no single style or approach to class organisation is best.
  37. 37. Some of the problems: • the solutions to problems rather than discuss them. • the teacher gives a lecture rather than conducting a dialogue • the teacher talks too much • students cannot be encouraged to talk except with difficulty; they will not talk to each other but will only respond to questions from the tutor • one student dominates or blocks the discussion • the students want to be given answers
  38. 38. Overcoming the problems. • What do you do? • Share your ideas with your group. • Be careful you don’t become one of the problems!
  39. 39. An effective teacher: • is essential to ensuring that small groups work well • is enthusiastic • has organised the session well • has a feeling for the subject • has empathy with the learners • understands how people learn
  40. 40. Effective teachers: • has skills in teaching and managing learning • is alert to context and ‘classroom’ events • is teaching with their preferred teaching style • has a wide range of skills in their teaching repertoire including questioning, listening, reinforcing, reacting, summarising and leadership.
  41. 41. Planning and preparation • Who am I teaching? The number of learners and their study level or stage in training. • What am I teaching? The topic or subject, the type of expected learning (knowledge, skills, behaviours). • How will I teach it? Teaching and learning methods, length of time available, location of teaching session, access to patients, internet resources, clinical skills models, etc. • How will I know if the students understand? Informal and formal assessments, questioning techniques, feedback from learners.
  42. 42. Thinking point Can you answer the above questions for all the groups you teach? If not, how might you find out the answers? • Think • Pair share • Group share
  43. 43. Lesson plan • define your aims and learning outcomes or objectives • think about the structure of the session and timing of activities • decide on the best teaching and learning methods to achieve the learning outcome • list content and key topics, and research more if needed • refine the lesson plan • identify learning resources and support material • finalise any linked assessment or evaluation.
  44. 44. Practical task • How tall is the giant? • How can we find out? • What knowledge/skills did we need? • What processes did we go through? • What have we learnt?
  45. 45. Assessment of learning • aims to find out how much learners know • summative assessments including end of module/ year tests • useful in establishing a rank order of attainment or comparing results from year to year Assessment for learning • considers where learners are with their learning, where they want/ need to get to and how to bridge the gap.
  46. 46. Guided group work What does the phrase ‘guided group work mean to you? Group work – discussion in pairs or small groups • How do you group your students? • How do you use group work in your own classroom? • What is its purpose?
  47. 47. Guided group work • Informed by and creating opportunities for assessment. • Guided group work is based on flexible groupings; • A guided group will be made up of students that you have selected as a result of assessment, however informal; • Guided groups provide opportunities for making use of focused questioning to assess student’s understanding and take forward their learning.
  48. 48. Guided group work • Guided groups provide opportunities for learning more about the effect of teaching. • Group size will vary but needs to be manageable to achieve the purpose and expected outcomes of the session.
  49. 49. Guided Group Work • Diamond ranking card sort • 12 cards to sort • You must reject 3 cards Most important Least important
  50. 50. Guided Group Work • Encourage flexibility in the organisation of the curriculum and the structure of mathematics lessons • Structure teaching and learning over sequences of lessons as well as within lessons • Raise expectations for all students, especially those at greatest risk of underachievement • Make more effective use of assessment to inform and direct teaching and learning • Broaden and strengthen pedagogy to improve the quality of teaching and learning for all students.
  51. 51. Guided Group Work What adjustments would you need to make to your practice in order to know you are doing guided group work?
  52. 52. Guided Group Work • Reflect on some recent teaching and assessment that you have done. • Are there any students that you can immediately think of who have a common area of difficulty that may benefit from a guided group approach? • What would you hope to achieve from working with the group?
