Progressives <ul><li>Social Reform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s right to vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minorities </li></ul></ul>
John Dewey (1859-1952). <ul><li>John Dewey </li></ul><ul><li>- important American philosopher and educator , </li></ul><ul><li>- Rejected rote learning </li></ul><ul><li>- “learn by doing” rather than just by reading. </li></ul>
Rural one-room sod school house, Decatur, Kansas. <ul><li>Schoolhouses such as this Decatur, Kansas, rural one-room sod school were replaced by consolidated school districts and graded classes as John Dewey’s educational ideas took hold. 1907 photo by Joseph H. Young. </li></ul>
Carrie Nation (1848-1911), on shipboard. <ul><li>Carrie Nation </li></ul><ul><li>evils of alcohol , one of the worst causes of poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Became famous in 1900 when she attacked saloons with a hatchet </li></ul><ul><li>She was arrested more than 30 times in her prohibition campaign. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Prohibition: </li></ul><ul><li>laws outlawing the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages altogether </li></ul><ul><li>“ Temperance” movement </li></ul><ul><li>18 th Amendment to the US Constitution was passed in 1919, effective 1920 </li></ul>Governor Peter Norbeck (1870-1936) of South Dakota signs his state's "bone dry law," February 21, 1917
Women’s Suffrage <ul><li>The demand for suffrage had been growing steadily since the first women's rights meeting at Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848. Conflict between two rival organizations, the National Woman Suffrage Association and the American Woman Suffrage Association, had ended when they merged to become the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) . Between 1904 and 1915, the NAWSA undertook a highly successful state and local organizational campaign that first sought change in individual state laws, then the adoption of an amendment to the Constitution to win suffrage at the national level. </li></ul>Suffrage: women should have the right to vote
<ul><li>Opponents of suffrage for women also organized nationally. This headquarters of the National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage was in Washington, D.C., 191-. </li></ul>
Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt (1859-1947). <ul><li>Carrie Chapman Catt , a respected educator and long-time suffrage leader, became the president of the NAWSA in 1915 and led it into a new period of growth. Determined to implement her "Winning Plan," she hired lobbyists in Washington, paid women organizers to travel throughout the nation setting up suffrage groups , and introduced new tactics in the struggle such as open-air meetings, widespread distribution of suffrage leaflets , and suffrage parades . </li></ul>
March 3, 1913 suffragists parade, Washington, DC. <ul><li>This parade of suffragists, held the day before the inauguration of Woodrow Wilson, created a national shock when hostile onlookers, unopposed by local police, attacked the marchers . In the ensuing uproar, the vocal and physical attacks on the women brought many who were previously neutral into the cause for women's suffrage. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Alice Paul (1885-1977), the organizer of the March 1913 parade, advocated a more militant approach to the campaign for votes for women than did the NAWSA . </li></ul><ul><li>In 1913 she organized the Congressional Union. </li></ul><ul><li>After the outbreak of WWI, with the cooperation of women workers whose participation in the war effort was increasingly being sought by President Wilson, she organized the Woman's Party. </li></ul>1918 photo
<ul><li>Paul and her followers were arrested, then force-fed in prison when they went on hunger strikes to protest their treatment. Although many of the more moderate supporters of the NAWSA were opposed to such tactics, revulsion against the harsh treatment given them did combine with the lobbying and organizing tactics of Catt and her followers to change Wilson's opinion. In January 1918 he capitulated, and allowed the Democratic leadership in Congress to vote in favor of the 19th Amendment. </li></ul>In 1917, the members of the Women’s Party began 24-hour picketing of the White House , calling on Wilson to support the vote for women, with picket signs that read "Democracy Should Begin at Home."
Representative Jeanette Rankin (1880-1973). 1915 Harris & Ewing photo. <ul><li>Jeanette Rankin, who in 1916 was the first woman to be elected to Congress , introduced the 19th Amendment on the floor of the House of Representatives on January 10, 1918 before galleries packed with watching women. </li></ul><ul><li>The House passed it by 274 to 136, one vote over the necessary two-thirds majority, but Senate passage took another year and a half. </li></ul><ul><li>Submitted to the states in June of 1919, the constitutional amendment granting women the right to vote achieved the required ratification by 36 states in August 1920 with a vote in the Tennessee House, where it passed after intense lobbying by suffragist organizations. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The 19th Amendment goes to the states for ratification on May 19, 1919 , as Speaker of the House of Representatives Frederick H. Gillette (1851-1935) signs the joint resolution proposing to change the constitution to read that " the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on account of sex ." The Amendment became a part of the Constitution when it was ratified by the 36th state, Tennessee, in August 1920 women get the right to vote. </li></ul>
<ul><li>African Americans still lived in rural areas of the South . sharecropper </li></ul><ul><li> disenfranchised by poll taxes and "grandfather clauses," and rigidly segregated by "Jim Crow" laws in schools, hotels, hospitals, and other public facilities. </li></ul>
<ul><li>An African-American couple photographed in their Virginia home in 1900. The newspapers on the walls were pasted there to serve as insulation. </li></ul>
<ul><li>African Americans faced increasing violence, particularly in the South. Lynchings such as this one (in Florida, 1928) were made possible in part because the tensions of economic competition between poor whites and African Americans occurred at a time when the latter had lost the protective power of the vote. Between 1900 and 1914, white mobs murdered more than 1,000 African-American men and women in barbaric executions that became public spectacles. Outraged African-American organizations unsuccessfully appealed to Congress for federal laws against lynching. </li></ul>
Booker T. Washington was the foremost black educator of the late 19th and early 20th centuries . He also had a major influence on southern race relations and was the dominant figure in black public affairs from 1895 until his death in 1915. Washington called for Negroes to give up higher education and politics in order to concentrate on gaining industrial wealth. Though Washington offered little that was innovative in industrial education, which both northern philanthropic foundations and southern leaders were already promoting, he became its chief black exemplar and spokesman. In his advocacy of Tuskegee Institute and its educational method, Washington revealed the political adroitness and accomodationist philosophy that were to characterize his career in the wider arena of race leadership.
