The DNA Code
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The DNA Code

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The Information Content of DNA and the Language of Life The code used to translated DNA to RNA to Protein could not have evolved but must have been created.

The Information Content of DNA and the Language of Life The code used to translated DNA to RNA to Protein could not have evolved but must have been created.

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The DNA Code The DNA Code Presentation Transcript

      • The DNA Code
  •  
  • www.DNAtube.com √ Jan 2009 Video A review of Protein Synthesis View slide
  • DNA DNA mRNA Start Amino Acid #1 Amino Acid #2 … Amino Acid #n Stop Genetic instructions for the manufacture of proteins are written in three letter “words” called codons. Each “letter” is one of the 4 possible nitrogen bases on the DNA strand This produces a language consisting of 64 possible codons each specifying one of 20 amino acids or a “stop translating“ sign. … … View slide
  • RIBOSOME Messenger RNA Transfer RNA Amino Acid Protein Forming Anti-Codon The DNA gene is first copied and edited into a transcript made of RNA, employing similar nucleic acid bases, except that DNA’s thymine is replaced by uracil. This messenger RNA (mRNA) version of the gene is then read by cellular machinery, three letters at a time, while tiny cellular butlers known as transfer RNA’s (tRNA) fetch the specified amino acids to be strung together.
  • There are hundreds of possible Amino Acids but these 20 Amino Acids are used by life on earth.
  • 20 Different tRNA’s match Amino Acids to mRNA Codons
  • 20 types of Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases match 20 different amino acids to tRNA’s with the correct anti-codon. tRNA’s Amino Acid Name Triplet Code or Codon 3-Letter Nickname Glycine GGT,GGC,GGA,GGG Gly Alanine GCT,GCC,GCA,GCG Ala Valine GTT,GTC,GTA,GTG Val Leucine TTG,TTA,CTT,CTC,CTA,CTG Leu Isoleucine ATT,ATC,ATA Ileu Serine TCT,TCC,TCA,TCG,AGT,AGC Ser Threonine ACT,ACC,ACA,ACG Thr Cysteine TGT,TGC Cys Methionine ATG Met Glutamic Acid GAA,GAG Glu Aspartic Acid GAT,GAC,AAT,AAC Asp Lysine AAA,AAG Lys Arginine CGT,CGC,CGA,CGG,AGA,AGG Arg Asparagine AAT,AAC Asn Glutamine GAA,GAG Gln Phenylalanine TTT,TTC Phe Tyrosine TAT, TAC Tyr Tryptophan TGG Trp Proline CCT,CCC,CCA,CCG Pro Terminator TAA,TAG,TGA End
  • The right amino acid is activated and linked in two steps to the right tRNA by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) First, ATP reacts with the amino acid to form a mixed carboxylic-phosphoric anhydride Secondly, the aminoacyl group forms an ester with the 3’-hydroxyl of the ribose in the terminal adenosine of the tRNA However, these steps are not enough to ensure the required high decoding fidelity (error rates of 1/2400 to 1/40,000). The aaRSs also edit the final products to make sure that the right amino acid is linked to the right tRNA. L-valine (Val) and L-isoleucine (Ile) differ by only one methylene (CH2) group with a difference in hydrophobic binding energy of only about 4 kJ/mol, it is thermodynamically impossible for ordinary one-step recognition to achieve the error rate of 1/3,000 observed in isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS). However, an error substituting Ile for Val can be biologically harmful or even catastrophic. tRNA Double error checks built in.
  • The RNA Codon Table U C A G U UUU Phenylalanine U C U Serine U A U Tyrosine U G U Cysteine U UU C Phenylalanine U CC Serine U A C Tyrosine U G C Cysteine C UU A Leucine U C A Serine U AA STOP U G A STOP A UU G Leucine U C G Serine U A G STOP U GG Tryptophan G C C UU Leucine CC U Proline C A U Histidine C G U Arginine U C U C Leucine CCC Proline C A C Histidine C G C Arginine C C U A Leucine CC A Proline C AA Glutamine C G A Arginine A C U G Leucine CC G Proline C A G Glutamine C GG Arginine G A A UU Isoleucine A C U Threonine AA U Asparagine A G U Serine U A U C Isoleucine A CC Threonine AA C Asparagine A G C Serine C A U A Isoleucine A C A Threonine AAA Lysine A G A Arginine A A U G Start or Methionine A C G Threonine AA G Lysine A GG Arginine G G G UU Valine G C U Alanine G A U Aspartate GG U Glycine U G U C Valine G CC Alanine G A C Aspartate GG C Glycine C G U A Valine G C A Alanine G AA Glutamate GG A Glycine A G U G Valine G C G Alanine G A G Glutamate GGG Glycine G U = Uracil C = Cytosine A = Adenine G = Guanine
      • A Random Accident Frozen in Time
      • In the early 1960’s experiments showed that even supposed nonsense codons could provoke protein synthesis in a beaker,
      • By 1965 the actual amino acid meanings of all 64 possible triplet codons had been worked out in the lab.
