Progressive Movement
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  • 1. The Progressive Movement AP U.S. History
  • 2. Theodore Roosevelt and reforms
    • Restored presidency as a republican progressive reformer.
      • 1902
    • Created a bipartisan coalition of liberal reformers whose objective was to restrain corporate monopoly and promote economic competition.
      • Promise of a “square deal”
    • Enforcement of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act
    • Many states created honest and efficient political and economic regulations.
  • 3. Changes in Government
    • Primary elections
    • Initiative and referendum
    • Rooting out political bosses
    • Elected officials for state and local governments
    • Robert LaFollette, Charles Evans Hughes, Woodrow Wilson.
      • Significant state reformers
  • 4. 1904 Election
    • Roosevelt promised to reform corporate flaws but not interfere with monetary policy or tariffs.
    • Democrats nominated Alton B. Parker
      • Endorsed trust busting and more regulatory agencies
    • Hepburn Act and Elkins Act (1906)
      • Gave “teeth” to the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887
      • Extended power over more industries
    • Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
      • Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and transportation of bad food or fraudulent labeled food
  • 5. Acts and Policies Cont.
    • Meat Inspection Act (1906)
      • Federal inspections in meat packing facilities.
    • Conservation Laws
      • 1902-1908
      • Create federal irrigation projects, national parks, develop water power, establish National Conservation Commission.
    • Anti-Trust policies
      • Roosevelt ordered Justice department to bring indictments against 25 monopolies
    • Department of Commerce and Labor
      • Address concerns of business and labor
  • 6. Social and Cultural Developments
    • Progressive Reforms
      • Series of reform causes designed to address specific social, economic, and political problems.
      • Middle-class wanted to correct wrong-doings, moderate reformers.
      • Honest government, economic regulation, environmental conservation, labor recognition, new political structures, end to child labor, prison reform, and many more!!!
      • Some also called for gender and racial equality.
    • Muckrakers
      • Investigative journalists and authors.
        • McClure's, Collier's , Cosmopolitan
        • “ The Shame of the Cities”-Steffens
        • “ History of the Standard Oil Company”-Tarbell
  • 7. Politics of the Period
    • Election of 1908
      • William H. Taft vs. William Jennings Bryan vs. Eugene Debs.
    • Taft wanted the continuation of trust-busting policies.
    • Taft unsuccessful in healing the rifts in the Republican party.
    • Ballinger-Pinchot Dispute (1909-1910)
      • Progressives backed Pinchot, chief of U.S. Forest Service, in his charge that conservative Secretary of the Interior, Ballinger, was giving away nation's resources to private corporate interests.
  • 8. Politics Cont.
    • 16 th Amendment
      • 1909-graduated income tax
    • Mann-Elins Act
      • Extended regulatory function of I.C.C. Over cable and wireless companies, and telephone and telegraph lines. Begin own court proceedings, and suspend questionable rates.
    • Election of 1912
      • Most dramatic in American History!!
      • Progressive Party (Bull Moose)
        • Teddy Roosevelt- “New Nationalism”
        • Called for Federal Trade Commission
  • 9. Wilson and the Progressive Movement
    • 1913: reduction of tariff, reform of banks and currency laws, improvements in anti-trust laws.
    • Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act of 1913
      • Average rates reduced, included graduated income tax
    • Federal Reserve Act of 1913
      • Stability in banking and currency supply
    • Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914
      • Strengthened Sherman Anti-trust Act
    • Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914
      • Prohibit unfair trade
  • 10. New Nationalism
    • Progressive Party dissolved after 1912
    • Federal Farm Loan Act of 1916
      • Farm mortgage loans at reasonable rates
    • Child Labor Act of 1916
      • Regulated labor force
    • Adamson Act of 1916
      • Mandated 8 hour work day-railroads
    • Kerr-McGillicuddy Act of 1916
      • Workmen's comp
  • 11. Election of 1916
    • Wilson: continued progressive reforms and neutrality in European affairs. “He kept us out of war.”
    • Charles Evans Hughes-difficult to tackle neutrality issue
    • Wilson popularity increased significantly: former progressives and socialists.
  • 12. Social Issues
    • Segregation in government agencies
      • W.E.B. DuBois
      • William Trotter-led protest delegation to D.C.
      • Wilson viewed as not sensitive to African American rights
    • National American Woman Suffrage Association
      • Wilson said suffrage should be controlled by states-later changes view and supports 19th.
    • Immigration
      • Wilson opposed immigration restrictions
      • Vetoed literacy test (1917 overrode by Congress)