  53. 53. Key elements of teaching approaches Pupil perceptions • Students appreciate teachers who value and appreciate them as individuals • Good discipline is important, but students need to understand/recognise the need for it • Students look for consistency of approach from a teacher • Students react positively when the teacher listens and responds to their ideas rather than just assessing or judging - this may involve being prepared to deviate from the lesson plan
  54. 54. Being clear about learning purposes and learning outcomes • Be aware of differences among learners e.g. preferred learning styles. • Teaching styles should accommodate all learning styles by providing opportunities to see the written word, to respond physically etc. • Be aware that students learn at different speeds, some students will require much greater support and/or time in completing tasks. • Develop a sense of when it is appropriate to move on to the next phase of teaching, when to stop and go back over things, when to pause for consolidation, when to accelerate the pace of learning.
  55. 55. Using different interactions to match different purposes and outcomes (informing, describing, explaining, modelling, demonstrating, coaching, listening, watching, questioning) • Allow time for students to be actively involved in their learning, to rehearse new learning, to reflect, to do something with their new learning, to make concrete links between new and prior learning. • Pay particular attention to opening and closing sessions: use established but varying routines. • Pull the class together at the start to motivate, enthuse, clarify, focus.
  56. 56. Let’s do maths! • Work in pairs at your own level • Discuss strategies • Share ideas • What have you found out?
  57. 57. Using different interactions to match different purposes and outcomes • Make specific links between what has gone before and how that fits into the ‘big picture’ - be clear on the overall aims of the study • Allocate some time at the close to ‘pull’ things together, reiterating what has been learned, praising student effort and achievement • Memory maps for note taking. Use colour, bold images and space on the page to enable learners to build up their own unique way of making sense of the material.
  58. 58. Use flexible groupings • Be clear about the appropriateness of group work: the learning outcomes should determine the method of working and will include direct interactive teaching, whole class, group and individual work • Students should be encouraged to work collaboratively and independently.
  59. 59. Working as a group As a group, work through the story activities • What helped the group to succeed? • What didn’t help?
  60. 60. Skilful use of questions • Use a variety of questions • Offering alternative answers gives additional listening input to the learners, gives time for reflection and is useful in developing problem- solving skills • Use open questions • Phrase ideas in straightforward language appropriate to the level of the class • Allow adequate thinking and answering time.
  61. 61. Reflection and discussion • Which of the above approaches do you recognise in your current classroom practice? • Are there any approaches that you would consider adopting to improve your current classroom practice? • What and why?
  62. 62. Preparing students • The teacher needs to be familiar with the prior learning/achievement of students • Students should be clear about their learning needs • They should also be aware of their own most effective learning styles • Work needs to be meaningful and relevant • Students should be able to connect the work in hand with a desired goal • It may involve groups working collaboratively as part of the process and students need the skills for this.
  63. 63. Independent Learning Research suggests that people like to learn as follows: • doing activities they want to do • being actively involved in tasks • getting good feedback • having opportunities to reflect on what has been learned; • working at their own pace • having choice in where and when they work • working in company with others, especially people engaged in a similar process • having a feeling of being in control of the situation.
  64. 64. Nature of independent learning work: • students take more responsibility for their learning • students need to approach work in a questioning manner and be actively involved • the learning process can be as important as the content • the approach will be flexible and will offer students choices.
  65. 65. Reflection and Discussion • What elements of your current teaching devolve responsibility for learning onto the students? • Are there opportunities for you to promote independent learning activities in your classroom?
  66. 66. Summary: SMART Before you can use Assessment for Learning you must be clear: • on what the student is expected to learn • on the steps the student undertakes to be successful in their learning • on the criteria which will be used to judge success
  67. 67. Session 3 Planning to cater for different teaching contexts and learning styles
  68. 68. What are Learning Styles? There are three main aspects of how people study: • perceiving information • processing information • organising and presenting information.
  69. 69. Perceiving information • Visual (sight) • Auditory (hearing) • Reading and • Kinaesthetic (other sensations which includes touch and temperature as well as movement).
