Using Game Based Learning in Algebra Courses with Community College Students<br />Presented by<br />Kathy Liska<br />
Purpose<br />Math Anxiety<br />Stress<br />Remedial or developmental mathematics<br />Immersion<br />Processes<br />Critic...
Statistics<br />National Center on Education and the Economy (NCEE)<br />2/3 of students entering high school graduate<br ...
More Statistics<br />21% of students applying to 4 year colleges are ready for college level reading, writing, math, or bi...
Processes<br />Game playing<br />Probing<br />Hypothesis forming<br />Reprobing<br />Rethinking hypothesis <br /> another...
Games like learning ……<br />Cognition<br />Social interaction<br />Compelling<br />Practice    mastery<br />Challenging b...
Game-based Learning<br />Tool<br />Interactive<br />Iterative<br />Progressive<br />Immersive<br />Real world applications...
21st Century Skills<br />STEM<br />Innovation<br />Creativity<br />International Adult Literacy Survey<br />USA<br /> 13 o...
Role of Community Colleges<br />NCAT<br />Gates Foundation<br />Changing the Equation<br />Process education<br />Experien...
Student Participation<br />Active in own learning<br />Interactive software<br />Work at own pace<br />Self-directed learn...
Mathematics Literacy<br />Steen<br />“quantitative literacy needs to become as pervasive in the curriculum as are reading ...
Case Study<br />Algebra I classes<br />1 instructor<br />2 Classes Spring 2010<br />1 control<br />1 experimental<br />2 C...
Case Study<br />Control<br />Paper and pencil homework and practice problems<br />Experimental<br />Paper and pencil<br />...
Case Study - Games<br />Each game has different skill level options<br />Familiarity<br />Three games:<br />Systems of Equ...
Jeopardy<br />www.quia.com/cb/79607.html<br />4 categories<br />Solve by graphing<br />Solve by substitution<br />Solve by...
Hoop Shots<br />www.crctlessons.com/systems-of-equations-game.html<br />3 categories<br />Rookie<br />Experienced<br />Sup...
Hoop Shots<br />Timed 1 player option<br />Time increased by 3 sec. for each correct answer<br />Time decreased by 5 sec. ...
Battleship<br />www.quia.com/ba/36544.html<br />Human vs computer<br />3 Levels<br />Easy<br />Medium<br />Hard<br />
Surveys<br />Anonymous<br />Pre and post<br />Qualitative and quantitative<br />5 point Likert scale<br /> 1 = strongly di...
Surveys<br />Some questions reverse coded<br />Math anxiety<br />Motivation<br />Demographics<br />
Hypotheses<br />Hypothesis #1:<br />Students will report having less math anxiety when they use game based learning in the...
Hypotheses<br />Hypothesis #3:<br />Students using game based learning will report feeling more motivated to attempt diffi...
Results<br />Experimental<br />8 out of 32 used games (25%)<br />Equal number of males and females<br />Ages (Game Users)<...
Results – Game Usage<br />“If you did not use any of the games, please indicate why by choosing one of the following”<br /...
Results - Anxiety<br />Likert scale<br />Higher scores indicate a higher level of anxiety<br />Mean score<br />Control gro...
Anxiety Likert Scores<br />
Individual Anxiety Scores<br />Game users<br />Reduction in scores for all but 1 student<br />Average reduction = 8.6 <br ...
Attempting Difficult Problems<br />Not much difference<br />Inconclusive<br />Need for more research<br />
Future Research<br />Larger sample size<br />Embed games in Algebra course<br />Curriculum development<br />Throughout all...
Game Maker<br />Have students create game based on given scenario<br />Parameters to measure<br />How long it takes to do ...
Lessons Learned<br />Use more specific questions in survey<br />What about online classes?<br />Comparison with traditiona...
Conclusions<br />More research is necessary<br />Need for new tools to assist students<br />Need for innovative approach t...
