Aluminum

Builds
a
Better
Car

     The
Aluminum
Association

   Auto
&
Light
Truck
Group
(ALTG)

              Webinar
  ...
Aluminum

Builds
a
Better
Car

  Buddy
Stemple,
Chairman
of
the
ALTG,


 VP
/
GM
of
Specialty
Products
for
Novelis

Today’s
Agenda

•  ALTG
Overview
•  Auto
Aluminum’s
Research
On:
  •  Fuel
Economy

  •  Environment
  •  Safety


  •  Gr...
What
Is
The
ALTG?



Aluminum
and
Fuel    
Economy                        
Michael
Bull,
director
of
Automotive
Technology
                  
N...
Ricardo
Study
Objectives                                   
•  Quantify
impact
of
vehicle
weight
reduction
(5%,
10%,
20%)
...
Vehicle
Selection
•  Five
vehicle
classes

   –  Representative
range
of
vehicle
weights
and
engines
   –  Passenger
and
l...
Model
Input
–
Vehicle
Parameters                               

Simulation
Model
–
General
Description
•  Physics‐based
model
for
each
vehicle
configuration
    –  Vehicle
    –  Engine
...
Simulation
Model
–
Vehicle
Parameters
•  Vehicle
                                •  Final
drive
   –  Configuration
(FWD,
...
Simulation
Model
–

             Engine/Transmission
Parameters
•  Engine
   –     Torque
curves
‐
full
load,
closed
throt...
Vehicle
Simulations                                           
•  Vehicle
fuel
economy
(MPG)
   –    EPA
FTP75
(city)
   –...
Simulation
Drive
Cycles                      
                          Source:
Vehicle
Performance
Matching
                            Source:
Model
Validation
•  Simulation
results
compared
to
published
data
for
the   
comparator
vehicle
    –  No
attempt
to
“cali...
Mid‐Size
Car
–
3.0L‐4V
Gas
Engine
                    With
Variable
Intake
Cam
Timing 
•  Vehicle
Performance
Simulation
R...
Fuel
Economy
Simulation
Results:                                  
Mid‐Size
Car
3.0L‐4V
Gas
Engine
with
Variable
         ...
Percent
Fuel
Economy
Improvement

   vs.
Percent
Weight
Reduction
                                             Gasoline   ...
Percent
Fuel
Economy
Improvement

             vs.
Percent
Weight
Reduction
                                         Gasol...
Percent
Fuel
Economy
Improvement

   vs.
Percent
Weight
Reduction
                              Gasoline
Model
Input‐Downsized
Gasoline
Engines                                     

What
does
5,
10
and
20%
weight
savings
mean          
in
terms
of
aluminum?

Percent
Fuel
Economy
Improvement    
vs.
Percent
Weight
Reduction
                                Gasoline                ...
Ricardo
Study
Findings                                         
•  Excellent
correlation
between
simulation
and
actual
veh...
Weight
and
Cost
Summary
From
IBIS

Cost
and
MPG
Summary

Combined
MPG
Improvement
vs.
                     Cost
of
1
MPG
Improvement                                             
 ...
Fuel
Efficiency:
Key
Takeaway
    By
reducing
power
requirements
with
aluminum,
vehicles
are
more
affordable
and
reduce
fu...
Aluminum
and
           The
Environment
Ken
Martchek,
manager
of
Life
Cycle
&
Environmental
Sustainability
               ...

                 Aluminum
and
the
Environment
•  Environmental
issues
such   
as
climate
change
are
a   
growing
subject
...

                 Aluminum
and
the
Environment
•  The
Aluminum
industry
has        Global,
Voluntary
Objectives
Include:
 ...

                     Aluminum
and
the
Environment:
                              Production





The
aluminum
industry
is...

                     Aluminum
and
the
Environment:
                              Production

Making
progress
in
reducing
...

                      Aluminum
and
the
Environment:
                               Production
The
energy
required
to

pro...

          Aluminum
and
the
Environment:
                 Use
in
Vehicles                               
Using
high
streng...

                 Aluminum
and
the
Environment:
                       End
of
Vehicle
Life
• Over
90%
of
aluminum
is





...

