Antibiotic Evolution

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Intelligent Design, Creationism, Refutes evolution of antibiotic resistance as evidence of bacterial evolutionl

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  • Bacteria can gain new genes or traits the most notable and consequential to man are the traits that provide resistance to antibiotics
  • Antibiotic Evolution

    1. 1. Evolution in Action ? <ul><li>Bacteria can gain new genes for resistance to antibiotics. </li></ul>Evolution Proven Case Closed Or is it ? Where do these new genes come from ???
    2. 2. Pssst! These new genes do not evolve but are supplied by other bacteria which already have the gene for resistance in what is known as lateral gene transfer
    3. 3. There is no better evidence supporting evolution. National Geographic November 2004 p. 21
    4. 4. It is used to mock creationists in newspapers and magazines across America. It is used to propagate the idea that to be a doctor you must accept evolution.
    5. 5. Michael Dini at Texas Tech University www.ttu.edu [email_address] For years he refused to recommend medical and biology students for graduate and professional schooling if they did not believe in the evolution of the human species. This letter has been removed from his website in recent years but he still practices this policy.
    6. 6. One reason he cites for this decision is the “current crisis in antibiotic resistance.” He even hints that it may have been caused by creationist doctors. And one reference book he cites for this decision is “Evolution of Infectious Deseases”
    7. 22. <ul><li>Benjamin L. Aaron M.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Ackerman Ph.D. Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>E. Theo Agard Ph.D. Medical Physics </li></ul><ul><li>James Allan Ph.D. Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Mark H. Armitage M.S. Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Steven Austin Ph.D. Geology </li></ul><ul><li>S.E. Aw Biochemist </li></ul><ul><li>Inis J. Bardella M.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Barnes Physicist </li></ul><ul><li>Geoff Barnard Immunologist </li></ul><ul><li>Don Batten Plant physiologist, tropical fruit expert </li></ul><ul><li>John R. Baumgardner Ph.D. Geophysics and Space Physics </li></ul><ul><li>Otto E. Berg B.A. Physics/Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry Bergman Psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>Kimberly Berrine Microbiology & Immunology </li></ul><ul><li>Vladimir Betina Microbiology, Biochemistry & Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Raymond G. Bohlin Ph.D. Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Bosanquet Biology, Microbiology </li></ul>Young Earth Creation Scientists ICR / AiG
    8. 23. <ul><li>Andrew Bosanquet Biology, Microbiology </li></ul><ul><li>Edward A. Boudreaux Ph.D. Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>David R. Boylan Chemical Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Gregory J. Brewer Ph.D. Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Les Bruce Ph.D. Linguistics </li></ul><ul><li>John Byl Ph.D. Astronomy </li></ul><ul><li>Linn E. Carothers Associate Professor of Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>David Catchpoole Plant Physiologist </li></ul><ul><li>Sung-Do Cha Physics </li></ul><ul><li>Eugene Chaffin Ph.D. Nuclear Physics </li></ul><ul><li>Choong-Kuk Chang Genetic Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Jeun-Sik Chang Aeronautical Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Donald Chittick Ph.D. Physical Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Chung-Il Cho Biology Education </li></ul><ul><li>John Cimbala Ph.D. Aeronautics </li></ul><ul><li>Harold Coffin Palaeontologist </li></ul><ul><li>Bob Compton DVM </li></ul><ul><li>Dan Criswell Ph.D. Biochemistry/Microbiology </li></ul><ul><li>Ken Cumming Ph.D. Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Jack W. Cuozzo Dentist </li></ul><ul><li>William M. Curtis III Th.D., Th.M., M.S., </li></ul><ul><li>Aeronautics & Nuclear Physics </li></ul>