Works Cited<br />Gee, James Paul. What Video Games Have To Teach Us About Learning and Literacy. New York: Palgrave Macmil...
Questions?<br />
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Game based learning 2011

  1. 1. Using Game Based Learning in Algebra Courses with Community College Students<br />Presented by<br />Kathy Liska<br />
  2. 2. Purpose<br />Math Anxiety<br />Stress<br />Remedial or developmental mathematics<br />Immersion<br />Processes<br />Critical thinking<br />
  3. 3. Statistics<br />National Center on Education and the Economy (NCEE)<br />2/3 of students entering high school graduate<br />2/3 of those graduates go on to higher education<br />2/3 of those must take remedial classes in college<br />(Tough Choices or Tough Times)<br />
  4. 4. More Statistics<br />21% of students applying to 4 year colleges are ready for college level reading, writing, math, or biology (NCEE)<br />43% at 2 year colleges and almost 30% at 4 year colleges have taken remedial classes<br />Result  $ 2.5 billion (Twigg)<br />
  5. 5. Processes<br />Game playing<br />Probing<br />Hypothesis forming<br />Reprobing<br />Rethinking hypothesis <br /> another hypothesis (Gee)<br />Critical thinking<br />Strategy<br />
  6. 6. Games like learning ……<br />Cognition<br />Social interaction<br />Compelling<br />Practice  mastery<br />Challenging but not “undoable” (Gee)<br />Feeling of achievement<br />“Regime of competence” (Gee)<br />Semiosis<br />Critical thinking<br />
  7. 7. Game-based Learning<br />Tool<br />Interactive<br />Iterative<br />Progressive<br />Immersive<br />Real world applications<br />Instructor or commercially developed games<br />Students use program to develop games<br />Game Maker (http://www.yoyogames.com/gamemaker)<br />
  8. 8. 21st Century Skills<br />STEM<br />Innovation<br />Creativity<br />International Adult Literacy Survey<br />USA<br /> 13 out of 20 in quantitative literacy<br />
  9. 9. Role of Community Colleges<br />NCAT<br />Gates Foundation<br />Changing the Equation<br />Process education<br />Experiential<br />Project based learning<br />“In order to learn, one must do.” Carl Rogers<br />
  10. 10. Student Participation<br />Active in own learning<br />Interactive software<br />Work at own pace<br />Self-directed learning<br />
  11. 11. Mathematics Literacy<br />Steen<br />“quantitative literacy needs to become as pervasive in the curriculum as are reading and writing”<br />Paulos<br />Innumeracy<br />“when” of using math<br />Tall<br />“shift focus of attention from steps of procedure to the effect of the procedure”<br />
  12. 12. Case Study<br />Algebra I classes<br />1 instructor<br />2 Classes Spring 2010<br />1 control<br />1 experimental<br />2 Classes Fall 2010<br />2 experimental<br />4 weeks middle of semester<br />Systems of equations<br />
  13. 13. Case Study<br />Control<br />Paper and pencil homework and practice problems<br />Experimental<br />Paper and pencil<br />Online math games<br />Use each game at least once<br />Use >= 2 hours per week<br />Keep track of how long used each game<br />
  14. 14. Case Study - Games<br />Each game has different skill level options<br />Familiarity<br />Three games:<br />Systems of Equations Jeopardy<br />Systems of Equations Hoop Shots<br />One-step Equations: Battleship<br />
  15. 15. Jeopardy<br />www.quia.com/cb/79607.html<br />4 categories<br />Solve by graphing<br />Solve by substitution<br />Solve by elimination<br />Systems of inequalities<br />5 point options per category<br />1 or 2 player option<br />
  16. 16. Hoop Shots<br />www.crctlessons.com/systems-of-equations-game.html<br />3 categories<br />Rookie<br />Experienced<br />Superstar<br />1 or 2 player option<br />
  17. 17. Hoop Shots<br />Timed 1 player option<br />Time increased by 3 sec. for each correct answer<br />Time decreased by 5 sec. for each incorrect answer<br />After 10 questions answered<br />Make as many shots as possible in accumulated time<br />Each basket made = 3 points<br />