                     Aluminum
and
the
Environment:
                          Full
Cycle
Assessment                       ...
Transport
Model
Developed


                           Example:
China
City
Bus
                     Partnership with Yutong bus of ZhengZhou, China  ...
Transport
Model                                   
  The
“Transport
Model”
can
be
assessed
  http://www.world‐aluminium.or...
Environment:
Key
Takeaway
Aluminum
producers
are

reducing
their
ecological


impacts.
Utilizing
aluminum
in
vehicles
in
p...
Aluminum
and
Safety                                     
Randall
Scheps,
marketing
director
of
Ground
Transportation
     ...
A
Few
Basic
Safety
Facts                                             
•  Aluminum
can
build
a
safer
car
than
steel
    ‐ 
...
DRI
Study
Overview
•  Objective
of
the
DRI
(Dynamic
Research
Inc.)
study:


   ‐ 
Interplay
of
vehicle
weight
vs.
size
in
...
DRI
Results                                    
 •  Adding
crush
space
without
adding
weight
improves
ELU
27%
 •  Reducing...
DRI
Results                                       
                                               38.8820% Reduced Weight ...
Crush
Rail
Example
•  56%
mass
savings
vs.
mild
steel
–
(
38%
vs.
HSS
)
•  Lower
peak
loads
•  Consistent
crush
performanc...
Taper
and
Flare
Example
                                                                                           •  35‐5...
Taper
and
Flare
Example

Knee
Bolster
Example
 Aluminum
can
play
a
key
role
in




energy
management
in
vehicle
            interiors
Example:
•  E...
Safety:
Key
Takeaways                                
• Size
–
not
weight
–
is
best
determinant
of
  vehicle
safety

• Alu...
Growth
Buddy
Stemple

Automakers
Lighten
Up
Daimler
AG
                            GM
“Every
new
Mercedes‐Benz
model         “The
company
will
u...
Auto
Aluminum
Use
Climbs
***2006 model year
Auto
Aluminum
Use
Climbs
                                      Jaguar XJAudi A8
Auto
Aluminum
Use
Climbs
The
future
offers
lighter,
cleaner
and
better‐
  performing
vehicles
for
all
consumers.

        ...
Auto
Aluminum
Use
Climbs
                            North
American
Light
Vehicle
Aluminum
                               ...
Auto
Aluminum
Use
Climbs

Growth:
Key
Takeaway
 Aluminum
continues
to
prove
its
value
in
the
automotive
market
with
rising
vehicle
content       
fo...

   Question
&
Answer                        

   Please
submit
any
questions
through
the
question
mark
on                ...
So
What
Lies
Ahead
For

   Auto
Aluminum?

Aluminum

Builds
a
Better
Car
   www.autoaluminum.org


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2008 dec.bettercar webinar

  1. 1. Aluminum

Builds
a
Better
Car

 The
Aluminum
Association

 Auto
&
Light
Truck
Group
(ALTG)

 Webinar
 Tuesday,
December
9,
2008
 www.autoaluminum.org

  2. 2. Aluminum

Builds
a
Better
Car

 Buddy
Stemple,
Chairman
of
the
ALTG,


 VP
/
GM
of
Specialty
Products
for
Novelis

  3. 3. Today’s
Agenda

•  ALTG
Overview
•  Auto
Aluminum’s
Research
On:
 •  Fuel
Economy

 •  Environment
 •  Safety


 •  Growth




•  Q
&
A


•  Wrap
Up

  4. 4. What
Is
The
ALTG?



  5. 5. Aluminum
and
Fuel 
Economy 
Michael
Bull,
director
of
Automotive
Technology
 
Novelis
Inc.
 

