Emperor GuangxuI. The Last Yearsof the LastDynasty
The New Reformers It came from a navalstudent called Yan Fu: “…from thousands milesaway…barbarians floatedin and pounded our gatesrequesting forentrance…they didn’t getwhat they asked for, theyattacked....”
New Reformers Yang argued that Western learning was needed torelease Chinese energies, and rejected much ofChinese including even Confucius. Kang Yuwei (1858-1927) and his followers sought totransformed the government into a modern andmodernizing constitutional monarchy along the lineof Meiji Japan. Emperor Guangxu asserted his authority by issuing aflood of edicts aimed at reforming the examinationsystem, remodeling the bureaucracy, and promotingmodernization.
The Empress Dowager The coup sent China’s mostadvanced thinkers intoexile. She approved moderatereform, but the centralgovernment was weakfacing problems came fromthe West.
The Scramble for Concessions Germany leased territory in Shandong Russia leased Port Arthur in the southern Liaodong France held leases on land around Guangzhou Bay Britain obtained Weihaiwei and Hong Kong Finally, China made the decision by not ceding a givenarea to any power other than signatory: The Yangzi Valley to Britain The provinces bordering French Indochina to France Fujian to Japan and Russia received special rights inManchuria
The Boxer Rising Popular anxieties were fueled by anti-foreignism, floodand famine in Shandong, combined with the advance ofthe Germans, led to the first Boxer rising in May 1898. Later they were given support by high Qing officials toprepare to fight against the foreign powers. In June 13 1900, they entered Beijing and 8 days later thecourt declared war on all the treaty powers. They were officially placed under the command ofimperial princes. The Boxers and the Chinese troops were undisciplined,poorly-organized, and uncoordinated.
The Winds of Change Foreigners controlled much of China’s mining and shipping, andwere a major factor in manufacturing both export anddomestic market. They were an important part of China’s economicmodernization. Groups of modern or semi-modern entrepreneurs, tradesmen,financiers, industrial leaders… emerged. 170 presses supplying 2 to 4 million readers: depravity novels,science fantasy novels.. On provincial affairs was exercised by a semi-modern urbanelite composed by merchants and bankers, and military andprofessional men trained in modern methods.
Stirrings of Protest and Revolution The first anti-footbinding movement in 1894, whichresulted in a law banning the practice in 1902. Expressions of public opinion, protests at Russia’srefusal to leave Manchuria, a boycott against the US,and a boycott against Japan as well as movement toregain railway rights.
Sun Yat-Sen1866-1925 Three principles:“nationalism, democracy,and the people’slivelihood” He called for overthrow thedynasty and the establishmentof a republic.
Eleventh-Hour Reform By 1911 even remote provinces boasted new schools, teachingnew subjects and ideas. Students also studied abroad in record number who enjoyednew personal and intellectual liberty. They learned about Western history, law, science, and logic. Manchu political reform included restructuring the governmentalong modern lines, developing a constitution, and creating amodern military with Yuan Shikai. The Empress Dowager and Emperor Guangxu both died inNovember 1908.
The Revolution of 1911 Provincial and merchant elites who created their own railwaycompanies. The Qing government, however, also wanted to nationalize themajor railways lines by doing foreign loaning. The loans and the disbanding of provincial companies caused afuror. The nationalists were indignant over the foreign loans. Revolt broke out carried by men led by Sun Yet-Sen The revolutionaries had formed a government at Nanjing withSen as provisional president
The Revolution of 1911 A compromising between Yuan Shikai and therevolutionaries toke place, and an agreement wasreached. The Manchu child-emperor formally abdicated onFeb.2, 1912, bringing an end not only to a dynasty butalso to a political system whose foundation hadbeen laid in 221 B.C.E. China became a republic.
