In the Beginning … Powerpoint Presentation By Doug Hove [email_address]
<ul><li>When I consider thy heavens, the work of thy fingers, the moon and the stars, which thou hast ordained; </li></ul><ul><li>Psalms 8:3 </li></ul>
<ul><li>And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also. (Genesis 1:16) </li></ul><ul><li>Lift up your eyes on high, and behold who hath created these things, that bringeth out their host by number:… (Isaiah 40:26) </li></ul>
<ul><li>By the word of the LORD were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath of his mouth. </li></ul><ul><li>(Ps 33:6) </li></ul><ul><li>Praise him, sun and moon, praise him, all you shining stars….for he commanded and they were created. (Ps 148:3-5) </li></ul><ul><li>Thou, even thou, are Lord alone; thou hast made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host… (Nehemiah 9:6) </li></ul>
He telleth the number of the stars; he calleth them all by their names. . (Psalm 147:4)
<ul><li>There are probably 100 Billion Galaxies in the observable universe. </li></ul>
<ul><li>A Galaxy such as our own is about 100,000 light years in diameter, </li></ul>about 1,000 light years thick and contains about 200 to 400 Billion stars With a mass of 600 to 3,000 Solar Masses
<ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humans ask the question, “Where did all this come from?” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The most widely accepted religion today teaches … </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
A Question of Origins by Eternal Productions http://www.nwcreation.net/videos/a_question_of_origins.html
Now this is Science Obeys laws of mathematics and physics Testable Observable Or is it ?
<ul><li>10 -43 Seconds </li></ul>10 10 Seconds 10 2 Seconds 10 -10 Seconds 10 -32 Seconds 15 Billion Years 8 Billion Years (10 14 Seconds) 1 Billion Years (2 Minutes) (20,000 Years) Time Begins Quantum Gravity Epoch Grand Unification Epoch Hadron Epoch Galactic Epoch Atomic Epoch Nuclear Epoch Lepton Epoch We Have it all figured out To the last Billion Years From the first moment Stellar Epoch ( Inflation )
We are not even that sure about what happened less than 50 years ago on a crowded street while being filmed and photographed. JFK Assassinated
It’s in all our school textbooks It’s the DUDE !
We used to think the expansion was steady But now we observe …
Observations now cause scientist to believe the big bang expansion has slowed then accelerated … To power this they need to invent a new form of matter and a new form of energy never before observed.
THE LAMBDA COLD DARK MATTER THEORY The Current Big Bang Theory is called:
<ul><li>Lambda ( Λ ) stands for the comological constant which is a dark energy term that allows for the current accelerating expansion of the universe. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an unknown force or property of the universe. </li></ul>
<ul><li>In the current big bang theory, there is not enough matter and energy in all the atoms and photons in the universe for the Big Bang. We need 5 times more matter and 14 times more energy. </li></ul>
<ul><li>DARK MATTER is not black holes, dwarf stars, planets, ice, dust and gas that we can’t see. It’s a different kind of matter not made of baryons (protons and neutrons). No known particle meets its requirements. </li></ul>
<ul><li>DARK ENERGY is not any known form of energy but a strange repulsive force needed to make the Big Bang model continue to expand. This force has never been observed. </li></ul>
In the beginning there was nothing; no space, no time, no energy A Quantum Fluctuation in the nothingness caused all matter and energy of the universe to appear in an infinitesimal volume. Space and time began. The universe expands from 10 -24 meter to 100 million light-years in 10 -32 seconds in the inflation period. . A MIRACLE ??
We start with nothing. No matter, energy, space or time. If matter and energy cannot be created or destroyed … Where did all the matter and energy come from ? From outside our universe. From the infinite number of other universes that exist outside our own.
An infinite number of 4 - dimensional spaces can fit in a 5 - dimensional frame … Just as an infinite number of 2 - dimensional sheets can fill a 3 - dimensional space like pages in a book. Scientists now believe that when two space membranes collide enough energy is liberated to form a new universe such as ours. This is called the ‘Brane’ Theory .
