CAFE 2025     Automotive Aluminum:         (MMV Optimization, AIV)                 Doug Richman    Vice President, Enginee...
Automotive Aluminum –    CAFE 2017-2025 •   Weight reduction 2008 – 2025 •   Body optimization – Aachen       Steel, AHSS ...
INPRM 2017-2025Mass Reduction Assessment*                                         Mass Reduction    Technology            ...
Automotive Weight Reduction Facts    (Independent of Material Choice)•   Achieving 2025 objectives will take all available...
Body is Largest Weight Reduction    Opportunity                                                                 12,000    ...
Vehicle Lightweight Potential  High-Strength Steel / Aluminum•   University of Aachen (ika) (Germany)      European Alumin...
Quantitative Analysis•   Methodology     Model car body, identify components that are       •   Strength limited – crash p...
26 Components for Evaluation                                                    25                                        ...
Results: Strength vs. Stiffness                       Strength and Stiffness Relevance Normalized to Values from 0 to 1   ...
BIW Lightweighting Potential             Total maximum weight reduction compared to reference car:  Steel (with YS up to 1...
Aluminum’s Weight Advantage  Translates Into Fuel Economy Advantage(Lbs)            Mass of Body-in-White                 ...
Key Findings – Aachen Study•   Strength not limiting factor for steel to aluminum conversion of    most components•   Weig...
EU Super Light Car (SLC) BIW                13
Summary: Automotive Aluminum 2025•   Weight reduction critical to achieving 2025 objectives•   Significant gains achievabl...
For more information or to download a copy of      this presentation, visit us online at:  www.aluminumintransportation.or...
16
Achieve 47-62 MPG by 2025Forecast: Deploy all available technologies                                                      ...
Weight Reduction vs. Fuel Economy                             Conventional Vehicles: Gas, Diesel% Fuel Economy Improvement...
Weight Reduction vs. Energy ConsumptionElectric Vehicles: EV, HEV, PHEV           10% Mass = 6% Energy Consumption        ...
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2011 jan sae_gov_pres

