What is genetic engineering? Well, (genetic engineering is the..). Simply to say, (Genetic engineering is about….)
This page shows when genetic engineering first began. It began in the 1960s when scientists are able to analyze the DNA. Mice were the first to be successfully genetic engineered in 1981 and progress was under way for the years to come.
What is genetic engineering used for? (Scientists uses it to…) and thus they are able to (Manipulate the genes…)
My research question is. (is genetic engineering…)
The answer would be a yes. Simply because genetic engineering (improves the lifestyles…) as it is able to increase the quality and yield of crops by producing “super-crops”. In addition, genetic engineering is also able to produce microorganisms that are able to clean up the environment through a process called Bioremediation.
Firstly, crops can be improved through genetic engineering as it (has helped to increase…) for example, (genes from naturally…)
This slide shows the difference between a (genetic engineered papaya…) & a (homegrown papaya that is…)
Ever since genetic engineering is made possible, (farmers have been….). Moreover, (plant life is changed…). According to (Wieczorek from the department….)
All in all, genetic engineering has been able to produce crops of Fresher produce such as (Transgenic tomatoes…) At (ucberkeley,….) Furthermore, genetic engineered crops have improved nutritional value. This is shown in (soybeans with…) and even (rice that have the ability…).
This graph shows that how widely genetic engineered crops have been used throughout the 6 principle countries. As you can see, USA tops the graph with a total of 63% usage of genetic engineered crop production.
Moving on to my second point, genetic engineering is able to produce microorganisms that are able to clean up pollution. This is because (microorganism can be used for... That is to say, usage of microorganisms…)
This is a cartoon showing how (microorganism that are…)
This process here shows how genetic engineered bacteria is being used to treat underground pollution such as toxic waste.
Instead of using traditional methods such as incinerating to clean up oil spills, (Genetically engineered oil-consuming….)
It has been proven in an article which shows how genetic engineered bacteria & microorganisms are able to clean up pollution. Which, in this case, a severe oil spill in Alaska.
Hence, Genetic engineered microorganisms is (useful for the complete destruction…) , (Less expensive than other….) and it is mainly (carried out on site…)
Some consumers and environmentalists feels that (inadequate effort…) and this in turn would let them be confronted with conflicting and confusingstatements about the effect of genetic engineering on agriculture. Such as how ( genetic engineering technology…) & how (transgenic crops…) even more so, they believe that (Gene Engineering goes against religious…) With people thus concerned for their health and the well-being of our lifestyle, the issues related to their concerns need to be addressed.
For those who believe that (inadequate effort…) rest assure that ( Transgenic crops and their…) A genetic engineered crop would first be reviewed by the (US department of agriculture…) and passed on to the (US environment protection…) and finally to the (US food & drug…)
A major safety concern raised with regard to genetic engineering technology is the risk of introducing allergens and toxins into otherwise safe foods. However, (transgenic technology is…). Moreover, (the food & drug administration…)
There is a belief among some opponents of genetic engineering technology that transgenic crops might cross-pollinate with related weeds, possibly resulting in “super weeds” that become more difficult to control. This might sound true but sadly, it is not. (resistance to a specific…). Even more so, (most crop plants have…)
Opposes of this argument also claims that Genetic engineering is an act of sin as it alters the way how God creates life. However, based on the bible, (Genesis chapter 1, verses 26-28, it is written that go forth & increase….) Based on Aristotle, we can conclude that (since animals and plants….) (At the same time, we can say that…)
In conclusion, (Any new technology has its set of…) Technology is never inherently good or bad; it is the intentions of the people who use it. Just because we cando something does not mean that we should
Genetic Engineering &The Benefits<br />
WHAT?!<br />Genetic engineering………...<br />Genetic engineering is the processthat uses the techniques of molecular cloning and transformation to alterthe structureand <br />Characteristicsof genes<br />Genetic engineering is about scientists altering the 'recipes' for making life <br />
1960s-1970 Isolation of restriction enzymes and their use to analyse DNA structure<br />1972-1973 DNA cloning techniques involving recombinant DNA developed. First gene cloned(bacteria)<br />1974 First expression in a bacterium of a gene from a different species.<br />1977 First complete genetic code of an organsism (base sequence of a complete genome). The organism was the phage ɸX 174 and its genetic code is 5375 bases long.<br />1978 Bacteria produce human somatostatin from a synthetic gene. Later the same year bacteria also produce human insulin from a synthetic gene.<br />1981-1982First transgenic animals (mice) produced.<br />1982 Insulin (Eli Lilly’s Humulin) is the first product made by genetically engineered bacteria to be approved for use in Britain and the USA<br />1983-1985First transgenic plants produced.<br />1986 First controlled release of genetically engineered organisms into the environment.<br />1989-1990 First patented transgenic animal, the oncomouse & the human genome project started<br />1990-1992 First transgenic cereal plants (maize and wheat)<br />1992-1993 Regulations for deliberate release of genetically engineered organisms established in the USA and EU. First complete base sequence of a chromosome (yeast chromosome III) & trial of the first human gene therapy in UK<br />1994 Genetically engineered tomato marketed in the USA.<br />1996 Genetically engineered tomato marketed in Britain.<br />1997 First cloned mammal produced from a single cell. The sheep, Dolly, was developed from a single udder cell.<br />A brief summary of the history and development of genetic engineering. (based on table G7,<br />p. 418, The encyclopaedia of molecular biology, ed. Sir John Kendrew (1994) Blackwell Science.)<br />
