Protein Synthesis
By: Alex Eberhart
Cytoplasm

Nucleus

Ribosomes
Cytoplasm

Ribosomes

Nucleus
Nucleus

Cytoplasm
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ATGCATGTATTATA...
RNA Polymerase

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~...
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ATGCATGTATTATA...
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ATGCATGTATTATA...
mRNA Strand

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~A...
mRNA Strand

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~A...
mRNA Strand

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~A...
mRNA Strand

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~A...
mRNA Strand

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~A...
mRNA Strand

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~A...
mRNA Strand

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~A...
mRNA Strand

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~A...
Nucleus
Cytoplasm

Ribosomes

Nucleus
Cytoplasm

Nuclear
Pore

Nucleus

Ribosomes
Cytoplasm

Nuclear
Pore

Nucleus

Ribosomes
Cytoplasm

Nuclear
Pore

Nucleus

Ribosomes
Cytoplasm

Nuclear
Pore

Nucleus

Ribosomes
Cytoplasm

Nuclear
Pore

Nucleus

Ribosomes
Ribosome
Large Subunit

tRNA
Molecule

U A C
Anti-Codon

Small Subunit

A U G C A U G U A U U A U A G

Start Codon Codon C...
Ribosome
Large Subunit

U A C

Small Subunit

A U G C A U G U A U U A U A G

Start Codon Codon Codon Stop
Codon
Codon
Ribosome
Large Subunit

G U A

U A C

Small Subunit

A U G C A U G U A U U A U A G

Start Codon Codon Codon Stop
Codon
Cod...
Ribosome
Large Subunit

C A U

G U A
U A C
Small Subunit

A U G C A U G U A U U A U A G

Start Codon Codon Codon Stop
Codo...
Ribosome
Large Subunit

A A U
U A C

C A U

G U A
Small Subunit

A U G C A U G U A U U A U A G

Start Codon Codon Codon St...
Ribosome
Large Subunit
Peptide Bond

G U A

A A U
C A U
Small Subunit

A U G C A U G U A U U A U A G

Start Codon Codon Co...
Ribosome
Large Subunit
Peptide Bond

C A U

A A U
Small Subunit

A U G C A U G U A U U A U A G

Start Codon Codon Codon St...
Ribosome
Large Subunit
Peptide Bond

A A U

Small Subunit

A U G C A U G U A U U A U A G

Start Codon Codon Codon Stop
Cod...
Ribosome
Large Subunit
Peptide Bond

Amino Acids

Small Subunit

A U G C A U G U A U U A U A G

Start Codon Codon Codon St...
Ribosome
Large Subunit
Peptide Bond

Small Subunit

A U G C A U G U A U U A U A G

Start Codon Codon Codon Stop
Codon
Codo...
Ribosome
Large Subunit

Final Protein

Small Subunit

A U G C A U G U A U U A U A G

Start Codon Codon Codon Stop
Codon
Co...
Protein Synthesis Summary
The information on DNA is copied onto an
mRNA strand as RNA Polymerase is
synthesizing it. This ...
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ATGCATGTATTATA...
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Eberhart transcription flip book

  1. 1. Protein Synthesis By: Alex Eberhart
  2. 2. Cytoplasm Nucleus Ribosomes
  3. 3. Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nucleus
  4. 4. Nucleus Cytoplasm
  5. 5. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ATGCATGTATTATAG~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  6. 6. RNA Polymerase ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ATGCATGTATTATAG~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  7. 7. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ATGCATGTATTATAG~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  8. 8. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ATGCATGTATTATAG~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  9. 9. mRNA Strand ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ATGCATGTATTATAG~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  10. 10. mRNA Strand ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ATGCATGTATTATAG~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  11. 11. mRNA Strand ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ATGCATGTATTATAG~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  12. 12. mRNA Strand ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ATGCATGTATTATAG~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  13. 13. mRNA Strand ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ATGCATGTATTATAG~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  14. 14. mRNA Strand ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ATGCATGTATTATAG~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  15. 15. mRNA Strand ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ATGCATGTATTATAG~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  16. 16. mRNA Strand ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ATGCATGTATTATAG~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  17. 17. Nucleus
  18. 18. Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nucleus
  19. 19. Cytoplasm Nuclear Pore Nucleus Ribosomes
  20. 20. Cytoplasm Nuclear Pore Nucleus Ribosomes
  21. 21. Cytoplasm Nuclear Pore Nucleus Ribosomes
  22. 22. Cytoplasm Nuclear Pore Nucleus Ribosomes
  23. 23. Cytoplasm Nuclear Pore Nucleus Ribosomes
  24. 24. Ribosome Large Subunit tRNA Molecule U A C Anti-Codon Small Subunit A U G C A U G U A U U A U A G Start Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon Codon
  25. 25. Ribosome Large Subunit U A C Small Subunit A U G C A U G U A U U A U A G Start Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon Codon
  26. 26. Ribosome Large Subunit G U A U A C Small Subunit A U G C A U G U A U U A U A G Start Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon Codon
  27. 27. Ribosome Large Subunit C A U G U A U A C Small Subunit A U G C A U G U A U U A U A G Start Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon Codon
  28. 28. Ribosome Large Subunit A A U U A C C A U G U A Small Subunit A U G C A U G U A U U A U A G Start Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon Codon
  29. 29. Ribosome Large Subunit Peptide Bond G U A A A U C A U Small Subunit A U G C A U G U A U U A U A G Start Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon Codon
  30. 30. Ribosome Large Subunit Peptide Bond C A U A A U Small Subunit A U G C A U G U A U U A U A G Start Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon Codon
  31. 31. Ribosome Large Subunit Peptide Bond A A U Small Subunit A U G C A U G U A U U A U A G Start Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon Codon
  32. 32. Ribosome Large Subunit Peptide Bond Amino Acids Small Subunit A U G C A U G U A U U A U A G Start Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon Codon
  33. 33. Ribosome Large Subunit Peptide Bond Small Subunit A U G C A U G U A U U A U A G Start Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon Codon
  34. 34. Ribosome Large Subunit Final Protein Small Subunit A U G C A U G U A U U A U A G Start Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon Codon
  35. 35. Protein Synthesis Summary The information on DNA is copied onto an mRNA strand as RNA Polymerase is synthesizing it. This strand then leaves the nucleus and goes to a ribosome, where it starts the process of translation. Here, tRNA molecules bring amino acids with anticodons that are complementary to the codons on the mRNA strand. The amino acids fall off and join together with a peptide bond. These amino acids then form a tertiary structure so they can fully function.
  36. 36. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~TACGTACATAATATC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ATGCATGTATTATAG~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

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