The Progressive Movement AP U.S. History
Theodore Roosevelt and reforms
- Restored presidency as a republican progressive reformer.
- Created a bipartisan coalition of liberal reformers whose objective was to restrain corporate monopoly and promote economic competition.
- Promise of a “square deal”
- Enforcement of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act
- Many states created honest and efficient political and economic regulations.
Changes in Government
- Initiative and referendum
- Rooting out political bosses
- Elected officials for state and local governments
- Robert LaFollette, Charles Evans Hughes, Woodrow Wilson.
- Significant state reformers
- Roosevelt promised to reform corporate flaws but not interfere with monetary policy or tariffs.
- Democrats nominated Alton B. Parker
- Endorsed trust busting and more regulatory agencies
- Hepburn Act and Elkins Act (1906)
- Gave “teeth” to the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887
- Extended power over more industries
- Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
- Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and transportation of bad food or fraudulent labeled food
Acts and Policies Cont.
- Meat Inspection Act (1906)
- Federal inspections in meat packing facilities.
- Create federal irrigation projects, national parks, develop water power, establish National Conservation Commission.
- Roosevelt ordered Justice department to bring indictments against 25 monopolies
- Department of Commerce and Labor
- Address concerns of business and labor
Social and Cultural Developments
- Series of reform causes designed to address specific social, economic, and political problems.
- Middle-class wanted to correct wrong-doings, moderate reformers.
- Honest government, economic regulation, environmental conservation, labor recognition, new political structures, end to child labor, prison reform, and many more!!!
- Some also called for gender and racial equality.
- Investigative journalists and authors.
- McClure's, Collier's , Cosmopolitan
- “ The Shame of the Cities”-Steffens
- “ History of the Standard Oil Company”-Tarbell
Politics of the Period
- William H. Taft vs. William Jennings Bryan vs. Eugene Debs.
- Taft wanted the continuation of trust-busting policies.
- Taft unsuccessful in healing the rifts in the Republican party.
- Ballinger-Pinchot Dispute (1909-1910)
- Progressives backed Pinchot, chief of U.S. Forest Service, in his charge that conservative Secretary of the Interior, Ballinger, was giving away nation's resources to private corporate interests.
- 1909-graduated income tax
- Extended regulatory function of I.C.C. Over cable and wireless companies, and telephone and telegraph lines. Begin own court proceedings, and suspend questionable rates.
- Most dramatic in American History!!
- Progressive Party (Bull Moose)
- Teddy Roosevelt- “New Nationalism”
- Called for Federal Trade Commission
Wilson and the Progressive Movement
- 1913: reduction of tariff, reform of banks and currency laws, improvements in anti-trust laws.
- Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act of 1913
- Average rates reduced, included graduated income tax
- Federal Reserve Act of 1913
- Stability in banking and currency supply
- Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914
- Strengthened Sherman Anti-trust Act
- Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914
- Progressive Party dissolved after 1912
- Federal Farm Loan Act of 1916
- Farm mortgage loans at reasonable rates
- Mandated 8 hour work day-railroads
- Kerr-McGillicuddy Act of 1916
Election of 1916
- Wilson: continued progressive reforms and neutrality in European affairs. “He kept us out of war.”
- Charles Evans Hughes-difficult to tackle neutrality issue
- Wilson popularity increased significantly: former progressives and socialists.
- Segregation in government agencies
- William Trotter-led protest delegation to D.C.
- Wilson viewed as not sensitive to African American rights
- National American Woman Suffrage Association
- Wilson said suffrage should be controlled by states-later changes view and supports 19th.
- Wilson opposed immigration restrictions
- Vetoed literacy test (1917 overrode by Congress)