<ul><li>He convinced southern white employers and governors that Tuskegee offered an education that would keep blacks "down on the farm" and in the trades. </li></ul><ul><li>To prospective northern donors and particularly the new self- made millionaires such as Rockefeller and Carnegie he promised the inculcation of the Protestant work ethic. </li></ul><ul><li>To blacks living within the limited horizons of the post- Reconstruction South, Washington held out industrial education as the means of escape from the web of sharecropping and debt and the achievement of attainable, goals of self-employment, land-ownership, and small business. </li></ul><ul><li>Washington cultivated local white approval and secured a small state appropriation, but it was northern donations that made Tuskegee Institute by 1900 the best-supported black educational institution in the country . </li></ul>
One of Theodore Roosevelt's first controversial actions as president was to invite African-American leader Booker T. Washington to dine with him privately at the White House in October 1901. This recognition solidified Booker T. Washington's control over the limited political patronage given to African Americans, and raised an outcry among southern Democrats. Roosevelt defended his actions, but did not again openly socialize with Washington or any other African-American leader.
DuBois (1868-1963) had a different prescription for curing the ills of the black community. He believed that only though education could blacks gain status and that Washington's idea promoted black submission to whites. DuBois' wrote many books and essays expressing his beliefs about racial assimilation, cooperation, and the use of education to end prejudice . DuBois openly broke with the stance of Booker T. Washington in 1903 with the publication of The Souls of Black Folk . The Souls of Black Folk was a very popular analysis of the conflicts blacks were subjected to in society. Another great achievement was that of the formation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) which he founded along with a number of other black and white leaders who shared his beliefs in 1909. He served as director of publicity from 1919-1934. He was also a consultant to the United Nations and edited his magazine, Crisis , from 1910 -1932. By 1914, the NAACP had grown to 50 branches with 6,000 members.
<ul><li>African Americans were not the only minority to be ignored by the reformers of the Progressive movement. These rural Mexican-Americans , photographed on the Texas border, lived in poverty much like that of rural African Americans . A series of conflicts between Hispanic and Anglo residents on both sides of the Texas/Mexican border in the late 19th century - the "Cart Wars" and the "Salt War" - had left a legacy of bitterness and racism that exploded against Mexican-Americans just before WWI . Between 1915 and 1917 , vigilante groups lynched about 300 Mexicans in the border area. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The racism that led to the lynchings had another dimension in anti-Semitism . The Leo Frank case illustrated the violence that underlay much of the optimism and change of the Progressive era. Frank, a wealthy Cornell University graduate, was tried and convicted in 1914 for the murder of an employee of the Georgia pencil factory which he managed . When the governor of Georgia became convinced that the evidence against him was inconclusive and changed his death sentence to life imprisonment, a mob dragged Frank from the state prison and hanged him . New evidence in the 1980s conclusively proved Frank's innocence, and he was posthumously pardoned. </li></ul>Leo Frank
<ul><li>African Americans were important originators of new directions in the evolution of American culture in the early 20th century, particularly in music. Willie "Bunk" Johnson (standing, second from left) and his Original Superior Orchestra, a leading jazz band from New Orleans , inspired the young trumpeter Louis Armstrong with his playing in the Storyville "red light" district of New Orleans. The phonograph helped spread the popularity of the faster rhythms of ragtime, and the syncopation of jazz. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Louis Armstrong (1900-1971), shown here on the riverboat S.S. Capital in 1919 with Marable's Capital Revue, helped make the improvizational innovation of jazz a national phenomenon when he moved to Chicago in the 1920s. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Ragtime and jazz were not the only kinds of music to originate in segregated African-American clubs and communities, and then spread to become part of mass entertainment. William Christopher Handy (1893-1958), shown here being recognized for his contributions in the 1940s, brought the rural southern folk music of the "blues" to northern cities, playing at the Chicago World's Columbian Exposition in 1893. He then drifted eventually to Memphis, which he helped make the mecca for the blues. </li></ul>