2 + 3 = 5 2C 2 H 2 + 5O 2 => 4CO 2 + 2H 2 O In science ; quantities, forces, mass, atoms, charges, energy, etc. must balance . => All mass, force, energy, atoms, charges, etc. In the Big Bang … Nothing
The Big Bang requires the following supernatural beliefs: Infinite number of parallel universes outside our own. Creation of all known space matter and energy from nothing within our natural universe. Faster than light expansion. 5 times more matter than can be seen in the universe as a new unknown type of matter. 14 times more energy than can be seen in the universe as a new unknown type of energy. Chance allowed life to form. Creationism implies the following supernatural beliefs: A Creator
Evidence of Design <ul><li>When I look at the solar system, I see the earth at the right distance from the sun to receive the proper amounts of heat and light. This did not happen by chance. </li></ul><ul><li>This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent Being. </li></ul>Who said this? Sir Isaac Newton Called the father of modern physics
<ul><li>The Laws of our Universe are Just-Right for Life </li></ul><ul><li>Gravitational Constant </li></ul><ul><li>if stronger, then stars could not exist for billions of years necessary for evolution </li></ul><ul><li>if weaker, then large stars could not form to generate the heavy elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic Force </li></ul><ul><li>if stronger or weaker then the atomic orbitals and molecular bonds that make life possible would not exist. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Force </li></ul><ul><li>if stronger, then stars burn to quickly for life to form. </li></ul><ul><li>if weaker, then no stable heavy elements could form. </li></ul>
The simplest life form requires 100’s of proteins The average protein is made up of about 1000 amino acids To form just 1 protein 100 peptides long by random chemical process from 20 possible amino acids is about one chance in 20 100 or 10 130 It is estimated that there is only 10 80 atoms in the universe and they have had only 5x10 17 seconds (15 billion years) to form combinations.
12,750 Kilometers 5 Kilometers .0047 = .47% = 4.7 / 1,000 of the earth is suitable for life. Lucky it happened here
< 3 billionths of the solar system is suitable for life.
According to evolution theory there is only a narrow region in our galaxy where life could evolve. 90% of the mass is in the center of the galaxy, but …
The Anthropic Principle Human existence is possible because the constants of physics and the parameters for the universe and for the planet Earth lie within certain highly restricted ranges. The "coincidental" values of the constants of physics and the parameters of the universe point, rather, to a designer who transcends the dimensions and limits of the physical universe. Probability of Life Electro- magnetic Force Anthropic Principle Life can only exist because of a fine balance. Too Much Energy Nuclear Binding Energy Gravitational Constant Strong Nuclear Force Too Much Matter Too Far from Sun Right Part of Galaxy Right Size Sun Too Close To Sun Sun stability No companion star Moon, Gas Giants Earth size, crust atmosphere
The Cosmic Microwave Background proves the Big Bang From every direction in the sky we detect microwaves. These microwaves are equivalent to that which would be radiated by a black body at 2.73 ° K. Or Does it ? + .0002 ° K 2.73 ° K Average - .0002 ° K
3,000°K Cosmologists say the universe became transparent when it was about 3000°k
Since then the universe has expanded to about 1000 times its size and the light has cooled to microwave energy of about 3°k 3,000 1,000 = 3
<ul><li>“ The complete birth of a star has never </li></ul><ul><li>been observed. The principles of physics </li></ul><ul><li>demand some special conditions for star formation and also for a long time period. A cloud of hydrogen gas must be compressed to a sufficiently small size so that gravity dominates. </li></ul>Problems with Star Formation Don DeYoung (Ph.D. in Physics), Astronomy and the Bible , 2000, p. 84. In space, however, almost every gas cloud is light-years in size, hundreds of times greater than the critical size needed for a stable star. As a result, outward gas pressures cause these clouds to spread out farther, not contract .”
“ Precisely how a section of an interstellar cloud collapses gravitationally into a star … is still a challenging theoretical problem … Astronomers have yet to find an interstellar cloud in the actual process of collapse.” Fred Whipple , The Mystery of Comets , (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institute Press, 1985), pp. 211, 213.
<ul><li>“ Most astronomers believe that the clouds gradually contract under their own weight to form stars. This process has never been observed , but if it did occur, it would take many human lifetimes. </li></ul>Danny Faulkner , Ph.D. Astronomy It is known that clouds do not spontaneously collapse to form stars . The clouds possess considerable mass, but they are so large that their gravity is very feeble . Any decrease in size would be met by an increase in gas pressure that would cause a cloud to re-expand .”
<ul><li>“ There is general belief that stars are forming by gravitational collapse; in spite of vigorous efforts no one has yet found any observational indication of conformation . Thus the ‘generally accepted’ theory of stellar formation may be one of a hundred unsupported dogmas which constitute a large part of present-day astrophysics.” </li></ul>Hannes Alfven (Nobel prize winner), Gustaf Arrhenius, “Evolution of the Solar System”, NASA, 1976, p. 480.
<ul><li>“ Despite numerous efforts, we have yet to directly observe the process of stellar formation …. The origin of stars represents one of the fundamental unsolved problems of contemporary astrophysics.” </li></ul>Charles Lada and Frank Shu (both astronomers), “The Formation of Sunlike Stars,” Science , 1990, p. 572.
