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Antifungal Activity of Carica papaya
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Antifungal Activity of Carica papaya

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  • 1. DR MIRZA TASAWER BAIG M. PHIL. (FUUAST), M.B.A. (IQRA UNIVERSITY), PHARM. D. (FUUAST) LECTURER Faculty of Pharmacy (FUUAST)
  • 2. Exploring antifungal potential of crude and aqueous leaf extracts of (Carica papaya) against pathogenic fungi
  • 3. Introduction Bioactive compounds derived from natural sources could be a potential candidate as antifungal agent, especially in the current scenario in which human and plant fungal pathogens have adopted resistance against antifungal agents. Carica papaya (Caricaceae) is believed to probably originate from southern Mexico and Costa Rica and then introduced as a plantation crop in all tropical and subtropical regions (Krishna et al., 2008). Carica papaya is widely grown now and used in different for the purpose of food as well as decorative purpose. It has also been used in traditional practices for curing diseases (Sofowora, A., 1997).
  • 4. Phytochemical analyses Indicate that the extracts contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavaonids ( Harbone,1973), glycosides, phenols (Doughari, J. H et al, 2007),vitamins, minerals, proteins and enzymes (Jean, 1999). Some studies also report that C. papaya roots has been suggested as a purgative and in case of dysentery cure (Akah, P.A., 1997) and its various parts are also being used to treat a number of infections like gastroenteritis, uretritis, otitis media, typhoid fever and some wound infections (Doughari, J. H et al, 2007).
  • 5. The plant has also regarded as a strong amoebicide (Reed, 1976). As prophylactic measure, papaya leaf extracts has also been reported to use against malaria (Satrija et al., 1994). Aqueous extracts of green papaya epicarp (GPE) and ripe papaya epicarp (RPE) were also found improving wounds significantly applied on induced wounds on mice as it is traditionally employed in some parts of the world to treat certain skin diseases (Nor Suhada Anuar et al, 2008).The leaves of many plants possess tannins in an abundant quantity and may have biocidal activity( Kumar R, Singh ,1984).
  • 6. Material and methods Preparation of extracts The fresh leaves from Papaya tree were plucked gently from a cosmopolitan city –Karachi-Pakistan in a summer season. These fresh leaves were thoroughly washed with tap water and later rinsed with sterile distilled water. The leaves after washing were equally divided into two parts weighing 5 grams for making 5% concentration of extract preparations in 100 ml. The extracts were prepared by two treatments. In one treatment, 5 % leaf extract was prepared by boiling leaves for 15 minutes by constant stirring.
  • 7. In second treatment, the leaves were pulverized, using sterile laboratory mortar and pestle, to get a thick paste, later suspended in 100ml of sterilized water. Both the extracts were stored in airtight glass containers sealed further with parafilm protected from sunlight till further work.
  • 8. Sterility testing of extracts The sterility testing of extract was done by passing extract through Millipore filter (0.22micron meter). Later, inoculate 2ml of sterile extract into 10ml of sterile nutrient broth. And Sabourd dextrose broth. Incubation was done at 370c for 24hours. A sterile extract was indicated by absence of turbidity or clearness of the broth after the incubation period (I.O. Sule and T.O. Agbabiaka, 2008).
  • 9. Pathogenic Fungi tested: The test organisms for this study were members of the 6 saprophytic fungi Penicillium sp, Aspergilus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium sp, Rhizopus, Helminthosporum and Neurospora , 5 dermatophytic Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton tonsurans and 6 yeast including Candida albicans, Candida albicans ATCC 0383, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida galbrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida kruzei. The fungal isolates were obtained from the Deparment of Microbiology, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi-Pakistan. All the fungal isolates were checked for purity and maintained on Sabourd Dextrose agar (SDA) at 40c in the refrigerator until required for use.
  • 10. Screening of antifungal activity of crude and aqueous extracts against pathogenic fungi Activity of papaya leaf extract was tested using agar-well method. Autoclaved distilled water was used for the preparation of fungal spore suspension and transferred aseptically into each SDA plates. All plates were incubated at 28+ 2°C for 24 -48 hours and after incubation diameter of zone of inhibition was measured.
  • 11. Papaya leaf extract (Boiled) Name of tested Fungi C1 Types of treatments Papaya leaf extract (crushed ) Table 1:In vitro Antifungal activity of papaya leaves extract against human and plant pathogenic fungi. Key: C1= Negative control, D w (-) sign shows no antifungal activity YEAST Candida albicans Candida albicans ATCC 0383 Saccharomyces cerevisiae - 20 19 - 18 16 - Candida galbrata - 19 17 Candida tropicalis - 21 15 Candida kruzei - 20 16
  • 12. Table 1:In vitro Antifungal activity of papaya leaves extract against human and plant pathogenic fungi. Key: C1= Negative control, D w (-) sign shows no antifungal activity Papaya leaf extract (crushed) Papaya leaf extract (Boiled) Types of treatments C1 Name of tested Fungi DERMATOPHYTES Microsporum canis Microsporum gypseum - 20 - 19 - Trichophyton rubrum - - - Trichophyton mentagrophytes - 18 16 Trichophyton tonsurans - - -
  • 13. Table 1:In vitro Antifungal activity of papaya leaves extract against human and plant pathogenic fungi. Key: C1= Negative control, D w (-) sign shows no antifungal activity Papaya leaf extract (crushed) Papaya leaf extract (Boiled) Types of treatments C1 Name of tested Fungi Saprophytes Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus niger - 19 17 15 16 Fusarium specie - - - Penicillium sp - 19 15
  • 14. Table 1:In vitro Antifungal activity of papaya leaves extract against human and plant pathogenic fungi. Key: C1= Negative control, D w (-) sign shows no antifungal activity Papaya leaf extract (crushed) Papaya leaf extract (Boiled) Types of treatments C1 Name of tested Fungi Saprophytes Rhizopus Helminthosporum - 20 - 17 - Neurospora - - -
  • 15. 0 Neurospora Helminthosporum Rhizopus Penicillium specie Fusarium specie Aspergullus niger Aspergillus flavus Trichophyton tonsurnas Trichophyton… Trichophyton rubrum Microsporum gypseum Microsporum canis Saccharomyces cerevisiae Candida kruzei Candida tropicalis Candida galbrata Candida albicans ATCC0383 Candida albicans Crushed leaves extract Boiled leaves extract 25 20 15 10 5
  • 16. Conclusion The inhibitory effect of aqueous and crude extracts of Carica papaya on some human and pathogenic fungi indicate its therapeutic potential as antifungal agents and ideal in the current global challenges of antifungal agents conventionally prescribed in mycotic infections. Further, it is in fact preliminary screening; however, further studies with proper scientific knowledge and documentation should be carried out to explore other areas to really make it a successful therapeutic candidate in future.