      • No tidy numerology was apparent: certain codons were just redundant, with some individual amino acids specified by two, four, even six different codons.
      • After all the enthusiastic speculation, many came to view natures real code as little more than a random accident of history.
    U C A G U UUU Phenylalanine U C U Serine U A U Tyrosine U G U Cysteine U UU C Phenylalanine U CC Serine U A C Tyrosine U G C Cysteine C UU A Leucine U C A Serine U AA STOP U G A STOP A UU G Leucine U C G Serine U A G STOP U GG Tryptophan G C C UU Leucine CC U Proline C A U Histidine C G U Arginine U C U C Leucine CCC Proline C A C Histidine C G C Arginine C C U A Leucine CC A Proline C AA Glutamine C G A Arginine A C U G Leucine CC G Proline C A G Glutamine C GG Arginine G A A UU Isoleucine A C U Threonine AA U Asparagine A G U Serine U A U C Isoleucine A CC Threonine AA C Asparagine A G C Serine C A U A Isoleucine A C A Threonine AAA Lysine A G A Arginine A A U G Start or Methionine A C G Threonine AA G Lysine A GG Arginine G G G UU Valine G C U Alanine G A U Aspartate GG U Glycine U G U C Valine G CC Alanine G A C Aspartate GG C Glycine C G U A Valine G C A Alanine G AA Glutamate GG A Glycine A G U G Valine G C G Alanine G A G Glutamate GGG Glycine G U = Uracil C = Cytosine A = Adenine G = Guanine
  • When the genetic code was first deciphered, scientists found that organisms as different as human and bacteria employed the same coding rules. Seemingly no variation had occurred in the billions of years since the three basic domains of life – archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes – diverged from a single ancient common ancestor. Consequently the simple and persuasive “frozen accident” argument put forth by Crick himself in 1968, came to dominate scientific thinking until recently. “ The allocation of condons to amino acids at this point was entirely a matter of chance,” he wrote, “but once the code had appeared in any form, it was so fundamental to life that any further changes would have been catastrophic.” U C A G U UUU Phenylalanine U C U Serine U A U Tyrosine U G U Cysteine U UU C Phenylalanine U CC Serine U A C Tyrosine U G C Cysteine C UU A Leucine U C A Serine U AA STOP U G A STOP A UU G Leucine U C G Serine U A G STOP U GG Tryptophan G C C UU Leucine CC U Proline C A U Histidine C G U Arginine U C U C Leucine CCC Proline C A C Histidine C G C Arginine C C U A Leucine CC A Proline C AA Glutamine C G A Arginine A C U G Leucine CC G Proline C A G Glutamine C GG Arginine G A A UU Isoleucine A C U Threonine AA U Asparagine A G U Serine U A U C Isoleucine A CC Threonine AA C Asparagine A G C Serine C A U A Isoleucine A C A Threonine AAA Lysine A G A Arginine A A U G Start or Methionine A C G Threonine AA G Lysine A GG Arginine G G G UU Valine G C U Alanine G A U Aspartate GG U Glycine U G U C Valine G CC Alanine G A C Aspartate GG C Glycine C G U A Valine G C A Alanine G AA Glutamate GG A Glycine A G U G Valine G C G Alanine G A G Glutamate GGG Glycine G U = Uracil C = Cytosine A = Adenine G = Guanine
      • The Code, Once Created, Can’t Change
      • Darwinian natural selection rests on the premise that sometimes a small change in a single gene can prove beneficial if it allows the organisms to fair better in their environment.
      • But altering an organism’s decoding rules would be tantamount to simultaneously introducing changes at countless sites throughout its genetic material, producing an utterly dysfunctional metabolism.
