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Ghana jnr presentation manaus june 2013


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This is one of the presentations at the 1st day of "Technical Exchange on Jurisdictional REDD". See more at:

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Ghana jnr presentation manaus june 2013

  1. 1. National Vision for Developing a Cocoa Forest REDD+ Program in Ghana YAW KWAKYE National REDD+ Secretariat Manaus, Brazil, June 2013
  2. 2. Introduction • In 1911, Ghana became #1 global cocoa producer. • 100 years later, Ghana achieved a production milestone - 1 million metric tons/annum. • Top producer of premium quality beans • Ghana’s cocoa sector is a $ 1.5 billion industry. • But much of sector’s growth has come at the expense of forests.
  3. 3. Cocoa Forest REDD+ Program • High Tech programs started in 2001 to increase yields and boost national production to 1 million metric tons/annum. • Results showing promise- achieved target in 2011 • But area under cocoa has doubled (1.8 million ha) • Yields increasing but still low (- 400 kg/ha) • Off-Reserve forests gone, Forest Reserves and National Parks are under threat. • REDD+ program will transform BAU scenario to sustainable, climate-smart cocoa sector.
  4. 4. Desired State Ghana’s 20 year emissions reduction cocoa production system • Program area of 2.5 million ha grouping 16 local districts • Current national production will be grown on 40% of current land area • Yields increased by nearly 200+% (400 kg/ha → 1100 kg/ha) • Farmers retaining and planting shade trees (40% canopy cover) • Carbon emissions per ton of cocoa produced dropped by 90% (20 tons C / ton cocoa produced to 2 tons C / ton of cocoa produced) • Reduce threat to Forest Reserves • New forests and tree cover
  5. 5. Desired State Ghana’s 20 year REDD+ cocoa production system
  6. 6. New Cocoa Product Ghana to be top global producer of premium quality climate-smart cocoa beans • Sustainable production system • Ensuring livelihoods of hundreds of thousands of Ghanaians Government Interest • Security of supply • Long term access to markets Private Sector Interest
  7. 7. Forest Resources HFZ covers 9 million ha • 2.5 million ha in Forest Reserves • 6.5 million ha in off-reserve Forest Reserves degraded Off-Reserve converted to tree crops & agriculture Terrestrial carbon stocks • 7.46 GtCO2e • Majority in the HFZ
  8. 8. Deforestation & Degradation • No clear numbers on degradation – 84% of Forest Reserves degraded or worse. • National deforestation rate estimated at 2.0% nationally – Losing 135,000 ha annually – Recognition that rate ranges widely • Recent assessment in program area shows 2.8% - 6.1%
  9. 9. 2.8% deforestation rate 1986 2000 2011 6.1% deforestation rate Over past 25 years average 4.3%/yr Forest ● Shaded Cocoa /Secondary Forest ● No Shade Cocoa / Bush Fallow ● Agriculture ● Settlement ●
  10. 10. Cocoa Forest REDD+ Program Ecological Soil Climate E.R. potential Agronomic Dominant production areas Impact of inputs Socio- Political Grouping of Political Districts with Cultural importance of cocoa Presence of programs, projects Co- Benefits Livelihoods Biodiversity Factors Influencing Selection of Proposed Area:
  11. 11. Soil • Most important agronomic variable for cocoa. • Current national production could be grown on ¼ current hectares cultivated • Best soils are fertile, good organic content, good moisture retention, respond to inputs • Other soil types are unsuitable
  12. 12. Current & Future Climate Suitability Laderach et al 2012
  13. 13. Past & Present Cocoa Trends
  14. 14. Co-Benefits Livelihoods • 800,000+ cocoa farm families • 30% of Ghanaians rely upon the sector • Yield increases will have major poverty reduction impact • Should cocoa decline due to climate change & loss forest ecosystem services, devastating livelihood impact • Women represent approx. 50% of cocoa households, but disproportionately low access to cocoa resources Biodiversity • Program area encompasses national parks, GSBA, biologically diverse Forest Reserves • Direct correlation between intensification and loss biological diversity on-farm • Insects, soil fauna play critical role in pollination and maintenance of soil fertility
  15. 15. Time Frame & Accounting Phases • 20 year (2015-2035) • Design Phase (2013- 2015) • Complete R-Package • In line with development of FIP projects • Investment Phase (2016- 2018) • Performance Payments Phase (2019-2035) Accounting • Utilize national registry database being designed under R-PP to account for all AFOLU accounting • Link to World Bank CARS system or VCS for international transactional accounting
  16. 16. Implementation Partners Government Private Sector & Industry Bodies Civil Society / NGOs Cocoa Board (Cocobod) Banks National House of Chiefs Forestry Commission Insurance Companies Traditional Authorities MLNR Licensed Buying Companies NGOs MoFEP Chocolate Companies CREMA communities MoFA Industry Foundations REDD+ Pilot Proponents CRIG Certification Bodies Farmer Associations District Assemblies Multilateral Development Institutions
  17. 17. Key Interventions Institutional Collaboration Cocoa Board, MLNR, FC FIP has started Needs to be expanded, strengthened Policy Reforms Priority area R-PP & FIP taking lead Further reforms needed Increase Yields Primary focus of cocoa industry Limited success Happening in isolation De-Risk Cocoa Farming Many risks for farmer Expand access to credit Need insurance Landscape Planning Total absence in cocoa sector Policies largely in place Need to implement Data Management Should be Cocoa Board platform Necessary for climate-smart Manage sector data In isolation, no single measure can be effective to increasing sustainability and achieving desired state.
  18. 18. Reference Emissions Level • Historic approach • 20 year program • Above ground carbon pool • Conservative deforestation rate of 2.3% • Two strata Intact Forest • 120 tC/ha • 845,000 ha Shaded Cocoa • 70 tC/ha • 800,000 ha
  19. 19. Total Expected ERs 131,616,930.60 tCO₂ 50% program performance factor Potential ERs
  20. 20. Social Environmental Impacts • Three impact assessment procedures & requirements will be applied during program process: – R-PP describes clear process to assess impacts – Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedures of EPA – SESA requirements of MDB Will build off of processes conducted by R-PP and FIP initiatives • Program development process to identify social and environmental impacts and assess co-benefits • Where necessary, will prepare mitigation instruments • Safeguard measures will be outlined
  21. 21. Scenario and MRV • Ghana intends to follow VCS scenario 2 with crediting to jurisdiction and project levels. • MRV system will be designed for tracking deforestation, degradation, forestation and enhancement of carbon stocks in program. • Will be a sub-system of national REDD+ MRV system.
  22. 22. Financing Preliminary estimates of the cost of Ghana’s ER Program over 20 years: US$ 2,067,000,000 Source US Dollars FCPF R-PP funds 2,000,000 FIP funds 5,000,000 FCPF Carbon Fund 50,000,000 Private Cocoa Sector 2,000,000,000 Government of Ghana 10,000,000
  23. 23. Thank you