  6. 6. Ricardo
Study
Objectives 
•  Quantify
impact
of
vehicle
weight
reduction
(5%,
10%,
20%)
 –  Fuel
economy
 –  Performance
•  Quantify
impact
of
weight
reduction
with
engine 
downsizing
 –  Maintain
vehicle
performance
level
•  Evaluate
weight
reduction
with
different
engine
types
 –  Gasoline
 –  Diesel

  7. 7. Vehicle
Selection
•  Five
vehicle
classes

 –  Representative
range
of
vehicle
weights
and
engines
 –  Passenger
and
light‐duty
truck
•  Vehicle
Class
/
Comparator
Vehicle
Small Car/Mini Cooper Mid-Size Car/Ford Fusion Small SUV/Saturn Vue Large SUV/Ford Explorer Truck/Toyota Tundra
  8. 8. Model
Input
–
Vehicle
Parameters 

  9. 9. Simulation
Model
–
General
Description
•  Physics‐based
model
for
each
vehicle
configuration
 –  Vehicle
 –  Engine
 –  Driving
schedule
•  Simulates
accelerator
and/or
braking
to
achieve
driving 
schedule
•  Runs
on
a
millisecond‐by‐millisecond
basis
•  Simulates
speed
and
fuel
usage

  10. 10. Simulation
Model
–
Vehicle
Parameters
•  Vehicle
 •  Final
drive
 –  Configuration
(FWD,
RWD
or –  Gear
ratio
 
AWD)
 –  Efficiency
 –  Weight
(front
/
rear –  Rotational
inertia
 
distribution)
 –  Spin
losses
 –  Wheelbase
 –  Spin
losses
‐
4‐WD
operating
in
2
WD
 –  Frontal
area
 –  Coefficient
of
drag
(Cd)

 –  Center
of
gravity
•  Wheels
/
Tires
 –  Rolling
radius
(tire
size)

 –  Rolling
resistance
coefficients
 –  Rotational
inertia
 –  Maximum
friction
coefficient
 –  Slip
at
peak
tire
force

  11. 11. Simulation
Model
–

 Engine/Transmission
Parameters
•  Engine
 –  Torque
curves
‐
full
load,
closed
throttle
motoring
 –  Fuel
consumption
‐
entire
speed
and
load
range
 –  Idle
and
redline
speeds
 –  Rotational
inertia
 –  Turbo‐lag
model
(turbocharged
diesel
engines)
 –  Parasitic
loads:
 •  Alternator
 •  Power
steering
 •  Cooling
fan
–
electric,
belt
driven
•  Transmission
 –  Torque
converter
curves
 –  Gear
ratios
 –  Shift
and
lock‐up
maps
 –  Efficiency
and
pumping
losses
‐
each
gear
 –  Rotational
inertias

  12. 12. Vehicle
Simulations 
•  Vehicle
fuel
economy
(MPG)
 –  EPA
FTP75
(city)
 –  EPA
HWFET
(highway)
 –  ECE
(European)
 –  Steady
State
30,
45,
60
and
75
MPH
•  Vehicle
performance
(sec.)

 –  0
–
10
MPH
 –  0
–
60
MPH
 –  30
–
50
MPH
 –  50
–
70
MPH
•  Each
vehicle:
 –  Baseline
 –  Base
engine:
weight
reduced
by
5%,
10%
and
20%
 –  Reduced
weight
and
engine
downsized
to
match
the
baseline
vehicle 
performance

  13. 13. Simulation
Drive
Cycles 
 Source:
  14. 14. Vehicle
Performance
Matching
 Source:
  15. 15. Model
Validation
•  Simulation
results
compared
to
published
data
for
the 
comparator
vehicle
 –  No
attempt
to
“calibrate”
models
 Simulation Simulated Fuel Economy vs. Comparator (% diff) Roadload Force VEHICLE Maximum Variation vs. EPA City EPA Highway Combined Comparator Small Car 0.2% 2.5% -0.6% 1.3% Mid-Size Car 2.5% 0.2% -1.4% -0.4% Small SUV 1.1% 1.8% -4.4% -0.4% Large SUV 1.7% 5.9% -1.1% 3.5% Truck -1.3% 2.2% -1.9% 0.7%
  16. 16. Mid‐Size
Car
–
3.0L‐4V
Gas
Engine
 With
Variable
Intake
Cam
Timing 
•  Vehicle
Performance
Simulation
Results
at
Full
Engine
Load 
(WOT)


  17. 17. Fuel
Economy
Simulation
Results: 
Mid‐Size
Car
3.0L‐4V
Gas
Engine
with
Variable
 Intake
Cam
Timing

  18. 18. Percent
Fuel
Economy
Improvement

 vs.
Percent
Weight
Reduction
 Gasoline Simple weight reduction 10% 3-4%
  19. 19. Percent
Fuel
Economy
Improvement

 vs.
Percent
Weight
Reduction
 GasolineWeight reduction & resizing 10% 6-7%
  20. 20. Percent
Fuel
Economy
Improvement

 vs.
Percent
Weight
Reduction
 Gasoline
  21. 21. Model
Input‐Downsized
Gasoline
Engines 

  22. 22. What
does
5,
10
and
20%
weight
savings
mean 
in
terms
of
aluminum?

