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  1. 1. CAMBODIA We have a more imposing early history andtragic present. Population was assessed at 13.8 million in2003. It’s GDP per capita is US$266.
  2. 2. EARLY HISTORY AND THE EMPIRE OFANGKOR Early Chinese records mention tradewith a society on the lower Mekongwhich they term “Funan”. Indian Hindu society Chinese mention two other earlysocieties: water Chenla and landChenda. The consolidation of Khmer societyknown as Angkor ruled byJayavarman II (802-850).
  3. 3. EARLY HISTORY AND THE EMPIRE OFANGKOR (cont.) Two great kings-Suryavarman IIand Jayavarman VII. 13th century, Theravada Buddhismwon general allegiance. In the 1440s, the Khmer rulingclass abandoned the Angkorregion.
  4. 4. CAMBODIA 15TH -18TH In 1593, the Thai king Narasuenattacked Cambodia as part of hisstrategy to reaffirm the power ofAyudhya. European accounts of Cambodia inthe late 16th and 17th suggest acosmopolitan trading life involvingChinese, Japanese, Malay, Arab,and other traders.
  5. 5. CAMBODIA 15TH -18TH (cont.) But from the mid 17th, Cambodiabecame increasingly isolated fromthe sea, caught in the pincermovement of Thai and Vietnameseexpansionism. 18th ended Thai dominant. The Thai general Taksin and theThai ruler Rama I, imposed theirauthority firmly over Cambodia.
  6. 6. CAMBODIA 15TH -18TH (cont.) Thai-Vietnamese rivalry was stillclimax. 1810s, 1830s, Vietnamese troopsrepelled the Thais. 1834, in the reign of Ang Mei,Vietnamese language, law, costumesand hairstyles insisted upon. Five years of fighting, finally in1845, Ang Duong was crown underthe a agreement of the Thai andVietnamese
  7. 7. COLONIAL ERA, 1863-1940 The Mekong as a mighty traderoute King Norodom signed the treaty ofprotectorate in August 1863 1884, the French forced Norodom Norodom’s death in 1904. In 1921, the population was about2.5 million and the main crop wasrice
  8. 8. COLONIAL ERA, 1863-1940 Small Chinese timber and pepperindustries, rubber plantation usingVietnamese labours. Minor exports included maize,kapok, and dried fish. Two rail ways. The port of Saigondominated this riverine trade. Under the French rule, Chinese andVietnamese entrepreneurs dominatedover trade and money-lending.
  9. 9. CAMBODIA IN WW II Buddhist Institute, Sisovath HighSchool, and NagaraVattanewspaper. The French raised the status andsalaries of Cambodians In March 1945, the Japanese seizedcontrol the government. In April 1945, Sihanouk declaredCambodia independent.
  10. 10. TOWARDS INDEPENDENCE 1945-1953 After the Japanese surrender, the Frenchreturned authority in Cambodia. They opened discussionwithSihanouk forlimited self-government. Elections for the National Assembly,formed political parties. Khmer Issarak: Son GnocThanh’s group,Khmer People’s Revolutionary Partyfounded in 1951. In January 1953, Sihanouk started the“crusade for independence.”
  11. 11. CAMBODIA UNDER SIHANOUK 1953-70 In March 1955, Sihanoukabdicated and established his ownpolitical party,SangkumReastrNiyum, unaligned. Hundreds of dissidents disappearedduring his period. Cambodia was in peace, expansioneducation,
  12. 12. CAMBODIA UNDER SIHANOUK 1953-70(cont.) In 1963, he rejected US aid causedthe national income to reducesignificantly. 1966, Sihanouk handed over thepower. 1967-68, revolt in Samlot. In March 1970, National Assemblywithdrew confidence in Sihanoukas head of state.
  13. 13. CAMBODIA UNDER SIHANOUK 1953-70(cont.) The main force behind wasSihanouk’s cousin and deputyminister SisowathSiriMatak,Sihanouk’s prime minister wentalong the move.
  14. 14. WAR AND REVOLUTION, 1970-1975 Engage in guerilla warfare in thejungles against our enemies. Lon Nol government, backed theUS, proved tragically no skills. US bomb of the countryside toslow down the coming of theKhmer Rouge to Phnom Penh. US Congress ended the bombing ofCambodia.
  15. 15. DEMOCRATIC KAMPUCHEA:KHMER ROUGE 1975-1979 All Cambodian were to become farmersunder the direction of Angkar. Market, private trade, money, religions,books, were abolished. Starting “Year Zero,” “Super Great LeapForward.” Saw many people as enemies Estimated 500,000 Cambodians diedfrom 1970-75, and during the KR wasabout 2 million. Conflict with Vietnam
  16. 16. CAMBODIA, 1993 ELECTION AND THEROYAL GOVERNMENT OF CAMBODIA While the coalition governmentwas formed in September, theAssembly recognized Sihanouk asCambodia’s king in the samemonth.
  17. 17. CAMBODIA IN THE 21 CENTUREY There was a power struggle in 1997,and Sihanouk called forreconciliation and then elections holdin July 1998. CPP won the elections, but not two-thirds majority. Opposition leaders Ranariddh andSam Rainsy dismissed the result.However, Ranariddh agreed to joinwith CPP.
  18. 18. CAMBODIA IN THE 21 CENTUREY General election in July 2003, it tooka year to form a new government ledby Hun Sen. Talking about Khmer Rouge Human rights abuses In 2002, Cambodia hosted ASEANSummit, 2003 joined World TradeOrganization, 2004 Sihamoniannounced to be next king. Foreign aid donors,
  19. 19. THANKS