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Powerpoint genetic engineering


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Powerpoint genetic engineering

  1. 1. GENETIC ENGINEERING<br />Taking a gene fromonespecies and puttingitintoanotherspecies<br />
  2. 2. 9<br />There are several ways in which genes from one organism can be <br />inserted into a different organism<br />They can be coated on to microscopic gold particles and ‘fired’<br />into the cells<br />They can be delivered by viruses<br />They can be transmitted by using structures, called plasmids,<br />present in bacteria<br />For example, the human gene for making insulin can be transferred <br />to bacteria, which are then allowed to reproduce in a culture medium<br />from which the insulin can be extracted<br />Plasmids<br />
  3. 3. A bacterium<br />10<br />in addition to a loop of DNA…<br />…bacteria also contain numerous <br />rings of DNA called plasmids<br />cell wall<br />cytoplasm<br />0.001mm<br />cell membrane<br />the plasmids can be <br />extracted and used for<br />genetic engineering<br />
  4. 4. 11<br />Inserting a gene<br />plasmid<br />human DNA<br />strand<br />restriction <br />enzyme cuts<br />plasmid<br />the same<br />restriction <br />enzyme cuts<br />the insulin gene<br />out of the<br />human DNA<br />insulin<br /> gene<br />the insulin gene<br />is inserted into<br />the plasmid<br />
  5. 5. 12<br />The recombinant plastids are <br />inserted into a bacterium *<br />the insulin gene makes the<br />bacterium produce insulin<br />Recombinant plastids<br />
  6. 6. 13<br />Only about 1 in 100,000 bacteria take up the recombined plasmids.<br />There are techniques for identifying and isolating these bacteria.<br />Human growth hormone can be made in a similar way.<br />Chymosin, used for clotting milk in cheese-making, can be <br />produced from yeast cells with recombinant plasmid DNA.<br /><ul><li>Genetic engineering can be used to produce bacteria that make human insulin. The bacteria with the insulin gene are then allowed to reproduce in a culture solution from which the insulin can be extracted*</li></ul>Applications<br />
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  8. 8. 15<br />Genetic engineering does not always have to involve gene transfer <br />between unrelated organisms<br />Genes in a single organism can be modified to improve their<br />characteristics or their products <br />A gene for the production of ß carotene (a precursor of Vitamin A)<br />has been introduced to rice to benefit countries where rice is the<br />staple diet and Vitamin A deficiencies are common*<br />The next slide shows tomatoes which have been genetically <br />modified to suppress production of an enzyme which causes the <br />fruit to soften as it ripens. This improves the keeping qualities<br />Applications<br />
  9. 9. Genetically modified<br />Control tomatoes<br />Genetically modified tomatoes<br />After storage<br />After storage<br />© AstraZeneca<br />Tomatoes<br />