    9. 24. <ul><li>Malcolm A. Cutchins Ph.D. Engineering Mechanics </li></ul><ul><li>Lionel Dahmer Analytical Chemist </li></ul><ul><li>Raymond V. Damadian M.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneer of magnetic resonance imaging </li></ul><ul><li>Chris Darnbrough Biochemist </li></ul><ul><li>Nancy M. Darrall Botany </li></ul><ul><li>Bryan Dawson Ph.D. Mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen W. Deckard Assistant Professor of Education </li></ul><ul><li>David A. Demick M.D. </li></ul><ul><li>David A. DeWitt Ph.D. Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Don DeYoung Ph.D. Physics </li></ul><ul><li>David Down Field Archaeologist </li></ul><ul><li>Geoff Downes Plant Physiologist </li></ul><ul><li>James Dire Ph.D. Astrophysics </li></ul><ul><li>Robert H. Eckel Professor of Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>University of Colorado </li></ul><ul><li>Gary A. Eckhoff D.V.M. </li></ul><ul><li>André Eggen Ph.D. Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Dudley Eirich Molecular Biologist </li></ul><ul><li>Dennis L. Englin Professor of Geophysics </li></ul><ul><li>Danny Faulkner Ph.D. Astronomy </li></ul><ul><li>Carl B. Fliermans Ph.D. Microbiology </li></ul>
    10. 25. <ul><li>Dwain L. Ford Organic Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Franks M.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Alan Galbraith Watershed Science </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Gentry Ph.D. Physics </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Giem Medical Research </li></ul><ul><li>Maciej Giertych Ph.D. Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Alan Gillen Ed.D. Science Education </li></ul><ul><li>Duane Gish Ph.D. Biochemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Werner Gitt Information Scientist </li></ul><ul><li>Warwick Glover General Surgeon </li></ul><ul><li>D.B. Gower Biochemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Tom Greene Ph.D. Astronomy </li></ul><ul><li>Dianne Grocott Psychiatrist </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen Grocott Industrial Chemist </li></ul><ul><li>Randy Guliuzza M.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Donald Hamann Food Scientist </li></ul><ul><li>Barry Harker Philosopher </li></ul><ul><li>Charles W. Harrison Applied Physicist, Electromagnetics </li></ul><ul><li>Dave Harrison Ph.D. Astrophysics </li></ul><ul><li>John Hartnett Physicist and Cosmologist </li></ul><ul><li>Mark Harwood Satellite Communications </li></ul><ul><li>George Hawke Environmental Scientist </li></ul>
    11. 26. <ul><li>Margaret Helder Science Editor, Botanist </li></ul><ul><li>Barbara Helmkamp Ph.D. Physics </li></ul><ul><li>Harold R. Henry Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Jonathan Henry Astronomy </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Henson Entomologist </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Hermann Ph.D. Mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Robert A. Herrmann Professor of Mathematics, </li></ul><ul><li>US Naval Academy </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Hodge Head of the Cardiothoracic Surgical Service </li></ul><ul><li>Kelly Hollowell Ph.D. Molecular and Cell Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Edmond W. Holroyd, III Ph.D. Atmospheric Science </li></ul><ul><li>Bill Hoesch M.S. Geology </li></ul><ul><li>Bob Hosken Ph.D. Biochemistry </li></ul><ul><li>George F. Howe Ph.D. Botany </li></ul><ul><li>Neil Huber Physical Anthropologist </li></ul><ul><li>Russell Humphreys Ph.D. Physics </li></ul><ul><li>James A. Huggins Professor and Chair, Department of Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Evan Jamieson Hydrometallurgy </li></ul><ul><li>George T. Javor Biochemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Pierre Jerlström Molecular Biologist </li></ul>
    12. 27. <ul><li>Arthur Jones Ph.D. Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Jonathan W. Jones Plastic Surgeon </li></ul><ul><li>Raymond Jones Agricultural Scientist </li></ul><ul><li>Valery Karpounin Mathematical Sciences, Logics </li></ul><ul><li>David A. Kaufmann Ph.D. Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Dean Kenyon Ph.D. Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Gi-Tai Kim Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Harriet Kim Ph.D. Biochemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Jong-Bai Kim Biochemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Jung-Han Kim Biochemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Jung-Wook Kim Environmental Science </li></ul><ul><li>Kyoung-Rai Kim Analytical Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Kyoung-Tai Kim Genetic Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Young-Gil Kim Materials Science </li></ul><ul><li>Young In Kim Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>John W. Klotz Biologist </li></ul><ul><li>Vladimir F. Kondalenko Cytology/Cell Pathology </li></ul><ul><li>Leonid Korochkin M.D., Genetics, Molecular Biology, </li></ul><ul><li>Neurobiology </li></ul><ul><li>John K.G. Kramer Ph.D. Biochemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Jin-Hyouk Kwon Physics </li></ul><ul><li>Myung-Sang Kwon Immunology </li></ul>