A uniform cloud of gas, even light-years across, will not collapse into a star. Boyle’s gas laws prevent it. We need another force to compress the cloud into a proto-star
Again imagine the universe as a two-dimensional sheet. Now imagine the universe as the outside skin of a balloon , no center , no edges. As the balloon is blown-up (expands) the stars on the outside move away from each other . The more distant the stars are from each other the faster they move apart .
It was hoped that variations in the C osmic M icrowave B ackground could be linked to vibrations from the Big Bang and could be shown to have produced the galaxies . The amplitude and “ frequencies ” of these vibrations could be mathematically modeled.
W ilkinson M icrowave A nisotropy P robe ( WMAP ) was launched in 2001 to find the variations in the CMB which might correspond to wave fronts from the big bang that could cause stars to form. After subtracting out the motion of the earth and the effect of gas in the orbital plane, statistical analysis revealed a variation of 70° μ K might exist . 2.73007 ° K 2.73000 ° K Not Enough !
Problems with the CMB: Variations might be caused by gas or dust clouds around galactic super clusters. Peaks did not correspond to the predictions of the Lambda Cold Dark Matter model.
Every Element has a unique fingerprint of spectral lines. The Redshift
Redshift of Starlight Redshifts are used to describe the expansion of the universe – the distance of a galaxy from the earth due to the stretching of the light waves. UV IR The Red shift proves the Big Bang Or Does it ? Moving toward Moving away Light Spectrum Red Blue Compressed (blue side) Stretched (red side)
Light Spectrum Red Blue UV IR Each element has a unique fingerprint of specific wavelengths or frequencies of light that it absorbs or emits. These lines corresponds to the energy levels that its electrons can occupy. Increasing wave length
Light Spectrum Red Blue UV IR In the light from distant stars we see the same lines but moved toward the red end of the spectrum. This is believed to be caused by space expanding , stretching the light wave. Increasing wave length It seems that the farther away a star is the more its light is redshifted.
Light Spectrum Red Blue UV IR But instead of a smooth variation we find the redshift values are quantized. The redshift can only be multiples of a certain number (1x, 2x, 3x, 4x, 5x. …) Increasing wave length
* * * * * * Stars moving away at high speeds like fragments from an explosion. Space stretching between us and the stars, like dots on the surface of an expanding balloon. Neither theory can account for the quantized redshifts and faster than light expansion. Two Red-shift Explantions * * * * * *
Quantized Redshifts <ul><li>“ There is now very firm evidence that redshifts of galaxies are quantized …” </li></ul>W. G. Tifft and W. J. Cocke, Global redshift quantization, Astrophysical Journal , 1984.
Quantized Redshifts <ul><li>“ Astronomers have confirmed that numerical values of galaxy redshifts are ‘quantized’ , tending to fall into distinct groups. … </li></ul><ul><li>That would mean the galaxies tend to be grouped into (conceptual) spherical shells concentric around our home galaxy .” </li></ul>Russell Humphreys , Ph.D. Physics, Technical Journal , 2002
Confirmation from Hubble <ul><li>“… the redshift distribution has been found to be strongly quantized in the galactocentric frame of reference.” </li></ul>W. Napier and B. Guthrie , Quantized redshifts: a status report, Journal Astrophysics and Astronomy , 1997.
Creationist Theory #1: Light Created in Transit Genesis 1:1 In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. Genesis 1:14 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years: Isaiah 45:12 I have made the earth, and created man upon it: I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded. Astronomers already accept a supernatural origin for all 1. Time 2. Space 3. Matter If God created the stars then He could create the light from the star to the earth. This has to be done to see the star, just like Adam and Eve, the plants, and the animals had to created mature. 17 times in the Bible we are told God stretched out the universe. This would cause a redshift in light
Creationist Theory #2: The Earth is Near the Center of the Universe Galaxies are arranged in concentric circles millions of light years apart Milky Way The redshift is caused by the sideways motion of other galaxies
Gravity Space-Time Distortion Gravity warps space and dilates time Time slows down the deeper down the gravity well you go. This also causes a redshift due slower moving electrons producing lower frequency photons. This has been measured with global positioning satellites. If the earth were at the center of the universe … and the universe was 50 times smaller (stars closer together) when created … then stars could be billions of years old by the time 6 days had passed on earth.
Creationist Theory #3: Speed of Light Decay Initial value ? Billions of times faster E = mC 2 Present day value 186,000 miles/second Speed of Light Time Speed of light Planck’s Constant = K High Redshifts due to increased atomic masses. Redshift is quantized due to atomic constraints . Very rapid ‘atomic time’ Billions of years worth of fusion and decay