CAMBODIA We have a more imposing early history andtragic present. Population was assessed at 13.8 million in2003. It’s GDP per capita is US$266.
EARLY HISTORY AND THE EMPIRE OFANGKOR Early Chinese records mention tradewith a society on the lower Mekongwhich they term “Funan”. Indian Hindu society Chinese mention two other earlysocieties: water Chenla and landChenda. The consolidation of Khmer societyknown as Angkor ruled byJayavarman II (802-850).
EARLY HISTORY AND THE EMPIRE OFANGKOR (cont.) Two great kings-Suryavarman IIand Jayavarman VII. 13th century, Theravada Buddhismwon general allegiance. In the 1440s, the Khmer rulingclass abandoned the Angkorregion.
CAMBODIA 15TH -18TH In 1593, the Thai king Narasuenattacked Cambodia as part of hisstrategy to reaffirm the power ofAyudhya. European accounts of Cambodia inthe late 16th and 17th suggest acosmopolitan trading life involvingChinese, Japanese, Malay, Arab,and other traders.
CAMBODIA 15TH -18TH (cont.) But from the mid 17th, Cambodiabecame increasingly isolated fromthe sea, caught in the pincermovement of Thai and Vietnameseexpansionism. 18th ended Thai dominant. The Thai general Taksin and theThai ruler Rama I, imposed theirauthority firmly over Cambodia.
CAMBODIA 15TH -18TH (cont.) Thai-Vietnamese rivalry was stillclimax. 1810s, 1830s, Vietnamese troopsrepelled the Thais. 1834, in the reign of Ang Mei,Vietnamese language, law, costumesand hairstyles insisted upon. Five years of fighting, finally in1845, Ang Duong was crown underthe a agreement of the Thai andVietnamese
COLONIAL ERA, 1863-1940 The Mekong as a mighty traderoute King Norodom signed the treaty ofprotectorate in August 1863 1884, the French forced Norodom Norodom’s death in 1904. In 1921, the population was about2.5 million and the main crop wasrice
COLONIAL ERA, 1863-1940 Small Chinese timber and pepperindustries, rubber plantation usingVietnamese labours. Minor exports included maize,kapok, and dried fish. Two rail ways. The port of Saigondominated this riverine trade. Under the French rule, Chinese andVietnamese entrepreneurs dominatedover trade and money-lending.
CAMBODIA IN WW II Buddhist Institute, Sisovath HighSchool, and NagaraVattanewspaper. The French raised the status andsalaries of Cambodians In March 1945, the Japanese seizedcontrol the government. In April 1945, Sihanouk declaredCambodia independent.
TOWARDS INDEPENDENCE 1945-1953 After the Japanese surrender, the Frenchreturned authority in Cambodia. They opened discussionwithSihanouk forlimited self-government. Elections for the National Assembly,formed political parties. Khmer Issarak: Son GnocThanh’s group,Khmer People’s Revolutionary Partyfounded in 1951. In January 1953, Sihanouk started the“crusade for independence.”
CAMBODIA UNDER SIHANOUK 1953-70 In March 1955, Sihanoukabdicated and established his ownpolitical party,SangkumReastrNiyum, unaligned. Hundreds of dissidents disappearedduring his period. Cambodia was in peace, expansioneducation,
CAMBODIA UNDER SIHANOUK 1953-70(cont.) In 1963, he rejected US aid causedthe national income to reducesignificantly. 1966, Sihanouk handed over thepower. 1967-68, revolt in Samlot. In March 1970, National Assemblywithdrew confidence in Sihanoukas head of state.
CAMBODIA UNDER SIHANOUK 1953-70(cont.) The main force behind wasSihanouk’s cousin and deputyminister SisowathSiriMatak,Sihanouk’s prime minister wentalong the move.
WAR AND REVOLUTION, 1970-1975 Engage in guerilla warfare in thejungles against our enemies. Lon Nol government, backed theUS, proved tragically no skills. US bomb of the countryside toslow down the coming of theKhmer Rouge to Phnom Penh. US Congress ended the bombing ofCambodia.
DEMOCRATIC KAMPUCHEA:KHMER ROUGE 1975-1979 All Cambodian were to become farmersunder the direction of Angkar. Market, private trade, money, religions,books, were abolished. Starting “Year Zero,” “Super Great LeapForward.” Saw many people as enemies Estimated 500,000 Cambodians diedfrom 1970-75, and during the KR wasabout 2 million. Conflict with Vietnam
CAMBODIA, 1993 ELECTION AND THEROYAL GOVERNMENT OF CAMBODIA While the coalition governmentwas formed in September, theAssembly recognized Sihanouk asCambodia’s king in the samemonth.
CAMBODIA IN THE 21 CENTUREY There was a power struggle in 1997,and Sihanouk called forreconciliation and then elections holdin July 1998. CPP won the elections, but not two-thirds majority. Opposition leaders Ranariddh andSam Rainsy dismissed the result.However, Ranariddh agreed to joinwith CPP.
CAMBODIA IN THE 21 CENTUREY General election in July 2003, it tooka year to form a new government ledby Hun Sen. Talking about Khmer Rouge Human rights abuses In 2002, Cambodia hosted ASEANSummit, 2003 joined World TradeOrganization, 2004 Sihamoniannounced to be next king. Foreign aid donors,