    13. 28. <ul><li>Alexander V. Lalomov Ph.D. Geology </li></ul><ul><li>John Leslie Ph.D. Biochemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Lane P. Lester Ph.D. Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Jason Lisle Ph.D. Astrophysics </li></ul><ul><li>David P. Livingston, Jr. Ph.D. Archaeology and Ancient History </li></ul><ul><li>Gary Locklair Ph.D. Computer Science </li></ul><ul><li>Raul E. Lopez Ph.D. Atmospheric Science </li></ul><ul><li>Alan Love Chemist </li></ul><ul><li>Ian G. Macreadie Ph.D. Molecular Biology </li></ul><ul><li>John Marcus Ph.D. Molecular Biology </li></ul><ul><li>George Marshall Eye Disease Researcher </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph A. Mastropaolo Ph.D. Kinesiology/Physiology </li></ul><ul><li>Ralph Matthews Radiation Chemist </li></ul><ul><li>John McEwan Chemist </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew McIntosh Ph.D. Thermodynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Tom McMullen Ph.D. History and Philosophy of Science </li></ul><ul><li>David R. McQueen M.S. Geology </li></ul><ul><li>David Menton Ph.D. Cell Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Angela Meyer Creationist Plant Physiologist </li></ul><ul><li>John R. Meyer Ph.D. Zoology </li></ul><ul><li>Albert Mills Animal Embryologist </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive Physiologist </li></ul>
    14. 29. <ul><li>Colin W. Mitchell Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Arlo Moehlenpah D.Sc. Chemical Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>John N. Moore Science Educator </li></ul><ul><li>John W. Moreland Mechanical engineer and Dentist </li></ul><ul><li>Arlton C. Murray Paleontologist </li></ul><ul><li>John Morris Ph.D. Geological Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Len Morris Physiologist </li></ul><ul><li>Graeme Mortimer Geologist </li></ul><ul><li>Stanley A. Mumma Architectural Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Patricia Lynnea Gathman Nason Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Hee-Choon No Ph.D. Nuclear Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Eric Norman Biomedical researcher </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Oard M.S. Atmospheric Science </li></ul><ul><li>Donna O'Daniel M.A. Biological Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Oliver Ph.D. Biology </li></ul><ul><li>John W. Oller, Jr. Ph.D. General Linguistics </li></ul><ul><li>Chris D. Osborne Assistant Professor of Biology </li></ul><ul><li>John Osgood Medical Practitioner </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Pallaghy Botanist </li></ul><ul><li>Gary Parker Ed.D. Biology </li></ul><ul><li>David Pennington Plastic Surgeon </li></ul>
    15. 30. <ul><li>David Phillips M.A. Paleoanthropology </li></ul><ul><li>Georgia Purdom Molecular Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>John Rankin Ph.D. Mathematical Physics </li></ul><ul><li>A.S. Reece M.D. </li></ul><ul><li>J. Rendle-Short Pediatrics </li></ul><ul><li>Daniel W. Reynolds Ph.D. Physical Organic Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Jung-Goo Roe Biology </li></ul><ul><li>David Rosevear Chemist </li></ul><ul><li>Ariel A. Roth Ph.D. Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Jonathan D. Sarfati Physical chemist / spectroscopist </li></ul><ul><li>Ron Samec Ph.D. Physics </li></ul><ul><li>Roger W. Sanders Ph.D. Botany </li></ul><ul><li>Joachim Scheven Palaeontologist: </li></ul><ul><li>Jonathan B. Scripture Ph.D. Biochemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Saami Shaibani Forensic physicist </li></ul><ul><li>Frank Sherwin M.A. Zoology (Parasitology) </li></ul><ul><li>Hyun-Kil Shin Food Science </li></ul><ul><li>Mikhail Shulgin Physics </li></ul><ul><li>Emil Silvestru Geologist/karstologist </li></ul><ul><li>Roger Simpson Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Harold Slusher Geophysicist </li></ul>
    16. 31. <ul><li>E. Norbert Smith Zoologist </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Snelling Ph.D. Geology </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. Man-Suk Song Computer Science </li></ul><ul><li>Timothy G. Standish Ph.D. Environmental Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. James Stark Assistant Professor of Science Education </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. Brian Stone Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Esther Su Biochemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Keith Swenson M.