Aluminum –              The Safety Advantage                    The Aluminum Association, Inc.                    Aluminum...
The Automotive Challenge Global transportation goals:   – Improve transportation safety   – Reduce fuel consumption   – Re...
Downweighting Advances  Transportation GoalsWeight Reduction with Aluminum• Improved safety    – Avoid downsizing    – Inc...
Why Reduce Vehicle Weight?                         4
Weight Reduction           Improves Fuel Economy                       Fuel Economy Improvement / 15% Weight Reduction    ...
Aluminum Weight Reduction                                                      Opportunities:                             ...
Weight Reduction Studies• Aluminum sponsored Auto Body Studies   – IBIS and Aachen     • 40-45% Body weight reduction     ...
Weight Savings Translate to Fuel         Economy Improvement                       Mass of Body-in-White                  ...
Downweighting -                                                                           Cost Competitive                ...
Aluminum Body Reduces             EV Cost by $775• 10% Mass Reduction: 9% reduction in battery size• Low Mass Aluminum Str...
Aluminum     andVehicle Safety
DRI Study –Vehicle Configurations3,500 virtual collisions with SUV    • 595 single vehicle crashes       175 rollovers    ...
Safety Improvement  with Downweighting                                                             ELU ScenariosStudy Conc...
STIFFNESS RELEVANCE AND            STRENGTH RELEVANCE IN CRASH            OF CAR BODY COMPONENTS            Public version...
Lightweight Potential of Aluminum                 vs. High-Strength Steel        • Objective               – Determine max...
26 Components for Quantitative         Evaluation                                                      25                 ...
Stiffness Load Cases (NVH)                                                                                  Bottom        ...
Strength Load Cases (Safety)                         Evaluated Using European and U.S. Crash Standards                    ...
BIW Lightweighting Potential                        Total maximum weight reduction compared to reference car:            S...
Weight Reduction Can Be SafeKey Findings:     For most components strength not the limiting factor for conversion to      ...
Automotive Aluminum           Weight Reduction Facts•   Weight reduction critical to achieving 2025 objectives          Sa...
Mass  Reduction                                 Better Fuel                                            Economy            ...
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2011 june nhtsa_esv_pres

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2011 june nhtsa_esv_pres

  1. 1. Aluminum – The Safety Advantage The Aluminum Association, Inc. Aluminum Transportation Group ESV (Washington), June 2011Doug Richman (Kaiser) doug.richman@kaiseral.com www.aluminumintransportation.org 1
  2. 2. The Automotive Challenge Global transportation goals: – Improve transportation safety – Reduce fuel consumption – Reduce CO2 emissions – Affordability 2
  3. 3. Downweighting Advances Transportation GoalsWeight Reduction with Aluminum• Improved safety – Avoid downsizing – Increase crush space without increasing weight – Reduced kinetic energy• Improved fuel economy – 10% “achievable”• Cost-effective (with inclusion of secondary weight savings)• Reduced life-cycle CO2 Emissions – 20% achievable 3
