CHAPTER 23
Making theWorld Over:The Progressive Era
PROGRESSIVE ERA
 Varied Sources of Progressivism
 Business owners want to avoid problems
 Populism
 Mugwump and civil ...
THE SOCIAL GOSPEL
 Christian Crusaders for Reform
 establish minimum wage
 Shorter work day
 Religious Reformers
 Was...
EARLY EFFORTS AT URBAN REFORM
 The Settlement House Movement
 Residential community centers
 Arrange nurseries for work...
JANE ADDAMS, ELLEN STARR, HULL
HOUSE
WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE INTHE STATES
EARLY EFFORTS AT URBAN REFORM
 State Reforms and Legal Backlash
 U.S. Supreme Court overturned early state attempts to r...
FEATURES OF PROGRESSIVISM
 Democracy
 Direct Primary System
 Every party member allowed to vote for a candidate
 Initi...
ROBERT M. LA FOLLETT
“Robert M. La Follett Radio Address.” 1925, National Photo Company
(Library of Congress) (PD)
La Foll...
FRANCES ELIZABETHWILLARD
Founded the Womens’ Christian
Temperance Union (WCTU)
Lobied for Women’s Suffrage
PROGRESSIVE CAUSES
Child Labor: 10 year old girl
working as a spinner inVermont
in 1910
ROOSEVELT’S PROGRESSIVISM
 Executive Action
 Square Deal for Americans
 Government enforcement powers under existing An...
Coal Miners in Hazelton, PA, c. 1900 (PD)
Rau,William H. Commissioners appointed to arbitrate the 1902 coal strike
(PD).
C...
ROOSEVELT’S DUALITY
FEATURES OF PROGRESSIVISM
 Expanding Federal Power?
 Roosevelt administration initiated 25 anti-trust suits
 Decided by...
Rogers,WilliamAllen. “Lining Up for the Greatest Race in theWorld.” Harper’sWeekly July 2, 1904. (PD)
1904 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION
 Theodore Roosevelt (R) 56.4 % (336 E.C.) vs. Alton B. Parker (D) 37.6% (140)
ROOSEVELT’S SECOND TERM
 Legislative Leadership
 Mandate to pursue more progressive policies
 Railroads, meat packers, ...
FROM ROOSEVELT TO TAFT
 Roosevelt did not run in the 1908 election and backed William Howard Taft
against William Jenning...
FROM ROOSEVELT TO TAFT
 Tariff Reform
 After the election, Taft supported lowering the tariff in opposition to the
Repub...
THE 16TH AMENDMENT
 The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever
source derived, with...
1912 ELECTION
 Roosevelt was choice of progressives in the Republican Party
 Taft was the choice of the conservative est...
1912 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION
William HowardTaft (R) 23.2 % (8 E.C.)
Theodore Roosevelt (P) 27.4% (88 E.C.)
WoodrowWilson (D)...
Kemble, Edward Windsor. “The Motorist.” Harper’sWeekly,
November 25, 1911
Kemble, Edward Windsor. “Hoopla! HereWe Are Again.”
Harper’sWeekly, (January 20, 1912, p. 7)
Kemble, Edward Windsor. “After the Circus,” Harper’sWeekly,
(June 22, 1912, p. 7)
Kemble, Edward Windsor. “The New Rider.” Harper’sWeekly
(July 13, 1912, p. 1)
PROGRESSIVE PARTY CONVENTION
“1912 National Progressive Party Convention “ Library of Congress (PD)
WOODROW WILSON’S PROGRESSIVISM
 Wilsonian Reform
 Power of convictions
 Underwood-Simmons Tariff (1913)
 Reduced the t...
WOODROW WILSON’S PROGRESSIVISM
 The Federal Reserve Act
 Federal Reserve Act
 Spread out the flow of currency by creati...
WOODROW WILSON’S PROGRESSIVISM
 Social Justice
 Wilsonian “social Justice”
 Regulate business and society will adjust t...