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Lyubka P. Tantcheva Ph.D. Biochemical Toxicology </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Taylor Linguistics </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen Taylor Electrical Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Bert Thompson Ph.D. Microbiology </li></ul><ul><li>Ker C. Thomson Geophysics </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Todhunter Forest Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Lyudmila Tonkonog Chemistry/Biochemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Royal Truman Organic Chemist </li></ul><ul><li>Larry Vardiman Ph.D. Atmospheric Science </li></ul><ul><li>Walter J. Veith Ph.D. Zoology </li></ul><ul><li>Joachim Vetter Biologist </li></ul><ul><li>Tas Walker Mechanical Engineer and Geologist </li></ul><ul><li>Linda K. Walkup Ph.D. Molecular Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Jeremy Walter Mechanical Engineer </li></ul>
    17. 32. <ul><li>Keith Wanser Ph.D. Condensed Matter Physics </li></ul><ul><li>Noel Weeks Ancient Historian, B.Sc. in Zoology </li></ul><ul><li>A.J. Monty White Chemistry/Gas Kinetics </li></ul><ul><li>John Whitmore Geologist/Paleontologist </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Wieland Medical doctor </li></ul><ul><li>Lara Wieland Medical doctor </li></ul><ul><li>Jay Wile Ph.D. Nuclear Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Emmett L. Williams Ph.D. Materials Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Clifford Wilson Psycholinguist and archaeologist </li></ul><ul><li>Kurt P. Wise Ph.D. Geology </li></ul><ul><li>Glen W. Wolfrom Ph.D. Animal Husbandry </li></ul><ul><li>Todd C. Wood Archaeologist, </li></ul><ul><li>Bryant Wood Ph.D. Biochemistry/Genomics </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. Seoung-Hoon Yang Physics </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Thomas (Tong Y.) Yi Ph.D., Aerospace , </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Ick-Dong Yoo Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Sung-Hee Yoon Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Patrick Young Ph.D. Analytical Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. Keun Bae Yu Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Henry Zuill Biology </li></ul>
    18. 33. 500,000 DNA Base Pairs 3,000,000,000 DNA Base Pairs Along the way new information must be gathered to build; Digestive Systems Excretory Systems Nervous Systems Skeletal Systems Muscle Systems Respiratory Systems Circulatory Systems Reproductive Systems From Goo By Way of the Zoo To You Specialized Complex Organs for; Information Storage and Processing Sight, Sound, Smell, Balance, Pressure, Temperature Sensing Respiratory Gas Exchange Processing Food Pumping Blood Filtering Wastes What they mean by Evolution
    19. 34. Where does the new information come from? Typos ?? New Information is not Blank pages Copies of existing pages Pages of gibberish Pages of repeating patterns
    20. 35. 500,000 DNA Base Pairs 3,000,000,000 DNA Base Pairs Along the way new information must be gathered to build; Digestive Systems Excretory Systems Nervous Systems Skeletal Systems Muscle Systems Respiratory Systems Circulatory Systems Reproductive Systems Specialized Complex Organs for; Information Storage and Processing Sight, Sound, Smell, Balance, Pressure, Temperature Sensing Respiratory Gas Exchange Processing Food Pumping Blood Filtering Wastes If this We ought to see it here Laboratory colonies of 10 12 individuals Generation times of 20 minutes can evolve to this in a billion years …
    21. 36. ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... . . .......................................................... . ......... . ................................................ . ............................... . .... . ......................................... ... .................... . .............. . ......... . .......... ... ....... ... .......... . ......... . .... . .................... ... ........ . .... . ...... . ........ ... .. ... ............... . .... . ................... .... ............ . ..... ... . . .......... ... .... . .. ... ........ ..... ..... ..... .. . ..... ... ....... ... .. ... ..... . .. . .... . . . .. ..... ...... ... .. ... .... ... ...... .......... .... . ........ ... ... . ................ . .. ..... .......... ... .... ...... ........ ..... ... ....... .. . ... ....... .. ........... ... ..... ..... .......... ... ...... .. ............ .... .......... .. ..... .... ............ .. ... ...... ..... . ... ..... . ........ ... . Start with All Red Bacteria Blue Bacteria Kill all Red Bacteria Where did the blue gene come from? Evolutionist : It evolved due to exposure to the toxin. This species evolved new trait by absorbing a new gene. Creationist : The trait has always existed, although maybe in a different bacteria. The trait was transferred not created. You still need a creator. . . .......................................................... . ......... . ................................................ . ............................... . .... . ......................................... . . .......................................................... . ......... . ................................................ . ............................... . .... . ......................................... ... .................... . .............. . ......... . .......... ... ....... ... .......... . ......... . .... . .................... ... ........ . .... . ...... . ........ ... .. ... ............... . .... . ................... .... ............ . ..... ... . . .......... ... .... . .. ... ........ ..... ..... ..... .. . ..... ... ....... ... .. ... ..... . .. . .... . . . .. ..... ...... ... .. ... .... ... ...... .......... .... . ........ ... ... . ................ . .. ..... .......... ... .... ...... ........ ..... ... ....... .. . ... ....... .. ........... ... ..... ..... .......... ... ...... .. ............ .... .......... .. ..... .... ............ .. ... ...... ..... . ... ..... . ........ ... . Red Bacteria Blue Bacteria Kill all Red Bacteria Where did the blue gene come from? Evolutionist : It evolved from a mutation. The trait evolved to take over through natural selection. Creationist : The trait has always existed. The trait was selected not created. You still need a creator. Add dead or live bacteria from another species or the same species containing the blue gene. x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Remove all blue bacteria dead or alive Evolution in Action Start with
    22. 37. <ul><li>Three methods for lateral gene transfer </li></ul>
    23. 38. a + a + b + c + d + e + e + f + f + g + g + d + c + b + a - b - c - d - e - g - O O a + b - c + d - e + g - f + X X X X X X f + f + z + z + z + f + z + z + Bacterial Conjugation Bacterial Transformation Bacterial Transduction How can the Orange Bacteria Get the Blue DNA gene ? X
    24. 39. Bacterial Conjugation Ruptured bacteria leaking DNA Including plasmids which can be picked up by other bacteria. (Transformation) Viruses can inject DNA into bacteria (Transduction)
    25. 40. A B C A’B’C’ X’Y’Z’ C B A X Y Z C’B’A’ DNA Transposon IS IS Insertion Sequence Genes for resistance C’B’A’ A B C X Y Z Inverted Repeat Sequence Transposon Resistance Transfer Function Plasmid DNA 38 7800 Mercuric Ions Tn501 18 / 23 2457 Chloramphenicol Fusidic Acid Tn204 1500 5400 Kanamycin Tn5 short 20,500 Ampicillin Streptomycin Sulfonamide Tn4 38 4957 Ampicillin Tn1 Inverted repeat Length (BP’s) Resistance to: Some Common Transposons
    26. 41. Has Word Processor Lacks Word Processor Anything good left on this hard drive? Virus Data Data Will any of these processes lead to the creation of a new type of program, not contained in any of the computers already ? How can the orange computer get information from the blue computer ?
    27. 42. <ul><li>Most antibiotics used are substances naturally synthesized by other bacteria and fungi. </li></ul><ul><li>Most mechanisms of antibiotic resistance are the same ones used by the bacteria that synthesize these antibiotics. </li></ul><ul><li>The genes for resistance probably came from these bacteria. </li></ul>
    28. 43. Some common antibiotics and their targets. Human cell components are different enough from bacterial components so as to not be effected.
    29. 44. Mutations of existing structures may also impart resistance 1. Produce too much of a normal enzyme, or produce a slightly modified enzyme, that destroys the antibiotic. 2. A mutation in a structure that prevents the antibiotic from binding. These structures are usually less efficient than the original. . 3. Produce too many structures such as transport pumps that remove the antibiotic. 1. 3. 2. Excessive number of transport pumps Mutation Too much b-lactamase destroys penicillin
    30. 45. Corrupted Files and Missing subroutines Prevents launching virus. Runs most but not all user programs. Locks up a lot. Serial Port Broken Floppy Drive Broken Hard Drive full of multiple copies of the operating system and all programs. continually run anti-virus software. Very Slow. Killer Virus Killer Virus Error 606 Killer Virus Please Wait Please Wait Please Wait Please Wait The new virus-resistant SUPER - COMPUTERS Technology Progresses Onward And Upward
    31. 46. The Franklin Expedition left London England in 1845 in search of the Northwest Passage to the Pacific. Did the use of antibiotics cause the resistance to evolve ?