  18. 18. Battleship<br />www.quia.com/ba/36544.html<br />Human vs computer<br />3 Levels<br />Easy<br />Medium<br />Hard<br />
  19. 19. Surveys<br />Anonymous<br />Pre and post<br />Qualitative and quantitative<br />5 point Likert scale<br /> 1 = strongly disagree<br /> 2 = disagree<br />3 = undecided<br />4 = agree<br />5 = strongly agree<br />
  20. 20. Surveys<br />Some questions reverse coded<br />Math anxiety<br />Motivation<br />Demographics<br />
  21. 21. Hypotheses<br />Hypothesis #1:<br />Students will report having less math anxiety when they use game based learning in their algebra courses.<br />Hypothesis #2:<br />Students will attempt to solve more practice problems when using game based learning rather than traditional pencil and paper approach.<br />
  22. 22. Hypotheses<br />Hypothesis #3:<br />Students using game based learning will report feeling more motivated to attempt difficult problems.<br />Hypothesis #4:<br />Younger students will more easily adapt to using a new game program for practicing algebra problems than older students.<br />
  23. 23. Results<br />Experimental<br />8 out of 32 used games (25%)<br />Equal number of males and females<br />Ages (Game Users)<br />Females 18 - 22<br />Males 18 – 30<br />Ages (Non Game Users)<br />Females 18 – 26<br />Males 18 - 39 <br />No real difference<br />
  24. 24. Results – Game Usage<br />“If you did not use any of the games, please indicate why by choosing one of the following”<br />Non Game Users<br />76.5% (13/17) selected “not enough time”<br />2 selected “other”<br />1 selected “didn’t see the point”, “not interested”, and “other”<br />
  25. 25. Results - Anxiety<br />Likert scale<br />Higher scores indicate a higher level of anxiety<br />Mean score<br />Control group 33.9<br />Experimental non game users 31<br />Experimental game users 27<br />
  26. 26. Anxiety Likert Scores<br />
  27. 27. Individual Anxiety Scores<br />Game users<br />Reduction in scores for all but 1 student<br />Average reduction = 8.6 <br />Range -22 points to +4 points<br />
  28. 28. Attempting Difficult Problems<br />Not much difference<br />Inconclusive<br />Need for more research<br />
  29. 29. Future Research<br />Larger sample size<br />Embed games in Algebra course<br />Curriculum development<br />Throughout all modules not just one<br />Game development for adults<br />Games limited in scope<br />Game Maker<br />
  30. 30. Game Maker<br />Have students create game based on given scenario<br />Parameters to measure<br />How long it takes to do homework<br />Comfort level of students using Game Maker<br />Impact on students performance?<br />
  31. 31. Lessons Learned<br />Use more specific questions in survey<br />What about online classes?<br />Comparison with traditional classroom<br />Embed game based learning in Algebra curriculum<br />Compare to traditional classroom<br />
  32. 32. Conclusions<br />More research is necessary<br />Need for new tools to assist students<br />Need for innovative approach to teach math<br />Use of real world applications<br />Need for game development geared toward adult college students<br />Continuous mathematics literacy needs to be reinforced starting in early childhood<br />
  33. 33. Works Cited<br />Gee, James Paul. What Video Games Have To Teach Us About Learning and Literacy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.<br />National Center on Education and the Economy (2008). Tough Choices or Tough Times. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.<br />Steen, Lynn Arthur. “How Mathematics Counts.” Educational Leadership, 65.3 (November 2007): 8-14. Empire State College EBSCOHost database. 31 May 2009.<br />Tall, David. “The transition to formal thinking in mathematics.” Mathematics Education Research Journal. 20.2 (2008): 5-24. Empire State College EBSCOhost. 31 May 2009.<br />
  34. 34. Questions?<br />

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