Genetically modified crop


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Genetically modified crop

  1. 1. The term GMO’s is most commonly used to refer to crop plants created for human or animal consumption using the latest molecular biology techniques.These plants have been modified in the laboratory to enhance desired traits such as increased resistance to herbicides or improved nutritional content.The enhancement of desired traits has traditionally been undertaken through breeding, but conventional plant breeding methods can be very time consuming and are often not very accurate.
  2. 2. Genetically modified crops are plants, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering techniques, to resist pests and agents causing harm to plants and to improve the growth of these plants to assist in farmers efficiency.
  3. 3. Scientists first discovered that DNA naturally transfers between organisms in 1946.It is now known that there are several natural mechanisms for flow of genes, or these occur in nature on a large scale – for example, it is a major mechanism for antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria, and it occurs between plant species often move to new species over an evolutionary time scale[and play a major role in dynamic changes to chromosomes during evolution
  4. 4. Genetic engineering techniques are much more precise.Than mutagenesis where an organism is exposed to radiation or chemicals to create a non-specific but stable change. Other techniques by which humans modify food organisms include selective breeding; plant breeding, and animal breeding.
  5. 5. The first genetically modified plant was produced in 1982, using an antibiotic- resistant tobacco plant.The first field trials of genetically engineered plants occurred in France and the USA in 1986, when tobacco plants were engineered to be resistant to herbicides.
  6. 6. A genetically engineered plants is generated in a laboratory by altering its genetic makeup.This is usually done by adding one or more genes to a plant's genome using genetic engineering techniques. Most genetically modified plants are generated by the biolistic method (particle gun) or by Agro bacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation.
  7. 7. The largest share of the GMO crops planted globally are from seed created by the United States firm Monsanto. In 2007, Monsanto's trait technologies were planted on 246 million acres throughout the world, a growth of 13 percent from 2006. However, patents on the first Monsanto products to enter the marketplace will begin to expire in 2014, democratizing Monsanto products.
  8. 8. Increasing crop output o Increasing crop yield is one of the main reason that growers use genetic engineering . o Farmers also use genetic engineering to create herbicide-resistant plants.
  9. 9.  Creating pesticides-resistant or herbicide resistant plants could damage the environment by changing the interactions between plants and insects or animals.  It is intended harm to other organisms.  It reduce effectiveness of pesticides.
  10. 10. i. Concerns about human health risks have limited the use of genetically-modified foods.Transferring genes into plants could potential cause harm to the people who eat them. Gene transfers could also insert allergens into foods that wouldn’t normally have strong potential to cause allergies. ii. Cross-Contamination between fields can also occur, resulting in a crop not intended for genetic modification being altered.This has already occurred in the united states, when a maize field intended for animal feed cross-contaminated a field intended for human use, according to theWorld health organization.
  11. 11. •Increased invasiveness. •Development of new, more virulent strains of viruses on transgenic virus resistant plants. •Effect of toxic, transgenic products from insect, and pathogen resistant plants on non- target organisms. •Overcoming the resistance mechanism of the transgenes by insect pests leading to more virulent insect biotypes. •Transfer of antibiotic resistance genes, used as selectable markers in the process of developing transgenics, to other organisms. •Safety of food items obtained from transgenic crops – allergic reactions. •Agene flow to other crop cultivars, traditional varieties, land races, wild, weedy related species leading to the loss of biodiversity. •Along term effects. •Non-foreseeable effects on ecosystems. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FROM GE CROPS
  12. 12. It can introduce a new trait Pest resistant Herbicide tolerance Disease resistant Cold tolerance Drought tolerance / salinity tolerance Better nutrition Pharmaceuticals Phyto-remediation
  13. 13. GE crops, approved for cultivation by the regulatory agencies, are as safe as any other conventionally bred cultivars for human consumption, as well as for the environment. Occasionally they may transfer their genes into other cultivars in the neighboring fields or wild related species through out crossing, like other cultivars. Cross-pollination, even in highly self-pollinated species, is part of the nature to enhance biodiversity. It occurs in the natural stands of the ancestral species of the crops, and has been going on between the cultivated and their related wild species since domestication.
  14. 14. file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/user/My%20Documents/genetic ally%20modified%20crops%20cartoons%20- %20Google%20Search.htm?biw=1366&bih=653&sei=qjUiUb6WCsLRrQ fAkYCIBQ file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/user/My%20Documents/Monsa nto%20-%20Wikipedia,%20the%20free%20encyclopedia.htm file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/user/My%20Documents/Genetica lly%20modified%20crops%20- %20Wikipedia,%20the%20free%20encyclopedia.htm file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/user/My%20Documents/gmc%20 1.htm Notes