    32. 47. The expedition failed and all souls were lost .
    33. 48. Years later some of the bodies were recovered frozen in ice.
    34. 49. <ul><li>Antibiotic resistance before antibiotics? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Scientists at the University of Alberta have revived bacteria from members of the historic Franklin expedition who mysteriously perished in the Arctic nearly 150 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Not only are the six strains of bacteria almost certainly the oldest ever revived, says medical microbiologist Dr. Kinga Kowalewska-Grochowska, three of them also happen to be resistant to antibiotics. In this case, the antibiotics clindamycin and cefoxitin, both of which developed more than a century after the men died, were among those used.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Ed Struzik, Ancient bacteria revived, Sunday Herald , September 16, 1990, A1. </li></ul>
    35. 50. Beta-GALACTOSIDAS Evolved Beta-GALACTOSIDAS 3,500 bp Gene 1000 aa Polypeptide 4000 aa Tetramer Enzyme Barry Hall, a biologist from the University of Rochester, deleted the gene for a lactose enzyme in E. Coli bacteria. Another gene for the lactose enzyme then evolved in in the bacteria after only 2 generations.
    36. 51. <ul><li>The Evolved Beta-GALACTOSIDAS gene </li></ul><ul><li>thousands of base-pairs long and </li></ul><ul><li>with its own repressor already in place, </li></ul><ul><li>which was stopping it from being transcribed, </li></ul><ul><li>was already present in the bacteria’s DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>It required only two base pair mutations. </li></ul><ul><li>to make the repressor sensitive to the lactose </li></ul><ul><li>inducer and </li></ul><ul><li>(2) to make the enzyme produced react with lactose. </li></ul>Repressor Blocks Transcription The Evolved Beta-GALACTOSIDAS gene Sort of a spare tire: this gene’s previous function is unknown, but that the gene and its repressor are conserved in E. coli bacteria means it must have some significance. If this gene is deleted or if other bacteria used that do not have this gene; the lactose enzyme will not evolve even after thousands of generations. The bacteria already had machinery to fold and assemble this new galactosidas enzyme. ) )
    37. 52. Oh look, someone sent us a file in .exl format. Let’s see if my computer can open a file like that. Error: Microsoft Excel Address; 2cb224 (2) Files missing Look! your computer is Evolving a program to read .exl files. It’s only 2 files away from evolving Microsoft Excel. No, I think the computer once had an Excel program written by Microsoft programmers but 2 files were erased or corrupted.
    38. 53. Bacteria Contain Complex Machinery www.sp.uconn.edu/~terry/images/movs/synthase.mov
    39. 54. Bacteria Contain Complex Machinery www.nanonet.go.jp/english/mailmag/2004/files/011a.wmv
    40. 55. No New Information was Created <ul><li>The information (genes) for the antibiotic resistance pre-existed in the environment or the genome. </li></ul><ul><li>Any new information was transferred not created. </li></ul><ul><li>Most mutations of existing genes lost information and degraded function even if it provided resistance to a harmful substance. </li></ul><ul><li>Some mutations switched on functions that were already present or switched between two or more designs like a transformer toy. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria which contained certain information were selected for by killing all bacteria without this information. </li></ul><ul><li>For evolution to occur new information for new traits which did not previously exist must be created. </li></ul>
    41. 56. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools, And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things. Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves: Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen. Romans 1: 22 – 25 Given enough time bacteria will accumulate enough information to evolve into all the kinds of specialized cells we see in plants and animals. FALSE
    42. 57. Why do the heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain thing? The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the LORD, and against his anointed, saying, Let us break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us. He that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh: the Lord shall have them in derision. Psalm 2: 1- 4 (Rock + Rain + Heat + Lightning) x Time = Life FALSE

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