What is Southeast Asia?• A History of South-East Asia (1955)by D.G.E. Hall• In Search of Southeast Asia (1971)ed. David Joel Steinberg• Early South East Asia: Essays inArchaeology History and HistoricalGeography (1979) ed. R.B. Smith andW. Watson
What is Southeast Asia?• During the WWII, the term was used todesignate the area south of Chinaoccupied by the Japanese. The termgained wide currency during theVietnam War of the 1960s and 1970s.
Geographicalconsiderations• Southeast Asia covers 3 percent of theworld land area and has 8 percent of itspeople. The region situates in themiddle of the two great oriental civilizedzone, the Indian Subcontinent andChina.
Crossroads• Southeast Asia is the centralintersection of the sea routes. Thelands bounded by the Indiansubcontinent on the west, China on thenorth, Australia on the south, and thePacific to the east
WesternTravellers/Administrators• East India Island: (1812)• Further India• British India 19thcentury• Indochina/French Indochina :19thcentury• Asia of the Monsoons prior ww2
SEA as an organizationthe American era• SEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, 1954)Members – Thailand, the Philippines, Britain, NewZealand, Australia, France, Pakistan, United States• ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations,1967)Members – Non-socialist countries; Thailand,Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore and Malaysia(1967), Brunei (1984), Vietnam (1995), Myanmar(1997), Cambodia (1999)
Emergence and Development ofEarly States• The Arakan Mountains/ArakanYoma• The Tenasserim Range• The Annam Range• The Irrawaddy and the Chindwin• The Saween• The Chao Phraya• The Red River and the MekongMainland Southeast Asia
Geographical Setting• Insular Southeast Asia, comprisingMalaysia, Singapore, Brunei,Indonesia, and the Philippines.• The Malay Peninsula’s greaterexposure to the sea and its ethnic,cultural, religious, and geographicalaffinities with Sumatra and Java
In concludeSoutheast Asia is part of the worldtrading system that linked China to themiddle East and Europe, and as acrossroads in this system, experiencedvarious forms of cultural/religiouspenetration from Hinduism, Buddhism,Islam, and Christianity