  23. 23. Percent
Fuel
Economy
Improvement 
vs.
Percent
Weight
Reduction
 Gasoline AIV RESIZED AIVPART SUB.
  24. 24. Ricardo
Study
Findings 
•  Excellent
correlation
between
simulation
and
actual
vehicle

•  Fuel
economy
improvement
with
10%
weight
reduction
–  With
no
engine
downsizing:
 
 
3.5
%
increase
in
EPA
combined
MPG

 
(9%
improvement
in
performance
level)
–  Engine
down‐sized
to
maintain
base
vehicle
performance:
 
 
6.5%
increase
in
EPA
combined
MPG
•  Similar
results
for
gasoline
and
diesel
engine
vehicles

  25. 25. Weight
and
Cost
Summary
From
IBIS

  26. 26. Cost
and
MPG
Summary

  27. 27. Combined
MPG
Improvement
vs.
 Cost
of
1
MPG
Improvement 
 Midsize Steel Hybrid Midsize Aluminum Hybrid Midsize Steel Diesel Midsize Aluminum Diesel Midsize Aluminum BaselineSource: IBIS ’07
  28. 28. Fuel
Efficiency:
Key
Takeaway
 By
reducing
power
requirements
with
aluminum,
vehicles
are
more
affordable
and
reduce
fuel
consumption
without
the
loss
of 
performance
capabilities. 

  29. 29. Aluminum
and
 The
Environment
Ken
Martchek,
manager
of
Life
Cycle
&
Environmental
Sustainability
 
 Alcoa

  30. 30. 
 Aluminum
and
the
Environment
•  Environmental
issues
such 
as
climate
change
are
a 
growing
subject

of
concern 
and
customer
choice

  31. 31. 
 Aluminum
and
the
Environment
•  The
Aluminum
industry
has Global,
Voluntary
Objectives
Include:
 
established
and
reports •  By
2010:
 –  An
80%
reduction
in
PFC
greenhouse 
annually
on
global, 
gas
emissions
per
ton
of
AL

 
voluntary
improvement –  A
minimum
of
a
33%
reduction
in 
objectives
to
address 
fluoride
emissions
per
ton
of
AL

 
environment
issues
 –  A
10%
reduction
in
average
smelting 
energy
usage
per
ton
AL
 –  Implementation
of
ISO
Environmental•  Learn
more
at
 
Management
Systems
in
95%
of
IAI http://www.world 
members
plants
 ‐aluminium.org/ •  Monitor
annual
AL
shipments
for
use
in 
Sustainability
 
transport
to
track
aluminum’s 
contribution
through
lightweighting
 •  Report
regularly
on
global
AL
recycling 
performance


  32. 32. 
 Aluminum
and
the
Environment:
 Production





The
aluminum
industry
is
the
world’s 
largest
user
of
renewable
energy

  33. 33. 
 Aluminum
and
the
Environment:
 Production

Making
progress
in
reducing
its
“carbon
footprint”

 London,
UK
(October
2007)






 
“The
International
Aluminium 
Institute
reported
today
industry 
survey
results
showing
a
14 
percent
reduction
in
total
direct 
greenhouse
gas
emissions
from 
the
production
processes
of 
primary
aluminum,
between 
2000
and
2005,
despite
a
20 
percent
growth
in
primary 
aluminum
production
covered
in 
the
survey.
“

  34. 34. 
 Aluminum
and
the
Environment:
 Production
The
energy
required
to

produce
aluminum
is

small
relative
to

energy
used
by
vehicles
(USAMP)
55%
of
aluminum
used

to
produce
today’s
cars

is
produced
from

recycled
metal
 Recycled
aluminum
uses
95%
less
energy
to
produce
than
primary 
aluminum 

  35. 35. 
 Aluminum
and
the
Environment:
 Use
in
Vehicles 
Using
high
strength
to
mass
aluminum
reduces
weight 
and
improves
fuel
economy

  36. 36. 
 Aluminum
and
the
Environment:
 End
of
Vehicle
Life
• Over
90%
of
aluminum
is









recovered
from
scrap






vehicles
•  Aluminum
is
one
of
the

 most
durable
and

 recyclable
materials.

