‘Eurocentric’ Dutch in Indonesia Spaniards and Americans in the Philippines The French in Indochina The British in Burma and Malaya Portuguese in East Timor
The creation by the colonial powers of theborders have become the modern states ofSoutheast Asia.
BURMNA The of the frontier zones The rights of British traders (invading Bengal) Different views of how government andbusiness should be conducted led toconfrontation The British in India came to see events inBurma as a test of strength: agriculture andtimber potential. By 1886, the British proclaimed control overBurma
VIETNAM The French saw Vietnam as a springboardfor trade with China and jealous of British French forces invaded Vietnam in the pledgeof protecting Christian missionaries Hue hoped the invaders would advance nofurther In the 1880s, the French extended theircolonial possessions to include all of Vietnam
CAMBODIA Cambodia was under the rulers of Thailandand Vietnam Cambodia became a buffer zone Without the French advance it seems hard tothink of Cambodia being left for long
LAOS Laos was composed of a confusing patternof minor states It came into existence was the result ofcolonial action Laos states appeared an attractive prospectof colonial advance and the French seized itbetween 1885 and 1889.
THAILAND Because of its location, Thailand became abuffer zone Kings and officials: King Mongkut andChulalongkorn Thailand lost its suzerainty over territoriesalong the Mekong River
INDONESIA The Dutch came traders and then it gainedcontrol of major ports The had become sufficiently involved inmanipulating the internal affairs of Java. Late 19th and early 20th, the Dutch slowlyexpanded their control over the IndonesianArchipelago The Dutch established closer control andmore uniform administration.
MALAYSIA The Portuguese capture of Malacca in 16th Then it was replaced by the Dutch as the rulers ofMalacca in late 18th British established settlements in Penang (1786),Singapore (1819), and Malacca (1830s) The three units played roles as bases from whichmerchants and traders, tin miners and laborers, graduallybegan to transform the economic structure of thePeninsula Finally, the British could build a political paramountcy toensure direct control. Brunei became a British protectorate in 1888
EAST TIMOR In the 1560s, the Portuguese establishedtheir first settlements near East Timor, andthen, mid 17th, moved in settle in the area. Then the settlement became a neglectedpart of Portugal’s oversea empire. After the coming of the Dutch, there weretreaties signed to preserve its existence.
THE PHILIPPINES The Spanish established their colonialheadquarters in Manila in 1571 In the mid 18th, the Spaniards came tocontrol the lowland areas The Spanish rule brought Catholicism intonorthern islands, in which it created a newframework for society Their colonial subjects began the revoltagainst Spanish rule in the 19th