      • It would be the difference between introducing a single typo and rewiring the entire keyboard.
      • Instead of changing one “e” in one word to an “a” it would be changing every “e” to an “a” throughout the whole book.
    U C A G U UUU Phenylalanine U C U Serine U A U Tyrosine U G U Cysteine U UU C Phenylalanine U CC Serine U A C Tyrosine U G C Cysteine C UU A Leucine U C A Serine U AA STOP U G A STOP A UU G Leucine U C G Serine U A G STOP U GG Tryptophan G C C UU Leucine CC U Proline C A U Histidine C G U Arginine U C U C Leucine CCC Proline C A C Histidine C G C Arginine C C U A Leucine CC A Proline C AA Glutamine C G A Arginine A C U G Leucine CC G Proline C A G Glutamine C GG Arginine G A A UU Isoleucine A C U Threonine AA U Asparagine A G U Serine U A U C Isoleucine A CC Threonine AA C Asparagine A G C Serine C A U A Isoleucine A C A Threonine AAA Lysine A G A Arginine A A U G Start or Methionine A C G Threonine AA G Lysine A GG Arginine G G G UU Valine G C U Alanine G A U Aspartate GG U Glycine U G U C Valine G CC Alanine G A C Aspartate GG C Glycine C G U A Valine G C A Alanine G AA Glutamate GG A Glycine A G U G Valine G C G Alanine G A G Glutamate GGG Glycine G U = Uracil C = Cytosine A = Adenine G = Guanine
      • But The Code Can Change
      • This attractively straightforward reasoning, however proved simplistic.
      • Although most living systems do employ the standard genetic code, scientists now know of at least 16 variations, distributed across a diverse array of evolutionary lineages, that assign different meanings to certain codons.
      • Mitochondria, the tiny power generators within all kinds of cells, have their own genomes, and many have also developed their own codon assignments
      • In two domains (archaea and bacteria), a 22nd amino acid, pyrrolysine, is used.
    U C A G U UUU Phenylalanine U C U Serine U A U Tyrosine U G U Cysteine U UU C Phenylalanine U CC Serine U A C Tyrosine U G C Cysteine C UU A Leucine U C A Serine U AA STOP U G A STOP A UU G Leucine U C G Serine U A G STOP U GG Tryptophan G C C UU Leucine CC U Proline C A U Histidine C G U Arginine U C U C Leucine CCC Proline C A C Histidine C G C Arginine C C U A Leucine CC A Proline C AA Glutamine C G A Arginine A C U G Leucine CC G Proline C A G Glutamine C GG Arginine G A A UU Isoleucine A C U Threonine AA U Asparagine A G U Serine U A U C Isoleucine A CC Threonine AA C Asparagine A G C Serine C A U A Isoleucine A C A Threonine AAA Lysine A G A Arginine A A U G Start or Methionine A C G Threonine AA G Lysine A GG Arginine G G G UU Valine G C U Alanine G A U Aspartate GG U Glycine U G U C Valine G CC Alanine G A C Aspartate GG C Glycine C G U A Valine G C A Alanine G AA Glutamate GG A Glycine A G U G Valine G C G Alanine G A G Glutamate GGG Glycine G U = Uracil C = Cytosine A = Adenine G = Guanine
  • 20 Amino Acids could be coded for in 20! possible ways 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 …. = 2.4 x 10 18 different codes possible. That’s one chance in 2,400,000,000,000,000,000 ( There are only 2.6 x 10 15 seconds in 5 billion years ) That’s only assigning 20 codons, one fore each amino acid. There are 64 possible codons each with a meaning Each of the 44 other unused codes could then code for any one of the 20 amino acids. 20 choices x 20choices x 20 choices x 20 choices … = 20 44 = 1.7 x 10 57 more possible code tables. U C A G U UUU Phenylalanine U C U Serine U A U Tyrosine U G U Cysteine U UU C Phenylalanine U CC Serine U A C Tyrosine U G C Cysteine C UU A Leucine U C A Serine U AA STOP U G A STOP A UU G Leucine U C G Serine U A G STOP U GG Tryptophan G C C UU Leucine CC U Proline C A U Histidine C G U Arginine U C U C Leucine CCC Proline C A C Histidine C G C Arginine C C U A Leucine CC A Proline C AA Glutamine C G A Arginine A C U G Leucine CC G Proline C A G Glutamine C GG Arginine G A A UU Isoleucine A C U Threonine AA U Asparagine A G U Serine U A U C Isoleucine A CC Threonine AA C Asparagine A G C Serine C A U A Isoleucine A C A Threonine AAA Lysine A G A Arginine A A U G Start or Methionine A C G Threonine AA G Lysine A GG Arginine G G G UU Valine G C U Alanine G A U Aspartate GG U Glycine U G U C Valine G CC Alanine G A C Aspartate GG C Glycine C G U A Valine G C A Alanine G AA Glutamate GG A Glycine A G U G Valine G C G Alanine G A G Glutamate GGG Glycine G U = Uracil C = Cytosine A = Adenine G = Guanine
      • Scientific American April 2004 p. 84
      • Evolution Encoded
      • by Stephen J. Freeland and Laurence D. Hurst
    • Computer analysis shows that the standard code minimizes errors caused by the most common types of DNA mutation and transcription errors and, in the case of an error, it usually uses the closest amino acid in terms of affinity for water which generally preserves the protein shape.