  70. 70. Processing information You will have a natural preference for how you: (a) grasp information • do you prefer to deal with abstract concepts and generalisations, or concrete, practical examples? (b) order information • would you rather receive facts in a logical, sequential way (to build up a picture one step at a time), or with an overview straight away (to show the big picture first, then the details)? (c) engage with information • do you prefer active experimentation or reflective observation?
  71. 71. Organising and presenting information You will have a preference for how you: • (a) organise information — with a holistic overview, or with detailed and logical analysis • (b) present information — verbally or using images
  72. 72. How do you learn best?:Activity • Practical activities which will allow only one type of learning style • Discussion. What made it hard for you. What would have made it easier? • Implications for the classroom
  73. 73. Advice for visual learners • Use visual materials such as pictures, charts, and maps • Use colour to highlight texts and own notes • Take notes or use hand outs; look carefully at headings and patterns of topics • Brainstorm using illustrations, mind maps and models • Use multi-media where possible (computers; mind maps) • Study in a quiet place away from visual disturbances • Visualise information as a picture • Skim-read to get an overview before reading in detail.
  74. 74. Advice for auditory learners • Participate frequently in discussions and debates • Make speeches and presentations • Use a tape recorder if possible instead of (or as well as) making notes • Read text aloud • Create musical jingles and mnemonics to aid memory • Discuss your ideas verbally • Dictate to someone else while they write your ideas down • Speak onto an audio-tape and listen to your own ideas played back.
  75. 75. Advice for tactile/kinaesthetic learners • Take frequent study breaks • Move around to learn new things • Stand up to work • Use bright colours to highlight reading material and turn it into posters or models • Skim-read before reading in detail.
  76. 76. Group dynamics - group processes
  77. 77. Forming: • is when a group comes together for the first time. The teacher can help by allowing introductions, using ice-breaking tasks, and explaining the tasks and purpose of the group. Norming: • Is when the group begins to share ideas, thoughts and beliefs, and to develop group rules. The teacher can help by clarifying ideas and ground rules, encouraging the more reticent to participate and moving the group towards its purpose.
  78. 78. Storming: • is when the group is actively trying to carry out a task and there may be conflict between one or more group members as the group sorts itself out and becomes more functional. The teacher can help by clarifying and reflecting ideas, smoothing over and moderating conflicts and acting as a go-between between members. Performing: • is when the group focuses on the activity and starts to work together as a team to perform the set tasks. The teacher’s role is to keep the group focused and to encourage and facilitate as necessary.
  79. 79. Teaching contexts • Whole class • Group work • Individual work
  80. 80. Using different contexts and differentiation • Draw a large square:
  81. 81. Session 4 Target setting and leadership Resources and practical ideas for using them in the classroom
  82. 82. SESSION AIMS • to explore and evaluate different ways of marking and providing feedback • to consider the role of marking and feedback in assessment for learning • to reflect on current practice.
  83. 83. Marking and feedback • What kind of work do you mark? • How do you mark? • Who do you mark for? • Why do you mark? • What do you want to happen as a result of your marking?
  84. 84. Assessment for learning focuses on how learners learn and requires them to know: • where they are in their learning • where they want to be • how to get there.
  85. 85. What has been done well? Target areas to be improved on Ways forward Positive and related to planning learning objectives Realistic Constructive Teacher plans for how they will provide feedback….. Developing feedback Turning learners from ‘passive’ recipients into ‘active’ participants
  86. 86. Feedback is the central theme of formative assessment • Teacher to student • Student to teacher • Student to other students • Oral, written, pictorial etc.
  87. 87. Feedback is the central theme of formative assessment The greatest motivational benefits come from focussing feedback on: • The qualities of the student’s work, and not on comparison with other students • Specific ways in which the student’s work could be improved • Improvements that the student has made compared to his or her earlier work.
