Smallholder chocolate forest management and forest ecological services in West and Central Africa
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Smallholder chocolate forest management and forest ecological services in West and Central Africa

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Denis J. Sonwa, Goetz Schroth, Stephan F. Weise, Marc J. J. Janssen, Howard Shapiro, James Gockowski ...

Denis J. Sonwa, Goetz Schroth, Stephan F. Weise, Marc J. J. Janssen, Howard Shapiro, James Gockowski

Presentation for the conference on
Taking stock of smallholders and community forestry
Montpellier France
March 24-26, 2010

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  • Photo: CIFOR Slide Library #12148 – Burkina Faso Women collecting Piliostigma reticulatum pods for animal feed.
  • Photo: CIFOR Slide Library #12148 – Burkina Faso Women collecting Piliostigma reticulatum pods for animal feed.
  • Photo: CIFOR Slide Library #12148 – Burkina Faso Women collecting Piliostigma reticulatum pods for animal feed.

Transcript

  • 1. Smallholder chocolate forest management and forest ecological services in West and Central Africa
    • Denis J. Sonwa 1 , Goetz Schroth 2 , Stephan F. Weise 3 ,
    • Marc J. J. Janssen 4 , Howard Shapiro 2 , James Gockowski 5
    • 1 (CIFOR), Po Box 2008 (Messa) Yaoundé-Cameroon, E-mail: [email_address]
    • 2 Mars Incorporated, USA
    • 3 Bioversity International, France
    • 4 University of Bonn, Germany
    • 5 STCP/IITA, Ghana
    • CIFOR-CIRAD-IRD international conference: Taking stock of smallholder and community forestry: where do we go from here?
    • 24 - 26 March Montpellier, France
    Sustainable Tree Crop Program
  • 2. Outline
    • Drivers & objectives of the establishment of cocoa plantations
    • Management of plantations and biodiversity conservation
    • Smallholder chocolate forest & climate change mitigation
    • Trade-off (socio-economic functions & ecological services
    • Conclusion
  • 3. Forest Baseline in West Africa
    •  The Guinean Forests of West Africa once covered nearly 1.3 million sq. km (equal in size to the combined area of Germany, France and the United Kingdom). Only 126,000 sq km (i.e. 10%) remain .
    • The West African forest was identified as a biodiversity hotspot twenty years ago (Myers, 1988).
    • 1,900 endemic plant species and more than a quarter of Africa’s mammals , including 20 species of primates reside in the scattered remnants of these forests (Conservation International, 2007).
    •  They constitute(d) an important biomass/carbon stock in the region.
    Drivers & objectives of the establishment of cocoa plantations
  • 4. Cocoa beans production
    •  Satisfaction of the international demand for chocolate
    • Cocoa is one of the main cash providers for national economies of West and Central Africa
    • Main cash providers for local populations (important cash crop in rural households in humid forest landscape)
    Drivers & objectives of the establishment of cocoa plantations
  • 5. Management of plantations & biodiversity conservation
    • Increase of cocoa production more by land extension than intensification
    • Forest declining over time
    Forest & Cocoa in Cameroon, Nigeria, Ghana & Cote d’Ivoire * *FAO statistics
  • 6. Management of plantations & biodiversity conservation Forest landscape &Cocoa * *STCP, Baseline 2001-2002
    • Forests are mainly transformed into agroforests (in Cameroon & Nigeria) and orchards (Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire)
    Cameroon Cote d’Ivoire Ghana Nigeria ----------------------- proportion of farms--------------------- Land cover/use prior to cocoa establishment Forest 0.784 0.719 0.298 0.560 Fallow 0.209 0.269 0.675 0.437 Savannah 0.007 0.012 0.027 0.003 Type of cocoa production system Full Sun 0.081 0.279 0.281 0.03 Shaded 0.919 0.721 0.719 0.97