    • Only one in a million codes were found to be equal or better at handling these three errors in computer simulations.
    • Only these three types of errors where considered and only affinity for water was used to determine which amino acids were closest.
    • Our knowledge of how and why errors occur is limited,
    • as well as our knowledge of why proteins form certain shapes.
    • It is possible we have the optimum code for error handling .
    U C A G U UUU Phenylalanine U C U Serine U A U Tyrosine U G U Cysteine U UU C Phenylalanine U CC Serine U A C Tyrosine U G C Cysteine C UU A Leucine U C A Serine U AA STOP U G A STOP A UU G Leucine U C G Serine U A G STOP U GG Tryptophan G C C UU Leucine CC U Proline C A U Histidine C G U Arginine U C U C Leucine CCC Proline C A C Histidine C G C Arginine C C U A Leucine CC A Proline C AA Glutamine C G A Arginine A C U G Leucine CC G Proline C A G Glutamine C GG Arginine G A A UU Isoleucine A C U Threonine AA U Asparagine A G U Serine U A U C Isoleucine A CC Threonine AA C Asparagine A G C Serine C A U A Isoleucine A C A Threonine AAA Lysine A G A Arginine A A U G Start or Methionine A C G Threonine AA G Lysine A GG Arginine G G G UU Valine G C U Alanine G A U Aspartate GG U Glycine U G U C Valine G CC Alanine G A C Aspartate GG C Glycine C G U A Valine G C A Alanine G AA Glutamate GG A Glycine A G U G Valine G C G Alanine G A G Glutamate GGG Glycine G U = Uracil C = Cytosine A = Adenine G = Guanine
      • We don’t understand it.
      • Let’s look deeper for reasons behind this particular code.
    It seems like the code is random: Two People can look at the same facts and come to two totally different conclusions based on their beliefs.
      • Proves it evolved from a random accident.
      • It looks like a very intelligent designer created it.
    On closer examination, it seems the best possible code: Two People can look at the same facts and come to two totally different conclusions based on their beliefs.
      • That proves it evolved through natural selection to provide the most fit code.
      • Proves it evolved from a random accident leaving lots of junk.
    Some of the code seems useless: Two People can look at the same facts and come to two totally different conclusions based on their beliefs.
      • Maybe we don’t understand its function.
      • Maybe it degenerated from a something else by the addition of random mutations.
      • The code is random,
      • or best possible evolved.
      • The code is fixed.
      • or maybe life evolved more than once ,
      • or maybe alien life forms.
      • Code is mostly junk
      • or maybe natural selection removed most of the junk.
    Let’s make some predictions. Two People can look at the same facts and come to two totally different conclusions based on their beliefs.
      • The code should be best possible.
      • Variations may exist to optimize code in certain creatures.
      • The code should minimize errors.
      • Most of the code is necessary.
  • Video: A Question of Origins Currently Unavailable http://www.nwcreation.net/videos/a_question_of_origins.html www.youtube.com/watch?v=wdruuZDejKM www.youtube.com/watch?v=cM7-gYBbzQQ
  • Video: A Question of Origins Currently Unavailable http://www.nwcreation.net/videos/a_question_of_origins.html www.youtube.com/watch?v=9CXAgnkCxVI www.youtube.com/watch?v=kxwtmWZ6VFY
  • 19 out of the 20 Amino Acids needed for life have right and left handed forms
  • 19 out of the 20 Amino Acids have right and left handed forms Living creatures require only left handed amino acids. The right handed forms are poisonous
  • All synthetic ways of making amino acids results in both right and left handed forms.