WOODROW WILSON’S PROGRESSIVISM
 The Women’s Movement
 Women gained the right to vote in 1920 with the passage of the 19t...
WOODROW WILSON’S PROGRESSIVISM
 Progressive Resurgence
 Following the outbreak of WWI, Wilson supported reform legislati...
His 122 ch 23 progressive era fall 2013
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  • Through the social gospel, Christians and Jews provided the crucial source of energy for progressive reformers. Relying on the teaching of their faith, they worked to promote laws such as establishing a minimum wage and a shorter work day. One principal reformer was Washington Gladden, a Congregationalist minister in Springfield, Massachusetts. He argued that the greatest thing Christianity should emphasize is the teaching to love thy neighbor as thyself. His publications and teachings would make him a leader of the reform movement.
  • To combat the slums and tenement houses, workers such as Jane Addams and Ellen Starr would create residential community centers known as settlement houses. These facilities were mainly staffed by middle-class, college-educated women who had few other outlets for meaningful work. They worked to improve the lives of their dwellers through meeting their practical needs such as arranging for nurseries for working women, kindergartens, and neighborhood programs for children. With the rise of industrialization, women soon became more common in the workplace. By 1910, 7.8 million women worked outside the home. In 1869 Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton would found the National Woman Suffrage Association to secure nationally the right of females to vote. They would not be successful until the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920.
  • Which states first gave women the right to vote? Why did it take fifty-one years, from Wyoming’s grant of full suffrage to women until ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, for women to receive the right to vote? How was suffrage part of a larger women’s reform movement?
  • The state was the first entity to see a need for regulating big businesses and working conditions. Many of these states actions were overturned when the Supreme Court used the Fourteenth Amendment to thwart such efforts. Investigative journalists would find a career reporting on the working conditions that many an American was subjected to as price of their employment. They would be termed Muckrakers.
  • The selection of party candidates had, since Andrew Jackson’s era, been held at a national convention of party members. During the Progressive Era, this system would be supplanted by the direct primary system, in which every party member was allowed to vote for a candidate. Also during this time the initiative and referendum were introduced and in some states were allowed to directly pass laws or force the legislature to consider legislation. In 1911, the concept of “Taylorism” was introduced, which promoted efficiency in the workplace to allow workers to accomplish more during less time.
  • Robert M. La Follette A progressive proponent of expertise in government.
  • Child labor was commonplace A young girl working as a spinner in a cotton mill in Vermont, 1910.
  • In 1902, Roosevelt embraced a “Square Deal” for Americans, in which the regulating of existing anti-trust legislation would be upheld and more powerful enforcement powers would be established. Roosevelt would often support the regulation of trusts over their dissolution, as he viewed this to be more efficient. When coal workers in Pennsylvania and West Virginia went on strike until a 20 percent pay increase was granted, Roosevelt did not follow in Rutherford Hayes and Grover Cleveland’s footsteps. They had immediately sent in troops to restore the mines. Roosevelt attempted to broke a resolution between the two sides until the owners refused to accommodate. Only then did he threaten to take over the mines, which caused the owners to relent.
  • Roosevelt’s duality Theodore Roosevelt as an “apostle of prosperity” (top) and as a Roman tyrant (bottom). Roosevelt’s energy, self-righteousness, and impulsiveness elicited sharp reactions.
  • Altogether, Roosevelt’s administration initiated nearly twenty-five anti-trust suits. Through these cases, the Interstate Commerce Commission, created by the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, was further strengthened and made more relevant.
  • In 1904, the Republicans nominated Roosevelt for his first term as president. He would defeat the Democrat Judge Alton B. Parker by an extremely lopsided victory. Roosevelt would use his mandate as a reason to further pursue his progressive policies. He would attempt to regulate railroads, meat packers, food processors, and drugs and patent medicines. Perhaps Roosevelt’s greatest legacy came in the form of conservation of public lands. Under his administration, Yellowstone National Park was created and the Division of Forestry was established to control the national parks. Special programs to provide for the distribution of water to the arid West were also approved.