Yuan Shikai Sun Yat-Sen stepped aside and Yuan accepted the presidency of arepublic with a two-chambered legislature. Elections were held in Feb. 1913 with about 5% of China’s populationentitled to vote. Yuan stayed in power by depending on military authority. During WWI, Japan presented in China with Twenty-One Demands: Recognition of Japanese rights in Shandong Extension its rights in Mongolia and Manchuria Sino-Japanese joint operation of China’s largest iron and steelcompanies China not ceding or leasing any coastal area to any power other thanJapan Provisions that would have obliged the Chinese government toemploy Japanese political, financial, and military advisors…..
Yuan Shikai Yuan was forced to accept Japan’s seizure of Germany’sholdings in Shandong, grant Japan new rights in southernManchuria and Inner Mongolia, and acknowledge itsspecial interest in China’s largest iron and steel works. The domestic result was a wave of anti-Japanesenationalist outrage, which expressed itself in protests andboycotts. Yuan wanted to reinstating the emperorship, but he didnothing to tap or mobilize mass to support him. Heproclaimed the new regime, but the new dynasty wasoverwhelming in March 1916 and he abandoned hisimperial ambition and died in the same year.
Warlord Era In 1917 there was even a two-week restoration of theQing. In the same year, China was under the premier andwarlord DuangQirui. Although a national government ruled in Beijing, actualpower lay in the hands of regional strongmen (warlord). After WWI ended, foreigners continued to enjoyextraterritoriality wherever they went. Economically, the modern sector expanded during theglobal postwar boom so that 1917 through 1923 had beencalled “the golden age of Chinese capitalism.”
Intellectual Ferment The abolition of the examinations and the collapse of the Qingopened the floodgates to new ideas. The major landmark was the founding in 1915 of New Youth,the journal that came to stand at the core of new intellectualtide. Confucianism was something about old state and society, the oldclass system, the old politics,… Opposed both traditional teachings and the language Some of these new intellectuals taught at Beijing University,so their ideas found a ready following among students at thisand other universities. Demonstrations May Fourth Movement: attacked every aspects of Chinesetradition, new journals appeared, organized labor unions.
Intellectual Alternatives Proponents of scientism who believe that scienceholds for arriving at truth. Their opponents argued that science is applicableonly to a narrow field of study and that moral valueshave to be based on deeper metaphysicaltruths, which by their very nature are beyond thereach of scientific methodology.
Culture Alternatives Some painters like GaoLunwere trying to bringChinese painting up todate. Some others got educationabroad and brought newstyles of painting
Culture Alternatives A steady and swelling stream of translation weremade. The May Fourth Movement had a strong effect onliterature. Writers of revolutionary persuasion such as theCommunist Mao Dun.
Marxism in China: the Early Year Marxism created by Marx and Engel The success of the Russian Revolution in 1917 For the Chinese Marxism was modern, scientific andadvanced ideas. Some Chinese scholars, Marxism is a more effectivemeans to achieve modernization, solve China’s ill. CCP took place in 1921 by cooperating with Guomindang
The Guomindang and Sun Yat-Sen(1913-1923) After the second revolution of 1913 Sun Yat-Sen wasforced into exile in Japan. After the death of Yuan Shikai, Sun was able to returnto China and establish a precarious foothold in Canton,depending on the local warlord. He was ready to work with the Communists, but in hisview China was not ready for socialism and immediatetask was the national unity and independence. The GMD was recognized into a more structure anddisciplined organization
GMD and CCP Cooperation (1923-1927) CCP leaders occupied important GMD office The CCP devoted itself mainly to organizing theurban labor movement Sun Yat-Sen died in March 1925 Nationalism: directed against foreign imperialism,provided self-determination Democracy: popular elections, referendum The people’s livelihood: egalitarianism (equality) andeconomic development.
GMD and CCP Cooperation (1923-1927) Wang Jingwei replaced him Chian Kai-shek decided to act: arrested Sovietadvisors, took steps to restrain the CCP influence inGMD, and launched Northern Expedition.
The Break Bankers and industrialists supportedChiang Kai-shek to move away from CCP. In April 1927, Chiang broke with the CCPin a bloody campaign. CCP got support from city factoryworkers and peasants in ruralareas, where Mao Zedong (1893-1976)lived. Chiang Kai-shek established thegovernment in Nanjing, by depending onwarlords