  • 7. Management of plantations & biodiversity conservation 3 types of cocoa plantations, Cameroon*  Different types of cocoa agroforests, similar total basal area, but different structures ( i.e. habitat) *Sonwa (2004) Type A Type B Type C P Age of plantation establishment 37 a 30 ab 24 b 0.02 Cocoa (trees/ha) 918 c 1756 a 106 0 b 0.00 Cocoa (Basal area/ha) 6 a 6 a 3 b 0.00 Musa spp. (trees/ha) 53 a 21ab 11 b 0.09 Oil palm (trees/ha) 46 a 18 b 23 b 0.02 High value timber (trees/ha) 27 b 49 a 61 a 0.00 Indigenous fruit trees (trees/ha) 31 b 41 ab 62 a 0.01 Exotic fruit trees (trees/ha) 23 20 25 0.81 Other trees (trees/ha) 121 b 131 b 212 a 0.00 Total tree density/ha 1218c 2036 a 1453 b 0.00 Total basal area/ha 38 33 33 0.50
  • 8. Smallholder chocolate forest & climate change mitigation Carbon stock: cocoa agroforest & other land uses, Cameroon Adapted from Nolte et al. (2001) Beside forests, cocoa agroforest store more carbon than other land uses
  • 9. Carbon Stock along an Intensification Gradient (Mg ha -1 ) Associated plants stored: *70 % of the total carbon stock of the plantation. * 13 times the carbon found in cocoa trees P: Probability; HFZ: Humid forest zone Means not sharing a common letter in a column are significantly different at 0.05 probability The soil under trees stored around 15% of the total carbon stock of the cocoa agroforest Smallholder chocolate forest in climate change mitigation Zone ------------------Carbon pool--------------------- Total Associated plants Cocoa tree Litter Root Soil Ebolowa 173 11 b 4 18 38 243 Mbalmayo 170 11 b 4 18 35 238 Yaoundé 168 17 a 5 19 39 247 HFZ 170 13 4 18 37 243 P 0.10 0.00 0.36 0.10 0.48 0.98
  • 10. Trade-off between socio-economic functions & ecological services
    • Any species providing shade to cocoa ( < 1970 )
    • Domestication of NWFP and Timber ( = 1990 )
    • Species that can allow biodiversity conservation ( = 2000 )
    • Species that can allow climate change mitigation (ex. CDM, REDD, REDD+; now and future…) and adaptation ( Now & near future )
    Research/Scientist preferences
  • 11. Trade-off between socio-economic functions & ecological services
    • Farmer preference
    • Mainly edible species
    • (ex. In Cameroon farmer plant 4 edible & 3 non edible to diverse the cocoa agroforest*)
    • Field observation
    • Less diversity in cocoa orchard of West Africa compare to cocoa agroforest of Central Africa
    • Mixture of edible, timber, medicinal & other species
    • Species frequent in the field are not necessarily what is needed in the market.
    * Sonwa et al. (2004) Farmers & Fields realities
  • 12. Trade-off between socio-economic functions & ecological services challenge: How to compensate for losses resulting from low production because of shade? * Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana(CRIG) annual reports1960-1982 Shade vs. Cocoa production, Ghana*
  • 13. Main destinations of products from smallholder chocolate forest, Cameroon Potential that can help increase the service offer by cocoa AF Trade-off between socio-economic functions & ecological services Goods & services resulting from these components have not been fully commercialized Urban and peri-urban Village Cocoa agoforest Abroad Cocoa Main proportion of cocoa beans Small national transformation Timber Commercialization of the main proportion Constru-ction purpose Edible NWFP and exotic plants Commercialization of average proportion Very little quantity Household consumption Shade plant species Craft industry and other services
  • 14.
    • Worldwide chocolate consumption is driving conversion of forest lands to orchard and agroforest in West and Central Africa
    • Main ecological services (biodiversity conservation and carbon storage) offered by smallholders chocolate forests are due mainly to forest trees associated with cocoa
    • The presence of shade trees reduce production of cocoa beans (the product with the more formal market) and thus the overall productivity of the land use
    Conclusion
  • 15.
    • Growing/maintaining trees in perennial farms is an option to diversify income , while contributing to ecological services (ex. biodiversity conservation & carbon storage).
    • But to make this effective at the smallholder level ,
    • Ownership of timber trees need to be realized/improved
    • Local, national, and global stakeholders need to be engaged to address productivity, income and ecological services.
    Conclusion
  • 16.
    • www.cifor.cgiar.org
    Sustainable Tree Crop Program