  4. 4. Why Reduce Vehicle Weight? 4
  5. 5. Weight Reduction Improves Fuel Economy Fuel Economy Improvement / 15% Weight Reduction (EPA Combined Drive Cycle) Passenger Vehicle Truck Downsized Downsized Base Engine Base Engine Engine Engine Gasoline 5.0 % 10.0 % 5.3 % 7.1 % Diesel 5.9 % 9.5% 5.4 % 7.0 % PEV 9.5 % * N.A. 8.6 % * N.A. PHEV 9.5 % * N.A. 8.6 % * N.A. * Miles/KWHSource: Ricardo Consulting Engineers, study for the Aluminum Association
  6. 6. Aluminum Weight Reduction Opportunities: Aluminum Penetration Aluminum Opportunity 2500 High AL penetration today Transmissions 2000 Heads HVAC Wheels(000 Metric Tons Aluminum) 1500 Blocks 1000 69% Practical AL Growth 69% Closures 500 99+% Body-in-white (BIW) 22% 20% 100% 11% Chassis Structures 0 Body Blocks Wheels Transmission Heads Closures Chassis HEX Bumpers Wiring Bumpers Structure Note: 1 Lb. of Aluminum replaces approx. 2 Lb. Iron or Steel 6
  7. 7. Weight Reduction Studies• Aluminum sponsored Auto Body Studies – IBIS and Aachen • 40-45% Body weight reduction – 15% total vehicle (550 Lbs w/secondary) – 10% fuel economy improvement • No size reduction Research Study Weight Reduction (BIW and Closures) IBIS (2008) 45% Aachen (2010) 40% Lotus (2010) 42% 7
  8. 8. Weight Savings Translate to Fuel Economy Improvement Mass of Body-in-White Fuel Economy Improvement 400 3 350 2.7 MPG 2.5 Improvement 300 Miles per GallonKilograms 250 2 200 0.8 MPG per 1.5 100 lbs. 150 1 100 0.5 50 0 0 Steel (baseline) High Strength Aluminum Steel (baseline- High Strength Aluminum Steel Intensive Intensive 30 mpg) Steel Intensive Intensive Source: ika - University of Aachen and the European Aluminium Source: Aluminum Association calculated based on ika mass Association (EAA) reduction data; assumes 23% secondary weight savings, 27.5 MPG base vehicle 2010 8
  9. 9. Downweighting - Cost Competitive 12.0% 10%Fuel Economy Improvement (%) 10.0% Mass+Secondary 8.0% 6.0% Better Cylinder Deact on SOHC Mass Reduction Aero Drag Dred. Turbo 4.0% VVT-ICP Improved Auto Trans Engine Friction Reduction EGR Boost Combustion Restart Cylinder Deact. On OHV Electric Power Steering Belt Mounted BMISG VVT - CCP on OHV 2.0% DVVL on DOHC Low Drag Brakes 6/7/8 speed Auto Trans Electric Power Steering Engine Friction Reduction $150 0.0% $- $100.00 $200.00 $300.00 $400.00 $500.00 $600.00 $700.00 Cost ($)Source: EPA/NHTSA Joint Technical Support Document – Final Rulemaking; Mass + Secondary – Alum. Association/IBIS 9
  10. 10. Aluminum Body Reduces EV Cost by $775• 10% Mass Reduction: 9% reduction in battery size• Low Mass Aluminum Structure Achieves: – Weight reduction potential: 147 Kg (19%) • Reduce battery cost: $ 900 – $ 1,950 (@ $750/KWh) • Expected aluminum structure cost premium: $ 630 • Net cost savings = $775 – Reduced energy consumption: 1.3 KWh / 100 Mi per 100 Kg 10
  11. 11. Aluminum andVehicle Safety
  12. 12. DRI Study –Vehicle Configurations3,500 virtual collisions with SUV • 595 single vehicle crashes 175 rollovers 420 hit fixed object • 2,905 two vehicle crashes: 1,750 hit “Accord” 1,155 hit other “Explorer” Conducted by Dynamic Research, Inc (DRI) and The Aluminum Association, Inc.
