SingaporePresented by: Lim OunSakhan PhallenDin KuntheaLy VenghongChhorng KanikaInstitute of Foreign LanguagesDepartment of International Studies
Contents• History of Political Events in Singapore• Singapore Political Culture• Political Parties• The Constitution• Election in Singapore• Is Singapore a Democratic Country?• Conclusion• Q & A
History of Political Events• A Republic with a parliamentary system ofgovernment• First and limited election was in 1948• 1955 election was the most lively political contest• Attain the self-government in 1959• September 16, 1963 Singapore joined Malaya,Sabah (North Berneo) and Sarawak in theFederation of Malaysia
History of Political Events9th August1965 1966 1981 28thNovember,199024thAugust, 2004PresentWorker’s Party ofSingapore’s J.B.Jeyaretnam was electedinto parliamentGoh Cheok TongLee Hsien LoongBarisan Socialis Party(Social Front) resignedPeople’s Action Party (APA)
Singapore’s Political CultureSingaporean believe in PragmatismNational Security and Democratization depends onEconomicConfucian plays a vital role in guiding the gov’t;while loyalty regarded as the country value.Singapore takes pride in its so-called “OrientalDemocracy”. Chinese covered by around 76% ofthe whole population. (the combination ofdemocracy & authoritarianism)
Singapore’s Political Culture Con.tThe Singaporean Spirit is nurtured througheducation authority & disciplineThe ruling government must devoid of corruptionSingapore is a centralized, authoritarian, andstatist.They valued activism and will, and tried to devisepolicies, programs, or campaigns to deal with allproblems.
Political Parties• Singapore consists of 46 parties• Only 12/46 are active to date: Democratic Progressive Party, National SolidarityParty, People’s Action Party, People’s Active Party, People’s Liberal DemocraticParty, Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Singapura, Reform Party, SingaporePeople’s Party, Singapore National Front, and Worker’s Party.• PAP (People’s Action Party), established on November 21st 1954.• PAP Socialist Lee Kuan Yew• PAP’s ideology as a pledge saying “ to build a strong, united Party, to createvibrant, just and equal society, through achieving excellence by all, so thatevery citizen, regardless of race, language or religion, can enjoy a full andhappy life”.• PAP rules over all media in Singapore easy to launch its campaign
Political Parties (cont.)• WP (Worker’s Party) established in 1957• WP’s ideology: “to provide economic security andstability, brighter education for youngergeneration, and other aspects that are the same toPAP”.• WP Political parties exist to serve you!• WP’s main objective:• “To organize and maintain a political party to giveeffect to the three-fold principle ofMerdeka, Democracy (Parliamentary) and Socialism”.
The Constitution• 09 August, 1965• 14 Parts:• Three Branches• Citizenship• Fundamental Rights and Freedom• Public Services, etc.
President Executive Parliament JudiciaryGeneral ElectionEffective PowerGeneral ElectionChief of Justice:Appointed byPresident + Advice ofPMAppoint PM/(Members of Cabinetwith Advice of PM) Law MakingGiven assent by thePresidentWithhold the consentto a request fordissolution of theParliamentVeto power but mustconsult with CPA torefuse or revokegov’t budget and keyappointments topublic officesAccountable to theParliamentCritical andInquisition Role:Raise questions forMinisters’responsibilitiesJudges of Appeal +Judges of HighCourt:Appointed byPresident + (PM +Consult with Chief ofJustice)Other affairs, consultwith the cabinetFinancial Control:Ministers’responsibilitiesJudges ofSubordinate Courts:Appointed byPresident + Advice ofChief of Justice
Election in SingaporeType of Constituencies- Group Representation- Single Member
Election in Singapore• Voters• Not less than 21-year-old• Citizens of Singapore• Resident in Singapore• Presidential Election• Vote directly by citizens - 1991• Cooling-Off Day
Election in Singapore Cont.• Parliamentary Election• General Election• By-Election• Members of Parliamentary• Elected MPs (15 GRCs & 12 SMCs = 87 MPs)• Non-Constituencies MPs (9 MPs)• Nominated MPs (9 MPs)
Is Singapore a DemocraticCountry?• Robert Dahl’s 6 characteristics of democracy:1. Elected officials => Yes2. Free, fair, and frequent elections => No3. Freedom of expression => No4. Alternative sources of information => No5. Associational autonomy => No6. Inclusive citizenship => Yes
Is Singapore a DemocraticCountry? (cont.)• Polity score: -2, closed anocracy
Conclusion• The political system has not evolved much.• PAP is the strongest party.• General election in Singapore is unfair.• Singapore is not a democratic country.