  88. 88. What are the advantages of oral feedback? • Immediate - able to deal with misconceptions as they occur • Dynamic and adaptable – allows for exchange of ideas and is adaptable to respective learning needs • On-going – a continuous and familiar part of a lesson. • Episodic – a lesson can be punctuated with plenary moments to structure learning with reference to the objectives
  89. 89. What are the advantages of oral feedback? • Stimulating – oral feedback can encourage, enthuse and stimulate. • Personalised – facial expressions and body language enhance feedback. • Versatile – questioning, modelling and explaining can all be used as means of providing feedback. • Motivating – learners like immediate oral feedback and respond easily as the learning is fresh, and quick improvements build a feeling of success.
  90. 90. Some characteristics of constructive feedback include: • focusing on the learning objectives selectively • confirming that learners are on the right track • stimulating the correction of errors or improvement of a piece of work • supporting learners’ next steps • providing opportunities for learners to think things through for themselves • commenting on progress over a number of attempts • avoiding comparisons with other learners • providing learners with the opportunities to respond
  91. 91. Feedback in marking can include: • annotations • annotations plus a mark or grade • annotations plus a mark or grade plus a comment • annotations plus a comment. Marking/feedback is only useful if: • it is relevant to ‘how to get there’ • the information fed back is actually used by the learner in making improvements.
  92. 92. "If you can both listen to children and accept their answers not as things to just be judged right or wrong but as pieces of information which may reveal what the child is thinking, you will have taken a giant step toward becoming a master teacher, rather than merely a disseminator of information." Easley & Zwoyer, 1975
  93. 93. Assessment for learning • Whole class • Group – peer assessment • Individual- self assessment
  94. 94. Effective peer and self assessment Key requirements in developing these skills: • expected learning outcomes must be explicit and transparent to students • students need to be able to identify when they have met some or all of the success criteria • students need to be taught the skills of collaboration in peer assessment • students need to be able to assess their own progress to become more independent learners.
  95. 95. Key features of self-evaluation • The emphasis is on thinking and articulating, not writing. • Questions are easier to answer: –after a short period of time –if related to the learning intention –if visually displayed –if modelled first by the teacher.
  96. 96. Key features of self-evaluation • Articulation can be by combining ideas, in small groups or pairs. • It cannot be systematic in accounting for each child’s responses: it establishes a constant feature of lessons. • A range of questions displayed as a poster, as a menu for the ends of lessons, broadens the scope for analysis and raising self- esteem.
  97. 97. Self-evaluation: thinking about what happens when we are learning • What did you find easy about learning to …? • What are you most pleased with about learning to …? • What really made you think/did you find difficult while you were learning to …? • What helped you when something got tricky about learning to …? • What do you need more help with about learning to …?
  98. 98. Self-evaluation: thinking about what happens when we are learning • How would you do things differently next time now you know what you know? • What can you do now that you couldn’t do before? • What have you learnt that is new about …? • How do you think we can use what we’ve learnt today and in the future? • How would you change this activity for other students who were learning to …?
  99. 99. Implications for teaching To develop peer and self assessment teachers need to: • train students over time to assess their work and the work of others • plan peer and self assessment opportunities in lessons • explain the learning objectives and intended outcomes behind each task • guide students to identify their next steps • frequently and consistently encourage students’ self-reflection on their learning • plan opportunities and time to allow students to do it
  100. 100. Twenty ideas for formative assessment 1. Let’s compare notes 2. Wait a minute 3. Venn Diagram 4. Thinking diagram 5. Sequencing events 6. Plus – minus – interesting 7. One – sentence summary 8. One last question 9. What I still don’t understand is … 10. How do I know what I know? 11. The Mirror 12. The Microscope 13. Millipede 14. Is that a fact? 15. The exit ticket 16. Say it again! 17. Definitions 18. As I see it 19. 3-2-1 reflection 20. Priority
  101. 101. I can … I know … I understand
  102. 102. Assessing student progress • Assessment is at the heart of an effective curriculum and is a fundamental part of good teaching and learning. • It enables learners to recognise achievement and make progress, and teachers to shape and adapt their teaching to individual needs and aspirations.
