Progressive Movement


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Progressive Movement

  1. 1. The Progressive Movement AP U.S. History
  2. 2. Theodore Roosevelt and reforms <ul><li>Restored presidency as a republican progressive reformer. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1902 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Created a bipartisan coalition of liberal reformers whose objective was to restrain corporate monopoly and promote economic competition. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promise of a “square deal” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enforcement of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act </li></ul><ul><li>Many states created honest and efficient political and economic regulations. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Changes in Government <ul><li>Primary elections </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative and referendum </li></ul><ul><li>Rooting out political bosses </li></ul><ul><li>Elected officials for state and local governments </li></ul><ul><li>Robert LaFollette, Charles Evans Hughes, Woodrow Wilson. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant state reformers </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 1904 Election <ul><li>Roosevelt promised to reform corporate flaws but not interfere with monetary policy or tariffs. </li></ul><ul><li>Democrats nominated Alton B. Parker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endorsed trust busting and more regulatory agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hepburn Act and Elkins Act (1906) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave “teeth” to the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended power over more industries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and transportation of bad food or fraudulent labeled food </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Acts and Policies Cont. <ul><li>Meat Inspection Act (1906) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal inspections in meat packing facilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conservation Laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1902-1908 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create federal irrigation projects, national parks, develop water power, establish National Conservation Commission. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anti-Trust policies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roosevelt ordered Justice department to bring indictments against 25 monopolies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Department of Commerce and Labor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Address concerns of business and labor </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Social and Cultural Developments <ul><li>Progressive Reforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Series of reform causes designed to address specific social, economic, and political problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle-class wanted to correct wrong-doings, moderate reformers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honest government, economic regulation, environmental conservation, labor recognition, new political structures, end to child labor, prison reform, and many more!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some also called for gender and racial equality. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muckrakers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigative journalists and authors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>McClure's, Collier's , Cosmopolitan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Shame of the Cities”-Steffens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ History of the Standard Oil Company”-Tarbell </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Politics of the Period <ul><li>Election of 1908 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>William H. Taft vs. William Jennings Bryan vs. Eugene Debs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taft wanted the continuation of trust-busting policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Taft unsuccessful in healing the rifts in the Republican party. </li></ul><ul><li>Ballinger-Pinchot Dispute (1909-1910) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Progressives backed Pinchot, chief of U.S. Forest Service, in his charge that conservative Secretary of the Interior, Ballinger, was giving away nation's resources to private corporate interests. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Politics Cont. <ul><li>16 th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1909-graduated income tax </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mann-Elins Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended regulatory function of I.C.C. Over cable and wireless companies, and telephone and telegraph lines. Begin own court proceedings, and suspend questionable rates. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Election of 1912 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most dramatic in American History!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progressive Party (Bull Moose) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teddy Roosevelt- “New Nationalism” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Called for Federal Trade Commission </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Wilson and the Progressive Movement <ul><li>1913: reduction of tariff, reform of banks and currency laws, improvements in anti-trust laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act of 1913 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average rates reduced, included graduated income tax </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federal Reserve Act of 1913 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability in banking and currency supply </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthened Sherman Anti-trust Act </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibit unfair trade </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. New Nationalism <ul><li>Progressive Party dissolved after 1912 </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Farm Loan Act of 1916 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farm mortgage loans at reasonable rates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Child Labor Act of 1916 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulated labor force </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adamson Act of 1916 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandated 8 hour work day-railroads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kerr-McGillicuddy Act of 1916 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workmen's comp </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Election of 1916 <ul><li>Wilson: continued progressive reforms and neutrality in European affairs. “He kept us out of war.” </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Evans Hughes-difficult to tackle neutrality issue </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson popularity increased significantly: former progressives and socialists. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Social Issues <ul><li>Segregation in government agencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>W.E.B. DuBois </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>William Trotter-led protest delegation to D.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilson viewed as not sensitive to African American rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National American Woman Suffrage Association </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilson said suffrage should be controlled by states-later changes view and supports 19th. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immigration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilson opposed immigration restrictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vetoed literacy test (1917 overrode by Congress) </li></ul></ul>