  • The only way of separating pure right and left handed amino acids requires enzymes from living organisms.
  • The original argument for creation was that if you found a watch upon a distant and uninhabited sea shore. You still must conclude that the watch had a designer. Design demands a designer.
  • If, after all the arguments, it is so important to you that no race of people existed to design this car such that you believe it must have assembled itself You must also explain the owners manual and the language it is written in that describes the design of the car, its operation and maintenance requirements. Written languages are created to transmit information and also require a creator. No sign of intelligent life here Captain. You may begin the sterilization process to make this planet safe for our colony.
  • If after all the arguments it is so important to you that no Creator existed to design this cell … such that you believe it must have assembled itself You must also explain the DNA code and the codon language it is written in that describes the design of the cell, its operation and maintenance requirements. There is no evidence for a Creator. You decide what is right and wrong. You are the god of your own universe.
  • Which came first … The language ? The storage medium ? The translation machinery ? The transcription machinery ? The transfer medium ? The letters ? The ATP power plant ?
  • Every component used in RNA transcription is made by RNA transcription. ATP Synthase tRNA Synthase RNA Polymerase Ribosomes ‘… the machinery by which the cell (at least the non-primitive cell, which is the only one we know) translates the code consists of at least fifty macromolecular components which are themselves coded in the DNA. Thus the code can not be translated except by using certain products of its translation. This constitutes a baffling circle; a really vicious circle, it seems, for any attempt to form a model or theory of the genesis of the genetic code.’ Popper, K.R., Scientific reduction and the essential incompleteness of all science; in Ayala, F. and Dobzhansky, T., eds., Studies in the Philosophy of Biology , University of California Press, Berkeley, p. 270, 1974.
  • Even if every component is present and in it’s place. Once a cell dies it will not spontaneously revive. It’s order begins to decay.
  • The chemicals, components and arrangements necessary for life spontaneously disassemble if the processes of a living cell which maintain order cease to function.
  • e
  • Simply reading or writing to memory in the simplest computer. Who developed the protocol first? The Data and Address busses? The CPU Chip? The memory chip? The support chips required by the CPU to access the memory? What if they didn’t agree on the clock cycles? What if multiple memory chips shared the same address? What if the address or data lines were crossed?
  • What about the machine language used by the CPU? Could that have come about by chance ? Could it finally one day have … accessed a random memory location that was wired to a memory chip that was compatible with the CPU’s buss protocol that contained a program that happened to correspond to an operating system for that CPU, on that motherboard, in that configuration…
  • DNA stores data digitally; like data storage on a hard drive. Certain areas translate to english if you know the ASCII Code: Stored as a string of data with gaps or jumps in data stream. Data needed must be specifically addressed. Others do not (numeric data, graphics, program instructions) Areas of repeating patterns are used to separate sectors. Start and stop bits to mark beginning and end of data. Requires error checking to ensure the data is not corrupted. Physical Sector: Cyl 0, Side 0, Sector 1 00000000: 00 33 C0 8E D0 BC 00 7C 8B F4 50 07 50 1F FB FC .3.....|..P.P.. 00000010: BF 00 06 B9 00 01 F2 A5 EA 1D 06 00 00 BE BE 07 ................ 00000020: B3 04 80 3C 80 74 0E 80 3C 00 75 1C 83 C6 10 FE ...<.t..<.u..... 00000030: CB 75 EF CD 18 8B 14 8B 4C 02 8B EE 83 C6 10 FE .u......L....... 00000040: CB 74 1A 80 3C 00 74 F4 BE 8B 06 AC 3C 00 74 0B .t..<.t.....<.t. 00000050: 56 BB 07 00 B4 0E CD 10 5E EB F0 EB FE BF 05 00 V.......^....... 00000060: BB 00 7C B8 01 02 57 CD 13 5F 73 0C 33 C0 CD 13 ..|...W.._s.3... 00000070: 4F 75 ED BE A3 06 EB D3 BE C2 06 BF FE 7D 81 3D Ou...........}.= 00000080: 55 AA 75 C7 8B F5 EA 00 7C 00 00 49 6E 76 61 6C U.u.....|..Inval 00000090: 69 64 20 70 61 72 74 69 74 69 6F 6E 20 74 61 62 id partition tab 000000A0: 6C 65 00 45 72 72 6F 72 20 6C 6F 61 64 69 6E 67 le.Error loading 000000B0: 20 6F 70 65 72 61 74 69 6E 67 20 73 79 73 74 65 operating syste 000000C0: 6D 00 4D 69 73 73 69 6E 67 20 6F 70 65 72 61 74 m.Missing operat 000000D0: 69 6E 67 20 73 79 73 74 65 6D 00 00 80 45 14 15 ing system...E.. 000000E0: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ................ 000000F0: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ................ 000001F0: C1 93 01 0F FF A6 D0 12 0E 00 C0 4E 00 00 55 AA ...........N..U.