What is Genetic Engineering used for?<br />Scientists uses it to knock out certain genes from an organism to observe the effects caused by those genes.<br />Manipulate the genes of <br />other organisms in order<br /> to produce beneficial<br /> products for <br />humans.<br />
Is genetic engineering beneficial to humans?<br />
Improves the lifestyles of humans<br /><ul><li> Better yield and quality of crops
Bioremediation of the polluted environment</li></li></ul><li>Production of crops of better yield & quality<br />Genetic engineering has helped to increase crop productivity by introducing qualities such as disease resistance and increased drought tolerance to the crops<br />Genes from naturally drought-resistant plants are used to increase drought tolerance in <br />crop varieties<br />
Genetic Engineered papaya, SunUp! That is resistant to the <br />Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV)<br />Homegrown papaya that is affected by the Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV)<br />
Production of crops of better yield & quality<br /> Farmers have been producing foods that have been genetically altered to be more nutritious, delicious, resistant to harmful pesticides and have the ability to repel pests.<br />Plant life is changed to be more resilient to insect and disease as well as have the help of the microorganisms helping support it and bringing it protein.<br />Wieczorek, A. (2003) Department of Tropical Plant and Soil Sciences, transgenic organisms can offer a range of benefits above and beyond those that emerged from innovations in traditional agricultural biotechnology.<br />
Production of crops of better yield & quality<br />Improved nutritional value<br />Fresher produce<br />Transgenic tomatoes with delayed softening can be vine-ripened and still be shipped without bruising.<br /> Soybeans with <br />higher <br />protein content<br />At UC <br />Berkeley, Athanasios<br />Theologis<br />and <br />colleagues have identified <br />and <br />blocked a gene responsible <br />for ripening.<br />Rice with the ability produce vitamin A, that helps prevent <br />blindness in people <br />who have <br />nutritionally inadequate diets<br />
Dale, P.J., Clarke, B. EMG Fontes; Potential for the environmental impact of transgenic crops. Nature Biotechnology, 20. 2002, 567-574<br />
Microorganisms as pollution cleaners<br />Microorganisms in the environment can be artificially changed to benefit their surroundings to help maintain the area.<br />Microorganisms can be used for microbial bioremediation. Usage of microorganisms to break down harmful environmental contaminants, to<br />restore the environment to a healthier state. <br />
Microorganisms that are able to degrade <br />the pollutant is added to the contaminated soil or water so <br />that it could be treated.<br />
Microorganisms as pollution cleaners<br /><ul><li> Bioremediation is useful for the complete destruction of a wide variety of contaminant
Less expensive than other technologies that are used for clean-up of hazardous waste</li></ul>Incineration -- Crude oil spill cleanup -- Expensive -- Extremely harmful to the environment. <br /><ul><li> Carried out on site, often without causing a major disruption of normal activities</li></li></ul><li>Hmm…..<br />
There are possible risks associated with using transgenic crops in agriculture.<br /><ul><li> Inadequate effort has been made to understand the dangers in the use of transgenic crops
Genetic engineering technology has the risk of introducing allergens and toxins into safe foods.
Transgenic crops might cross-pollinate with related weeds, possibly resulting in “super weeds” that become more difficult to control.</li></ul>Creations to be ‘slaves’<br /><ul><li> It goes against religious values & ethics</li></ul>‘Playing God’<br />
Inadequate effort has been madeto understand the dangers in the use of transgenic crops<br />Transgenic crops and their product in the United States are extensively researched and reviewed<br />U.S. Department of Agriculture : Has primary responsibility for determining if a new product is safe to grow.<br />U.S. Food and Drug Administration : Is concerned with protecting the consumer and has final authority to declare if a product is safe to eat.<br />U.S. Environmental Protection Agency : Reviews the product for potential impact on the environment<br />
Genetic engineering has the risk of introducing allergens & toxins into safe foods.<br />Transgenic technology is also being used to remove the allergens from peanuts, one of most serious causes of food allergy.<br />The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) checks to ensure that the levels of naturally occurring allergens in foods made from<br />transgenic organisms have not significantly increased above the natural range found in conventional foods.<br />
Transgenic crops might produce uncontrollable ‘super weeds’<br />Resistance to a specific herbicide does not mean that the plant is resistant to other herbicides, so affected weeds could still be controlled with other products.<br />Most crop plants have significant limitations in their growth and seed dispersal habits that prevent them from surviving long without constant nurture by<br />humans, and they are thus unlikely to thrive in the wild <br />as weeds.<br />
Religious values & ethics<br />Gen 1: 26-28."Increase & multiply & dominatethe Earth".<br />Since animals and plants <br />exist for human beings, our behaviour towards them is not governed by moral considerations.<br />At the same time we can say that high tech medicines involves playing with God and agriculture was started by disrupting nature. <br />“Nature makes nothing without some end in view, nothing to no purpose, it must be that nature has made for the sake of man" Aristotle<br />
Conclusion<br />Manohar (n.d.) Any new technology has its set of advantagesand disadvantages. However you cannot condemna beneficial technology because of the possible misuse. Saying noto genetic engineering would be like refusing to log on to the Internet because you are afraidyour email account might get hacked. The simple solution is to usethe technology with great caution.<br />