The Call to Action “There is no future for the automotive industry without the promotion of environmental technology. Toyota is convinced that only companies that succeed in this area will be acceptable to society.” Fujio Cho Chairman, Toyota Motor Corporation
The Reality “The new social priorities of the emerging era will call for radically new approaches to vehicles. Automakers have to address the issue of co-existence with society, particularly in relation to environmental preservation and safety…” Hiroshi Okuda Chairman Toyota Motor Corp., Japan, 2004
Environmental Commitment Toyota is a world leader in producing advanced technology vehicles that are environmentally friendly. Toyota vehicles are consistently among the winners of EnerGuide’s most fuel efficient vehicle in class awards. Landfill Diversion & Recycling Reduced landfill waste by 85% at TCI headquarters Recycle 95% of packaging and parts at vehicle processing and parts distribution centres Environmental and Community Partnerships Toyota Earth Day Scholarship Toyota Evergreen Learning Grounds
A significant and growing percentage of customersindicate a willingness to buy an environmentallyfriendly vehicle If, and only if, all other attributes are EQUAL or Better
Technology Design Objectives Significant fuel economy improvement. Major reduction in exhaust emissions. No new infrastructure needs (e.g. fuelling stations). No perceived difference by customer in vehicle performance, handling, etc. A competitive price to encourage adoption.
What is a Hybrid Vehicle? What is a Hybrid System? Fusion between an internal combustion engine and electric motor—achieving different functions through different power combinations. Automobile hybrid systems combine two motive power sources, such as an internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
Components in HSD Nickel-metal battery – 50 kW, 273.6 Volts, 6.5 A·h capacity and weighing 53.3 kg IC Engine – 1.8L, 4 Cylinder, Petrol Engine Power Split and Control Device Planetary Gears AC/DC Inverter Motor Generator I Motor Generator II
1959- Henney Kilowatt was the first transistor-based electric car1990s- automotive hybrid technology became successful when the Honda Insight & Toyota Prius became available2000s- saw development of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles
Types of HSD SERIES HYBRID SYSTEM The engine drives a generator, and an electric motor uses this generated electricity to drive the wheels. This is called a series hybrid system because the power flows to the wheels in series, i.e., the engine power and the motor power are in series.
PARALLEL HYBRID SYSTEM In a parallel hybrid system, both the engine and the electric motor drive the wheels, and the drive power from these two sources can be utilized according to the prevailing conditions.
SERIES-PARALLEL HYBRID SYSTEM This system combines the series hybrid system with the parallel hybrid system in order to maximize the benefits of both systems.
Characteristics of Hybrid Systems ENERGY-LOSS REDUCTION The system automatically stops the idling of the engine (idling stop), thus reducing the energy that would normally be wasted. ENERGY RECOVERY AND REUSE The energy that would normally be wasted as heat during deceleration and braking is recovered as electrical energy, which is then used to power the starter and the electric motor.
MOTOR ASSIST The electric motor assists the engine during acceleration. HIGH-EFFICIENCY OPERATION CONTROL The system maximizes the vehicle’s overall efficiency by using the electric motor to run the vehicle under operating conditions in which the engine’s efficiency is low and by generating electricity under operating conditions in which the engine’s efficiency is high.
Hybrid Synergy Drive BenefitsCLEAN: Reduced Exhaust Emissions• Better air quality, minimizes adverse health effectsEFFICIENT: Reduced Fuel Consumption• Lower operating cost, less CO2, less oil consumptionPOWERFUL: More Fun to drive• Quicker 0-100 km/h, immediate response, increased torqueCombinations of the Above
Special Purpose Vehicle Fuel Consumption RX 400h / Highlander Hybrid Δ 820 L/yr V6 Avg (Gas) Δ 1400 L/yr V8 Avg (Gas) 7000 6000 5000 CO2 Emissions 4000 14.8 L/100 km 7.8 L/100 km 11.9 L/100 km 7.8 L/100 km 3000 2000 1000 0 RX400H Highlander Hybrid V6 Average (Gas) V8 Average (Gas) Vehicle
Well-to-Wheel EfficiencyElectric cars are NOT “zero emissions” vehicles… … because power generation creates emissions!Mining coal Transporting coal Burning coalHybrids have the best Well-to-Wheel efficiency today
Hybrid Myths • Hybrids pose a threat to first responders The brightly-colored orange wires are heavily protected and run underneath the floor in the center of the vehicle. Rescue workers can cut through any door or even a window-area without any fear of coming in contact with them. • Hybrid vehicles need to be plugged-in Never! You never plug in the battery-pack. The engine and regenerative braking provide the necessary electricity. • Hybrid Batteries need to be replaced There have been no failures in service to date and there is an 8 year / 160,000 km warrantee on all hybrid components.
Contd…• Hybrids are small and underpowered As explained in the last couple of slides, this is simply not the case. Hybrids out-perform their conventional counterparts and often come equipped with features not found on other models.• Electromagnetic Fields in hybrids are harmful to human health EMFs inside and outside of Toyota hybrids are at the same low levels as conventional gasoline vehicles. Therefore there are no additional health risks to drivers, passengers or by-standers.• Hybrids are only about improving fuel economy In addition to improved fuel efficiency, hybrid vehicles produce less smog forming emissions, and offer improved performance.