  103. 103. Assessing pupil progress: • reduces reliance on specific assessment tasks and tests at key transitions • provides a common language for discussing assessment • recognises evidence from the full range of what pupils know and can do • provides a clear sense of whether pupils are able to use the knowledge, skills and understanding they have developed in different contexts
  104. 104. Assessing pupil progress: • raises pupils’ expectations by clarifying their achievements and next steps in learning • informs teachers’ discussions about learning with pupils and parents/carers.
  105. 105. 4 key principles • the learner is at the heart of assessment • assessment needs to provide a view of the whole learner • assessment is integral to teaching and learning • assessment includes reliable judgements about how learners are doing in relation, where appropriate, to national standards and expectations.
  106. 106. As part of a school development programme, AfL can: • use what teachers know about their pupils to improve their learning • help learners understand their own learning and where to go next • give parents/carers better information about their children’s progress.
  107. 107. Talking points • When do you stand back and reflect on your assessment practice and discuss changes with your colleagues? • How will you secure Assessing Pupil Progress across your school/class and manage the changes you want to see?
  108. 108. Talking points • When Assessing Pupil Progress is working well, what would you expect to see and hear: – from pupils? – in a learning context? – in a curriculum meeting? – in moderation meetings? – in your leadership meetings? – in parent–teacher communications? • How will you evaluate the impact of it in your school
  109. 109. When Assessment for Learning is working well, what would you expect to see and hear: • – from pupils? • – in a learning context? • – in a curriculum meeting? • – in moderation meetings? • – in your leadership meetings? • – in parent–teacher communications? • How will you evaluate the impact of AfL in your school
  110. 110. More talking points • How do you involve pupils actively in their own assessment? • If you are starting to use AfL, how can it help develop your assessment practice to provide pupils with more personalised learning opportunities? • If you have already implemented AfL in a school, what impact on pupil performance have you seen?
  111. 111. What next? Guiding your thinking: • consider what assessment in the future should be like and how you want it to work in your school • plan what you need to do to get your staff, pupils and parents/carers to meet this aspiration.
  112. 112. Moving on whole school AfL • review the aims of your whole school assessment policy, what you want to achieve for the school and your pupils and how you will measure success. • how will you evaluate the impact AfL is having on improvements in the quality of dialogue with parents/carers?
  113. 113. Impacting on pupils’ learning and progress Consider how you will evaluate the impact AfL is having on: • teachers’ curriculum planning and pedagogy • pupils becoming more independent and taking more responsibility for their learning and their progress.
  114. 114. Summary • every child knows how they are doing, and understands what they need to do to improve and how to get there. • every child gets the support they need to be motivated, independent learners on a journey of improvement • every teacher is equipped to make well-founded judgements about pupils’ attainment, understands the concepts and principles of progression. • every teacher know how to use their assessment judgements to forward plan, particularly for pupils who are not fulfilling their potential
  115. 115. Summary • every school has in place structured and systematic assessment systems for making regular, useful, manageable and accurate assessments of pupils, and for tracking their progress • every parent and carer knows how their child is doing, what they need to do to improve, and how they can support the child and their teachers.
  116. 116. Good assessment for learning makes: • an accurate assessment – knowing what the standards are, judging pupils’ work correctly • a fair assessment – knowing the methods used are valid • a reliable assessment – ensuring that judgements are consistent and based on a range of evidence • a useful assessment – identifying barriers to pupil progress and using that information to plan and discuss the next steps in learning.
  117. 117. Good assessment for learning makes: • a focused assessment – identifying areas of a child’s learning where there are blocks to progression, which might, for example, benefit from the attention of one-to-one tuition • for continuity of assessment – enabling better transfer between years and schools.
  118. 118. Reminders • How to keep in touch… • info@cie.org.uk • For more information about future courses please go to the training events calendar at www.cie.org.uk
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