  • Roosevelt would step down after his first full term and support William Howard Taft as the Republican candidate in the 1908 election. The Democrats once again nominated William Jennings Bryan. Taft easily defeated Bryan. Once in office, Taft departed from Roosevelt and the Republicans on tariff reform and supported lowering it. Lacking Roosevelt’s political skill, Taft ended up alienating the Republican party and signed a tariff bill that made things worse. Taft’s secretary of the interior, Richard Ballinger, was opposed to Roosevelt’s establishment of national parks. He would open up land for the construction of waterpower sites that had been marked for conservation. At the same time, he opened up land for coal mining companies, who sold some of the land to other developers. Pinchot reported this to Taft, who chose to do nothing. He then went to the press. Taft fired him for insubordination.
  • Roosevelt would step down after his first full term and support William Howard Taft as the Republican candidate in the 1908 election. The Democrats once again nominated William Jennings Bryan. Taft easily defeated Bryan. Once in office, Taft departed from Roosevelt and the Republicans on tariff reform and supported lowering it. Lacking Roosevelt’s political skill, Taft ended up alienating the Republican party and signed a tariff bill that made things worse. Taft’s secretary of the interior, Richard Ballinger, was opposed to Roosevelt’s establishment of national parks. He would open up land for the construction of waterpower sites that had been marked for conservation. At the same time, he opened up land for coal mining companies, who sold some of the land to other developers. Pinchot reported this to Taft, who chose to do nothing. He then went to the press. Taft fired him for insubordination.
  • If Roosevelt had been a strong president because of his personality, Wilson was strong because of his conviction. He would personally court members of Congress to his side to adopt his programs. Wilson’s first test of leadership was the passage of the Underwood-Simmons Tariff in 1913. It reduced duties on most goods and lowered the average duty from about 37 to 29 percent. Also at this time the newly ratified Sixteenth Amendment was placed into effect and a 1 percent tax on income over $3,000 was in place.
  • The first major banking and currency reform since the Civil War, the Federal Reserve Act created a new system of national banks and a central board of directors. This new system spread out the flow of currency and fixed most of the problems in banking. Wilson’s presidential plan was known as the New Freedom. The chief aspect of this plan was trust-busting. In 1914, the Federal Trade Commission was created with strong powers to regulate trusts.
  • Wilson was not a strong believer of social justice, as he believed if business could be regulated and controlled, society would adjust on its own. Wilson showed little concern for the plight of African Americans. He did denounce the Ku Klux Klan for its reign of terror.
  • The privileged elite President Wilson and the First Lady ride in a carriage.
  • Women gained the right to vote in federal elections with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920. Following World War I, and the contribution made by women in the workforce, Wilson would renounce his reservations about the amendment and publicly supported it. Although the number of women in the workforce would climb after the war, they were still principally in traditional occupations, as secretaries, dressmakers, and clerks. Margaret Sanger was a nurse who pushed for the distribution of birth control information to women in the United States to prevent unwanted pregnancies. She would alienate supporters when she began to lobby for the forced sterilization of mentally incompetent people and those with certain hereditary conditions.
  • After World War I broke out in Europe in 1914, Wilson, who desired another term, would return his attention to reform. He promoted labor and farm reforms to shore up these areas. During this time the eight-hour workday for railroad workers was upheld by the Supreme Court and child labor was restricted for those under fourteen. During Wilson’s first administration, progressivism reached its high point.