  13. 13. Safety Improvement with Downweighting ELU ScenariosStudy Conclusions: 100 27% 85.9 28% Engineering – 80 63.0 61.8 Lighter, slightly larger 60 Other Car ELU vehicle is safer Driver 40 Size (not weight) – 20 better predictor of safety 0 Baseline Added Length Reduced Weight Constant Weight Constant Length Adding crush space without adding weight improves safety 27% Conducted by Dynamic Research, Inc (DRI) and The Aluminum Association, Inc. 13
  14. 14. STIFFNESS RELEVANCE AND STRENGTH RELEVANCE IN CRASH OF CAR BODY COMPONENTS Public version of official report 83440 by ika May 2010Source: ika - University of Aachen and the European Aluminium Association (EAA) 14
  15. 15. Lightweight Potential of Aluminum vs. High-Strength Steel • Objective – Determine maximum weight saving potential of steel and aluminum in automotive • No Safety compromise • No NVH compromise 15ource: ika - University of Aachen and the European Aluminium Association (EAA)
  16. 16. 26 Components for Quantitative Evaluation 25 21 20 3 2 1 26 22 23 24 19 4 1 Sidewall 10 Firewall 19 Crossmember Rear 2 Roof Crossmember 11 A-Pillar 20 Crossmember Floor 3 Roofrail 12 Roof 21 Sill 5 18 4 IP Crossmember 13 Rearwall 22 Tunnel 5 Cowl 14 Strut Tower Rear 23 Door Panels (outer + inner) 6 6 Strut Tower Front 15 Floor 24 Door Frame 17 7 Longitudinal Upper 16 Longitudinal Rear 25 Door Crash Management 8 Longitudinal Front 17 C-Pillar 26 Door Hinge Reinforcement 7 16 9 Crash Management System 18 B-Pillar 14 8 11 12 9 10 13 15Source: ika - University of Aachen and the European Aluminium Association (EAA) 16
  17. 17. Stiffness Load Cases (NVH) Bottom Static Torsional Stiffness Torsional stiffness from deflection of M=6800 Nm DOF DOF evaluation 2&3=0 1;3 = 0 point on front longitudinal Rocker for DOF DOF torque 1;2;3 = 0 2&3=0 application DOF Bottom Static Bending Stiffness 4=0 Bending stiffness from maximum deflection of bending DOF DOF 1;3 = 0 3=0 Ftotal= 940 kg•g =9221 N DOF DOF DOF 4=0 1;2;3 = 0 4 = 0 DOF DOF 3=0 Load/force application 4=0 Deflection measured Deflection measuredSource: ika - University of Aachen and Deflection measured European Aluminium Association (EAA) 17
  18. 18. Strength Load Cases (Safety) Evaluated Using European and U.S. Crash Standards Euro NCAP Side Crash • Velocity 50 km/hr • EEVC moving deformable barrier FMVSS 301 Rear Crash • Velocity 48 km/h • Rigid moving barrier • 0% offset Euro NCAP Front Crash • Velocity 64 km/h • EEVC deformable barrier • 40% offset Acceleration Evaluation Point Intrusion Evaluation PointSource: ika - University of Aachen and 18 European Aluminium Association (EAA)
  19. 19. BIW Lightweighting Potential Total maximum weight reduction compared to reference car: Steel (with YS up to 1,200 MPa): 11% Aluminum (with YS up to 400 MPa): 40% Steel Steel Aluminium Aluminum ComponentsSource: ika - University of Aachen and 19 European Aluminium Association (EAA)
  20. 20. Weight Reduction Can Be SafeKey Findings: For most components strength not the limiting factor for conversion to aluminum Significant weight reduction achievable without compromise on safety Weight reduction potential (BIW and closures) • High-strength steel (with YS up to 1,200 MPa) = ~11% • Aluminum (with YS up to 400 MPa) = ~40% Full study available at EAA website: http://www.eaa.net/en/applications/automotive/studies/Source: ika - University of Aachen and 20 European Aluminium Association (EAA)
  21. 21. Automotive Aluminum Weight Reduction Facts• Weight reduction critical to achieving 2025 objectives Safety Fuel economy Emissions• Proven aluminum components can achieve: – 15% weight reduction (total vehicle) – 10% MPG improvement ( MPG)• Weight reduction additive to other fuel economy improvements – Including: Diesel, Hybrid, Electric, Aero, Tires, etc.• Weight Reduction enhances fleet safety• Weight reduction with aluminum cost competitive with other fuel economy technologies 21
  22. 22. Mass Reduction Better Fuel Economy Infinitely Reduced Recyclable Emissions EnhancedPerformance Improved Safety Aluminum Builds a Better Vehicle 22

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