Pulse site Reasons for Use Radial Readily accessible & routinely used Temporal Used when radial pulse is not accessible Carotid Used for infants, in cases of cardiac arrest and to determine the circulation to the brain Apical Routinely used in infants and children up to 3 years of age, Used to determine the discrepancies with radial pulse, and Used in conjunction with some medication Brachial Used to measure blood pressure, used for cardiac arrest for infants Femoral Used in cases of cardiac arrest, for infants and children, determine circulation in the leg Popliteal Used to determine the circulation in the lower leg and leg blood pressure Posterior tibial Used to determine the circulation in the foot Pedal Used to determine circulation in the foot
7. When assessing the pulse, there is a need to take note of the following
4. arterial wall elasticity
5. presence or absence of bilateral equality.
Kozier Barbara, et.al. Fundamentals of Nursing , 5 th ed. (US Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. 1995) p. 438 Age Average Range Newborn to 1 month 130 80-180 1 year 120 80-140 2 years 110 80- 130 6 years 100 75- 120 10 years 70 50-90 Adult 80 60- 100 Pulse rate/ Minute Variations in Pulse Rate
1. The client normal breathing pattern is assessed therefore the client should be at resting mode.
2. Identify behavior/ activities of the patient as well as medication or therapies because these will affect the respiration taking.
3. Identify if there are any health problems such as heart problems and others
Kozier Barbara, et.al. Fundamentals of Nursing , 5 th ed. (US Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. 1995) p. 448 Age Average Range Newborn 35 30-80 1 year 30 20-40 2 years 25 20-30 8 years 20 15-25 16 years 18 15-20 Adult 16 12-20 Respiratory rate/ Minute Variations in Respiratory rate
By means of auscultation- the systolic pressure is taken at the point when beats becomes audible. As the mercury continues to fall, the sound of the beats becomes louder, then gradually diminishes until a point is reached at which there is a sudden, marked diminution in intensity.
The average BP is about 120/80 at 20 yrs old and at the age of 60 is 160/90
If the bladder is too narrow, the obtained BP reading is erroneously elevated; if it is too wide the reading will be erroneously low
The width should be 40% of the circumference or 20% wider than the diameter of the midpoint of the limb on which it is used
The length of the bladder should be sufficiently long almost to encircle the limb and to cover at least 2/3 of its circumference
Variations in BP by Age Kozier Barbara, et.al. Fundamentals of Nursing , 5 th ed. (US Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. 1995) p. 452 Age Mean BP (mm Hg) Newborn 73/55 1 year 90/55 6 years 95/57 10 years 102/62 14 years 120/80 Adult 120/80 Elderly (over 70 years) Diastolic pressure may increase