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2011 jan sae_gov_pres

  1. 1. CAFE 2025 Automotive Aluminum: (MMV Optimization, AIV) Doug Richman Vice President, Engineering - Kaiser AluminumAluminum Transportation Group - Executive and Technical Committee Member 1
  2. 2. Automotive Aluminum – CAFE 2017-2025 • Weight reduction 2008 – 2025 • Body optimization – Aachen Steel, AHSS Aluminum Intensive (AIV) • BIW Weight Reduction Potential Steel, AHSS Aluminum intensive (AIV) MMV (EU-SLC) 2
  3. 3. INPRM 2017-2025Mass Reduction Assessment* Mass Reduction Technology 47 MPG 62 MPG + 30 MPG Pathway Technology Goal Goal 15% 14% A HEV (550 lbs) (529 lbs) Advanced IC 18% 19% B Mass reduction (658 lbs) (712 Lbs) Advanced Gas 18% 26% C Mass reduction (653 lbs) (970 lbs) 15% 14% D PHEV, EV (550 lbs) (528 lbs) HEV * EPA/NHTSA Analysis and OEM Interviews 3
  4. 4. Automotive Weight Reduction Facts (Independent of Material Choice)• Achieving 2025 objectives will take all available technologies • Powertrain • Aero • Rolling resistance • Weight• Weight reduction additive to other FE improvements Including: Diesel, Hybrid, Electric, Aero, Tires, …• 10% vehicle weight reduction: 6.5% fuel economy improvement @ 50 MPG 10% weight reduction = 3.25 MPG AIV: 10% primary weight reduction (13% total) 8.5% MPG (4.25 MPG) 4
  5. 5. Body is Largest Weight Reduction Opportunity 12,000 10,000 Currently Aluminum• Aluminum penetration continues Aluminum Opportunity to grow in established areas Metric Ton (,000) 8,000• Steel historically dominated body, 6,000 but…• Potential future weight savings 4,000 with steel are diminishing 2,000• Aluminum is the next logical step MMV - Closures, Body 0 AIV Source: The Aluminum Association 5
  6. 6. Vehicle Lightweight Potential High-Strength Steel / Aluminum• University of Aachen (ika) (Germany) European Aluminum Association (EAA)• Body in White (BIW) Optimization• Objective Determine potential BIW weight savings Steel, advanced steels (AHSS) AIV – Aluminum intensive vehicles 6
  7. 7. Quantitative Analysis• Methodology Model car body, identify components that are • Strength limited – crash performance • Stiffness limited - NVH Optimize weight of each component • High-strength steel grades (including advanced high-strength steel) • High-strength aluminum alloys Optimized BIW weight assessment • Steel/HSS/AHSS • Aluminum (AIV) 7
  8. 8. 26 Components for Evaluation 25 21 20 3 2 1 26 22 23 24 19 4 1 Sidewall 10 Firewall 19 Crossmember Rear 2 Roof Crossmember 11 A-Pillar 20 Crossmember Floor 3 Roofrail 12 Roof 21 Sill 5 18 4 IP Crossmember 13 Rearwall 22 Tunnel 5 Cowl 14 Strut Tower Rear 23 Door Panels (outer + inner) 6 6 Strut Tower Front 15 Floor 24 Door Frame 17 7 Longitudinal Upper 16 Longitudinal Rear 25 Door Crash Management 8 Longitudinal Front 17 C-Pillar 26 Door Hinge Reinforcement 7 16 9 Crash Management System 18 B-Pillar 14 8 11 12 9 10 13 15 Source: ika - University of Aachen / European Aluminium Association 8
  9. 9. Results: Strength vs. Stiffness Strength and Stiffness Relevance Normalized to Values from 0 to 1 1 Stiffness 0.9 0.8 Strength 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0Source: ika - University of Aachen / European Aluminium Association 9
  10. 10. BIW Lightweighting Potential Total maximum weight reduction compared to reference car: Steel (with YS up to 1,200 MPa): 11% Aluminum (with YS up to 400 MPa): 40% Steel Steel Aluminium Aluminum Source: ika - University of Aachen / European Aluminium Association 10
  11. 11. Aluminum’s Weight Advantage Translates Into Fuel Economy Advantage(Lbs) Mass of Body-in-White Fuel Economy Improvement 880 400 @ 30 MPG 2.7 MPG 3 Improvement 770 350 2.5 300 660 250 550 2 200 440 1.5 150 330 1 220 100 110 0.5 50 0 0 Steel (baseline) High Strength Aluminum Steel (baseline- High Strength Aluminum Steel Intensive Intensive 30 mpg) Steel Intensive Intensive Source: ika - University of Aachen and the European Aluminium Source: Aluminum Association calculated based on ika mass Association (EAA) reduction data; assumes 23% secondary weight savings 11
  12. 12. Key Findings – Aachen Study• Strength not limiting factor for steel to aluminum conversion of most components• Weight reduction potential (BIW and closures): - Advanced High-strength steel (YS up to 1,200 MPa) = ~11% ( 88 Lbs) - Aluminum AIV (YS up to 400 MPa) = ~40% (300 Lbs) - EU SLC (MMV) ~ 30% (220 Lbs) Full study available at EAA website: http://www.eaa.net/en/applications/automotive/studies/ 12
  13. 13. EU Super Light Car (SLC) BIW 13
  14. 14. Summary: Automotive Aluminum 2025• Weight reduction critical to achieving 2025 objectives• Significant gains achievable (1.5 – 4.0 MPG @ 50 MPG) AHSS MMV Optimization – steel, AHSS, Aluminum Aluminum (AIV) – Aluminum, AHSS• There will be a BIW Mix Steel – price critical market segment: MAXIMUM downsizing MMV (body) – size-cost optimization: MODERATE downsizing AIV (body) – size critical market segment: LIMITED downsizing 14
  15. 15. For more information or to download a copy of this presentation, visit us online at: www.aluminumintransportation.org 15
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  17. 17. Achieve 47-62 MPG by 2025Forecast: Deploy all available technologies Fleet Gain • Engine Hybrid, diesel, electric, friction, VVT, … 50% • Vehicle Transmission, tires, aero, brakes, … 25% • Weight 25% • Downsize fleet 10% Average 6 inches shorter • Advanced Steel (BIW) 10% (w/major downsizing) • Aluminum in MMV – AHSS 3% (w/minor downsizing) Components, closures, BIW(MMV) • AIV (5% of fleet) 2% (no downsizing) Preserve size, content, capacity EV range, battery cost 17
  18. 18. Weight Reduction vs. Fuel Economy Conventional Vehicles: Gas, Diesel% Fuel Economy Improvement Resize Engines 10% Mass = 6.5 % MPG Base Engines % Weight Reduction 18
  19. 19. Weight Reduction vs. Energy ConsumptionElectric Vehicles: EV, HEV, PHEV 10% Mass = 6% Energy Consumption 1.3 KWh/100 Mi per 100 Kg Vehicle Mass (Kg) 19

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