  37. 37. 
 Aluminum
and
the
Environment:
 Full
Cycle
Assessment 
•  “Improving
Sustainability
in
the 
Transport
Sector”
peer‐reviewed
study 
published
early
2008
•  “The
application
of
aluminum
in 
passenger
vehicles
and
light
trucks 
manufactured
in
model
year
2006
will 
lead
to
potential
savings
of:
 –  14.5
billion
gallons
of
gasoline
and
 –  Approximately
140
million
tons
of 
CO2eq
emissions
over
the
lifecycle 
of
these
vehicles.

 Source: IAI Study 2008
  38. 38. Transport
Model
Developed

  39. 39. 
 Example:
China
City
Bus
 Partnership with Yutong bus of ZhengZhou, China Launched in Beijing Early 2008 Weight 7% Fuel 90 mt of CO2 Reduction of Efficiency Lifetime 1125 Kg (10%)Value
–
Ecological
•
Reduction
in
CO2
emissions
•
Reduced
road
surface




wear
and
tear
Value
–
Financial
•
7%
less
fuel
•
Maintenance
savings
(tires,





brakes,
suspension)
•
Improved
corrosion
resistance
•
Payback
of
2‐3
years

  40. 40. Transport
Model 
 The
“Transport
Model”
can
be
assessed
 http://www.world‐aluminium.org/Downloads/Publications/Most+recent
•  Input
Your
Own
Case
Study
and
Assumptions!

  41. 41. Environment:
Key
Takeaway
Aluminum
producers
are

reducing
their
ecological


impacts.
Utilizing
aluminum
in
vehicles
in
place
of
more
dense
materials
can
help
reduce
the
carbon
footprint
of
vehicles.


  42. 42. Aluminum
and
Safety 
Randall
Scheps,
marketing
director
of
Ground
Transportation
 
 Alcoa
 

  43. 43. A
Few
Basic
Safety
Facts 
•  Aluminum
can
build
a
safer
car
than
steel
 ‐ 
Audi
A8
–
one
of
the
safest
vehicles
on
 the
road
•  Secondary
benefits:
 W/t = 60...80 ‐ 
Handling
(accident
avoidance)
 W = width t = wall thickness Aluminum advantages
 Mass Specific EA (kJ/kg) ‐ 
Braking
distance
reduction

•  Direct
benefits:
 Steel ‐  Absorbs
more
energy,
pound
for
 pound,
than
steel
 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ‐  Predictable
deformation
 t ‐ 
Not
strain‐rate
sensitive

 W ‐ 
Extruded
structures
–
design
flexibility
 ‐ 
Better
crash
compatibility
–
reduce
 weight,
not
size

  44. 44. DRI
Study
Overview
•  Objective
of
the
DRI
(Dynamic
Research
Inc.)
study:


 ‐ 
Interplay
of
vehicle
weight
vs.
size
in
occupant
protection

•  Methodology:


 ‐ 
Real‐world
crash
data
from
3500
collisions
 ‐ 
Car
to
SUV,
SUV
to
SUV,
and
SUV
to
fixed
obstacle
 ‐ 
NCAP
pulse
and
NASS/CDS
descriptors


 ‐ 
ELU
(Injury
Index)
as
proxy
for
occupant
safety
•  Scenarios:
 ‐ 
20%
weight
reduction
–
no
length
reduction
 ‐ 
4
inch
length
increase
–
no
weight
increase