  • Perry Marshall www.cosmicfingerprints.com/ www.coffeehousetheology.com/
  • Perry Marshall www.cosmicfingerprints.com/ www.coffeehousetheology.com/
    • For Three Years and counting, I have successfully advanced the Information Theory argument for Intelligent Design on the Infidels website, the world’s largest Atheist discussion forum (see: www.cosmicfingerprints.com/iidb.htm for links)
    • DNA is not merely a molecule with a pattern; it is a code, a language, and an information storage mechanism.
    • All codes are created by a conscious mind; there is no natural process known to science that creates coded information.
    • Therefore DNA was designed by a mind.
    • If you can provide an empirical example of a code or language that occurs naturally, you've toppled my proof. All you need is one.
  • Perry Marshall www.cosmicfingerprints.com/ www.coffeehousetheology.com/ DNA and the Genetic Code Part 1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2H-r1TjUXZs DNA and the Genetic Code Part 2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xe1wbiE5Sso DNA and the Genetic Code Part 3 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FtMQUFOwEFo DNA and the Genetic Code Part 4 http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=2H-r1TjUXZs
  • Many arguments against the requirement for a designer involve the assumption that random processes given enough time can produce anything . Such as, “ A monkey and a typewriter given enough time could produce the Encyclopedia Britannica .” Just the title: ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 22 Characters by 26 letter choices each = 26 22 = 1.3x10 31 With 10 Billion monkeys typing 10 keystrokes a second that would require 2.5 x 10 14 years Consider the Odds
  • In contrast the bacterium Mycoplasma genitalium (not shown), a denizen of the human reproductive tract, contains about 580,000 DNA base pairs providing 517 genes, which is about as few as any living organism known. Some bacteria contain 3,000,000 base pairs Animal cells contain about 3,000,000,000 base pairs. 580,000 base Pairs X 4 Bases Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine 4 X 4 X 4 X 4 ….. (4) 580,000 = 1.5 x 10 349,000
  • Companies that produce encyclopedias go to great lengths to preserve their pages from harm and to assemble a finished product free from defects. Letting a tribe of monkeys into an encyclopedia factory would destroy rather than create an encyclopedia . 10 Billion monkeys would destroy the typewriters and paper supply long before the work was finished. Proteins and nucleic acids chains also degrade. The longer the chain that you have already completed the more likely that random processes will destroy the chain before random processes can complete the chain.
  • Computer Programs that simulate evolution generally take a shortcut. ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA The average number of keystrokes required to get one letter right is 26. The outcome is assured and the average time is 26 x 22 = 572 keystrokes or <1 minute Randomly generate an E Lock it, Store it in memory Randomly generate an N Lock it, Store it in memory Randomly generate an C Lock it, Store it in memory … Do You Understand the Difference ?
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA The example of the monkeys and the typewriters never explains the origin of the language already inherent in the typewriter and the encyclopedia. This language must pre-exist and must have been created. All known languages require an intelligence. All known codes required an intelligence. The English language was created to transmit information. The keyboard and computer were designed to encode, store and process information in English. But the most complicated thing here is assumed to have assembled by random chance.
  • If the parts for a million watches were placed on a shaker table for 20 billion years would they ever form a watch. Consider the Physics
  • NO, because, … The pieces do not snap or lock together. Random motion is always more likely to disassemble any pieces that happened to be in the right order than to assemble the next piece. In fact, it will destroy this already assembled watch
  • Suppose that you had computer controlled arm that could build other computer controlled arms that could build other computer controlled arms … etc. Assume all the parts you need are ordered by modem and delivered. PG&E provides all the power and receptacles you’ll ever need. Small rare errors occur in the computer programs. Say there are some advantages in being able to reach farther or computing faster or recognize the correct part. But a system that reproduces can evolve … right ?