  • His 122 ch 23 progressive era fall 2013

    1. 1. CHAPTER 23 Making theWorld Over:The Progressive Era
    2. 2. PROGRESSIVE ERA  Varied Sources of Progressivism  Business owners want to avoid problems  Populism  Mugwump and civil service reform
    3. 3. THE SOCIAL GOSPEL  Christian Crusaders for Reform  establish minimum wage  Shorter work day  Religious Reformers  Washington Gladden: love thy neighbor as thyself
    4. 4. EARLY EFFORTS AT URBAN REFORM  The Settlement House Movement  Residential community centers  Arrange nurseries for working women  Kindergartens  Neighborhood programs for children  Jane Addams and Ellen Starr  Middle-class, college educated women  No jobs  Appropriate charity work  Women’s Employment and Activism  By 1910 7.8 million women worked outside home  (mostly poor and immigrant women)  Cult of Domesticity alive and well in middle and upper classes  Suffrage
    5. 5. JANE ADDAMS, ELLEN STARR, HULL HOUSE
    6. 6. WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE INTHE STATES
    7. 7. EARLY EFFORTS AT URBAN REFORM  State Reforms and Legal Backlash  U.S. Supreme Court overturned early state attempts to regulate big business  Muckrakers  Investigative journalism
    8. 8. FEATURES OF PROGRESSIVISM  Democracy  Direct Primary System  Every party member allowed to vote for a candidate  Initiative and Referendum in state laws  Efficiency  1911: Taylorism: Frederick Winslow Taylor  workplace efficiency: scientific management  enable workers to accomplish more in less time
    9. 9. ROBERT M. LA FOLLETT “Robert M. La Follett Radio Address.” 1925, National Photo Company (Library of Congress) (PD) La Follett (R)WisconsinGovernor, U.S. Senator, Presidential Candidate of the Progressive Part (17% of popular vote in (1922). Republican Party must return to anti-slavery roots; Championed minimum wage, workers Compensation, open primaries, direct election of U.S. Senators, women’s suffrage, progressive taxation OpposedU.S. Entry inWWI CalledT.R. “a skunk who ought to be hanged.”
    10. 10. FRANCES ELIZABETHWILLARD Founded the Womens’ Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) Lobied for Women’s Suffrage
    11. 11. PROGRESSIVE CAUSES Child Labor: 10 year old girl working as a spinner inVermont in 1910
    12. 12. ROOSEVELT’S PROGRESSIVISM  Executive Action  Square Deal for Americans  Government enforcement powers under existing Anti-Trust legislation  Efficiency = regulation of trusts rather than dissolution of trusts  The 1902 Coal Strike  Workers sought 20% pay increase  Mine owners closed the mines and sent in scabs  Roosevelt refused to send in troops  Attempted to broker a deal  Owners refused to cooperate  Roosevelt threatened to take over the mines and owners relented
    13. 13. Coal Miners in Hazelton, PA, c. 1900 (PD) Rau,William H. Commissioners appointed to arbitrate the 1902 coal strike (PD). Cartoon in Chicago Chronicle 1902 (PD)
    14. 14. ROOSEVELT’S DUALITY
    15. 15. FEATURES OF PROGRESSIVISM  Expanding Federal Power?  Roosevelt administration initiated 25 anti-trust suits  Decided by U.S. Supreme Court  Interstate Commerce Clause  14th Amendment  Regulation under Sherman Anti-Trust Act  Business interests resented limits on their power to make money  People appreciated limits on worker abuse  Did these reforms make the marketplace more competitive?
    16. 16. Rogers,WilliamAllen. “Lining Up for the Greatest Race in theWorld.” Harper’sWeekly July 2, 1904. (PD)
    17. 17. 1904 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION  Theodore Roosevelt (R) 56.4 % (336 E.C.) vs. Alton B. Parker (D) 37.6% (140)
    18. 18. ROOSEVELT’S SECOND TERM  Legislative Leadership  Mandate to pursue more progressive policies  Railroads, meat packers, food processors, drugs and patent medicines  Environmental Conservation  National Parks,  Division of Forestry,  Water distribution in the West
    19. 19. FROM ROOSEVELT TO TAFT  Roosevelt did not run in the 1908 election and backed William Howard Taft against William Jennings Bryan. Taft won.