  45. 45. DRI
Results 
 •  Adding
crush
space
without
adding
weight
improves
ELU
27%
 •  Reducing
weight
further
improves
fleet
safety
SUV to Car Crashes
  46. 46. DRI
Results 
 38.8820% Reduced Weight SUV and Conventional Cars
  47. 47. Crush
Rail
Example
•  56%
mass
savings
vs.
mild
steel
–
(
38%
vs.
HSS
)
•  Lower
peak
loads
•  Consistent
crush
performance
at
all
speeds
 Aluminum Rail Crush Load (kN) Steel Rail Crush Distance (mm)
  48. 48. Taper
and
Flare
Example
 •  35‐50%
higher
mean
 crush
load
 •  Low
peak
loads
 •  Nearly
100%
utilization
of
 crush
rail
length

 125 Load due to Taper (This level is not present during crash)Crush Force (kN) 100 Taper-Flare Steady Sate Load •  Allows
shorter
front
end
 •  Crush
load
optimized
 50 independent
of
the
rail
 Axial Folding of Same Section thickness
 50 100 150 200 250 Crush Distance (mm) •  Not
possible
in
steel

  49. 49. Taper
and
Flare
Example

  50. 50. Knee
Bolster
Example
 Aluminum
can
play
a
key
role
in




energy
management
in
vehicle
 interiors
Example:
•  Extruded
knee
bolster
 consolidates
3
parts
into
1
•  48%
weight
reduction
vs.
 steel
•  50th
percentile
male
 unbelted
sled
test
passed
 for
a
N.
American
OEM


  51. 51. Safety:
Key
Takeaways 
• Size
–
not
weight
–
is
best
determinant
of
 vehicle
safety

• Aluminum
can
safely
take
weight
out
• Aluminum
performs
as
well,
if
not
better
 than
steel
in
crash
• Aluminum
offers
design
flexibility
and
 innovative
solutions
for
energy
 management

  52. 52. Growth
Buddy
Stemple

  53. 53. Automakers
Lighten
Up
Daimler
AG
 GM
“Every
new
Mercedes‐Benz
model “The
company
will
use
different

will
be
5
percent
lighter
than
its materials,
such
as
more
magnesium

predecessor.”


 and
aluminum,
to
make
its
vehicles
 lighter
and
more
fuel‐efficient.”
Ford
“Each
Ford
Motor
Co.
model
will
 Land
Rover

lose
250
to
750
pounds
depending
 “The
LRX
was
engineered
to
make
it
on
its
market
segment.
Cutting
 one
of
the
cleanest
vehicles
in
its
weight
will
be
more
important
to
 class
‐‐
its
lower
weight
and
reduced
CAFE
compliance
than
some
touted
 aerodynamic
drag
aid
fuel
efficiency
fuel‐saving
technologies.”
 and
reduce
C02
emissions.”

Nissan
 Volkswagen
“Nissan
will
cut
the
weight
of
its
 “Automakers
are
substituting
vehicles
by
an
average
of
15%
over
 aluminum
or
plastics
for
steel
the
next
seven
years
as
it
seeks
to
 wherever
possible
to
reduce
vehicles
improve
fuel
efficiency.”
 weight.”

  54. 54. Auto
Aluminum
Use
Climbs
***2006 model year
  55. 55. Auto
Aluminum
Use
Climbs
 Jaguar XJAudi A8
  56. 56. Auto
Aluminum
Use
Climbs
The
future
offers
lighter,
cleaner
and
better‐
 performing
vehicles
for
all
consumers.

 Audi TT Chevy Tahoe Hybrid BMW X6 Nissan 370Z
  57. 57. Auto
Aluminum
Use
Climbs
 North
American
Light
Vehicle
Aluminum
 Content
Continues
to

Climb
Source:
Ducker
Worldwide

  58. 58. Auto
Aluminum
Use
Climbs

  59. 59. Growth:
Key
Takeaway
 Aluminum
continues
to
prove
its
value
in
the
automotive
market
with
rising
vehicle
content 
for
more
than
three
decades. 

  60. 60. 
 Question
&
Answer 

 Please
submit
any
questions
through
the
question
mark
on 
your
screen. 

  61. 61. So
What
Lies
Ahead
For

 Auto
Aluminum?

  62. 62. Aluminum

Builds
a
Better
Car
 www.autoaluminum.org



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