  • Time Information or Complexity Random events change the program once in a while. Starting level of complexity Over time errors accumulate to build legs, camera’s, motion sensors, rockets, artificial intelligence, …etc. Which is propagated by natural selection. Non-fatal mistakes in mechanics and programming build up. Some arms look and act unusual. All have reduced capability compared to original. Information loss accumulates through buildup of non-fatal errors. Natural selection weeds out fatal errors. Arms that can’t reproduce don’t. System breaks down. Eventually all arms fail. Which way do things really go ? Minimum level of complexity to function and reproduce
  • Scientific American June 2007 pages 47 - 53 A simpler Origin of Life by Robert Shapiro Robert Shapiro is professor emeritus of chemistry and senior research scientist at New York University . He is author or co-author of more than 125 publications , primarily in the area of DNA chemistry . ... their [nucleotide subunits] assembly into a replicator involves implausibility that dwarf those required for the preparation of the [prebiotic] soup. Life is distinguished by its great degree of organization , yet the second law of thermodynamics requires that the universe move in a direction in which disorder, or entropy, increases . A loophole, however allows entropy to decrease in a limited area, ... When living cells grow and multiply they convert chemical energy or radiation to heat. ... nature would theoretically combine units at random , producing an immense variety of short, terminated chains , rather than the backbone geometry needed to support replicate and catalytic functions. The probability of this latter process succeeding is so vanishingly small that its happening even once anywhere in the visible universe would count as a piece of exceptionally good luck . Nobel Laureate Christian deDuve has called for &quot;a rejection of improbabilities so incommensurably high that the can only be called miracles , phenomena that fall outside the scope of scientific inquiry.&quot; DNA, RNA, proteins and other elaborate large molecules must then be set aside as participants in the origin of life .
  • Scientific American June 2007 pages 47 - 53 A simpler Origin of Life by Robert Shapiro Robert Shapiro is professor emeritus of chemistry and senior research scientist at New York University . He is author or co-author of more than 125 publications , primarily in the area of DNA chemistry . … . Nobel Laureate Christian deDuve has called for &quot;a rejection of improbabilities so incommensurably high that the can only be called miracles , phenomena that fall outside the scope of scientific inquiry.&quot; DNA, RNA, proteins and other elaborate large molecules must then be set aside as participants in the origin of life .
  • This motor was obviously designed, right? How do you know ? What criteria tell you it was designed.
    • The parts fit together in a very complex and exact way to form a working machine.
    • The motor will not function without the:
    • Exact arrangement of parts.
    • Parts of the exact shape and material required.
    • Requires or pre-supposes
    • Fuel (existence of fuel and a supply system)
    • Use for the rotary mechanical output.
    • Someone of something to start motor.
  • Hook filament Rod Basal Rings 0.05 μm How about this Motor?
  • Video: A Rotary Nano-Machine www.nanonet.go.jp/english/mailmag/2004/files/011a.wmv √ Jan 2009
  • ATP Synthase The generator that produces the power your Cells run on
  • ATP Synthase Video www.dnatube.com/video/104/ATP-synthase-structure-and-mechanism √ Jan 2009
  • 3-D Animation of ATP synthase at work http://www.sp.uconn.edu/~terry/images/movs/synthase.mov √ Jan 2009
    • Answers In Genesis
    • www.AnswersInGenesis.org
    • Check out the Videos on Demand
    • Northwest Creation Network
    • www.NWCreation.net
    • Check out the Free Online Videos
    • and Power Points.
    • Scientific Evidence for Creation
    • www.Bible.ca/tracks
    • Watch the On-Line Seminar Videos
    • Creationism . org
    • www.Creationism.org
    • Links, Articles, Books
    √ Jan 2009 √ Jan 2009 √ Jan 2009 √ Jan 2009
  • Free Bible Resources www.3Bible.com Check out the Free Online Videos. Chick Publishing www.Chick.com Online Books and Comics. First Baptist Church of Hammond IN. www.Baptist-City.com www.FBCHammond.com Audio Bible Studies North Valley Baptist Church www.NVBC.org Video Bible Conferences. √ Jan 2009 √ Jan 2009 √ Jan 2009 √ Jan 2009