    20. 20. FROM ROOSEVELT TO TAFT  Tariff Reform  After the election, Taft supported lowering the tariff in opposition to the Republicans  Taft alienated the Republican Party  Richard Ballinger and Gifford Pinchot  Ballinger opposed establishing National Parks in favor of private industry  Coal mining  Waterpower  Taft did not oppose Ballinger  Pinchot went to the press  Taft fired Pinchot for insubordination
    21. 21. THE 16TH AMENDMENT  The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration  Resolution passed in 1909  IncomeTax supported by Southern and Midwestern States  Tariffs disproportionately affected the poor, interfered with prices and caused unpredictable markets  Opposed by Big Business and states in the industrial North  Republican “insurgents” (Progressives) supported the income tax to fund increasing military expenditures to keep pace with the rapidly expanding militaries in Europe and Japan  1913 two thirds of states had ratified the income tax
    22. 22. 1912 ELECTION  Roosevelt was choice of progressives in the Republican Party  Taft was the choice of the conservative establishment (Stalwarts)  Taft won the nomination and the Republican Party split
    23. 23. 1912 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION William HowardTaft (R) 23.2 % (8 E.C.) Theodore Roosevelt (P) 27.4% (88 E.C.) WoodrowWilson (D) 41.8 % (435 E.C.) http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/showelection.php?year=1912#axzz2fvQUCNPQ
    24. 24. Kemble, Edward Windsor. “The Motorist.” Harper’sWeekly, November 25, 1911
    25. 25. Kemble, Edward Windsor. “Hoopla! HereWe Are Again.” Harper’sWeekly, (January 20, 1912, p. 7)
    26. 26. Kemble, Edward Windsor. “After the Circus,” Harper’sWeekly, (June 22, 1912, p. 7)
    27. 27. Kemble, Edward Windsor. “The New Rider.” Harper’sWeekly (July 13, 1912, p. 1)
    28. 28. PROGRESSIVE PARTY CONVENTION “1912 National Progressive Party Convention “ Library of Congress (PD)
    29. 29. WOODROW WILSON’S PROGRESSIVISM  Wilsonian Reform  Power of convictions  Underwood-Simmons Tariff (1913)  Reduced the tariff on most goods from 37 to 29%  16th Amendment ratified and 1% income taxs on people making over $3,000 per year
    30. 30. WOODROW WILSON’S PROGRESSIVISM  The Federal Reserve Act  Federal Reserve Act  Spread out the flow of currency by creating a system of national banks and a central board of directors  Anti-Trust Laws  “New Freedom”  Federal Trade Commission established in 1914 with strong powers to regulate trusts.
    31. 31. WOODROW WILSON’S PROGRESSIVISM  Social Justice  Wilsonian “social Justice”  Regulate business and society will adjust to reform social problems on its own  Progressivism for Whites Only  History of the American People  Described white, European Americans with empathy  Described African Americans and their children as “unsuitable for citizenship and unable to assimilate positively into American society.  Referred to African Americans as “darkies”  Enforced segregation in Washington DC and his policies regarding segregation resulted in many African American Federal employees being fired  Required all federal applicants to attach a photo to application  Denounced the KKK
    32. 32. WOODROW WILSON’S PROGRESSIVISM  The Women’s Movement  Women gained the right to vote in 1920 with the passage of the 19th Amendment  Wilson renounced his reservations to the Amendment  Margaret Sanger and Birth Control  A nurse who pushed for distribution of birth control information to women  Supported sterilization of mentally incompetent people and those with hereditary conditions  Mental incompetence could include alcoholism  Blindness was considered a hereditary condition  Eugenics: apply survival of the fittest to human biology  sterilizing the less abled so they could not pollute the gene pool
    33. 33. WOODROW WILSON’S PROGRESSIVISM  Progressive Resurgence  Following the outbreak of WWI, Wilson supported reform legislation  8 hour work day for RR workers  Child labor restricted for children under 14

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