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Federation of American Scientists ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Immune Attack:  Molecular Science for the Public Acknowledgements: National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Diseases (2009-2014)  National Science Foundation (2004-2007) Kauffman Foundation, PhRMA,  Verizon Foundation, Entertainment Software Association, KnowledgeWorks, Carnegie Corp.
Immune Attack:  Molecular Science for the Public Why teach the public about Molecular Science?  Why FAS? Interface between Scientists and the Public  Intuitive game play with molecules and cells Spiral Curriculum and why games teach How to present cells and molecules accurately Evaluation of learning technology Several possible evaluation questions DATA demonstrating learning and attitude increases
Federation of American Scientists Why should FAS care about Education and Training? Because we want civilian oversight over technology development Therefore, the civilians must be able to assess the impact of new technology on society Hans Bethe Atomic bomb, 1945
Federation of American Scientists Why should FAS care about Education and Training? Because we want civilian oversight over technology development Therefore, the civilians must be able to assess the impact of new technology on society Hans Bethe Kary Mullis Atomic bomb, 1945 Polymerase  Chain Reaction,  1983
Federation of American Scientists Why should FAS care about Education and Training? Because we want civilian oversight over technology development Therefore, the civilians must be able to assess the impact of new technology on society Countless issues where government policy can not be assessed without  an understanding of molecular science:  Stem cells, bio terrorism, vaccination, designer viruses, the genome project, designer drugs, designer bacteria,  AIDS, paternity, cancer, developmental biology, infectious disease,  environmental contaminants, climate change.
How to teach molecular Science to the public? Scientists and graduate students are called to spend more time educating.
How to teach molecular Science to the public? Scientists and graduate students are called to spend more time educating.  How to teach the average American about complex concepts in molecular science when scientists all have too much to do already? We need an efficient delivery system, and a means of extracting information from scientists quickly, yet still accurately. Solution:  Hire a scientist to develop a video game.
How to interact with scientists efficiently? The Scientific Advisory Group, SAG Listed on our website Community Outreach activity on their CV Fun Credit/Publicity for their work Melanie Stegman at FAS Request review of the game outline <4 times a year. Keep the game outline <4 pages Keep questions specific and clear (read a lot) Plain English + scientific footnotes
Intuitive Game Play  ---- Teaches behaviors of many objects and  ---- Teaches rules that relate many objects to each other Jerome Bruner, 1960, the Spiral Curriculum in the Process of Education. The Spiral Curriculum works:  We all know about equal and opposite forces when we start college  physics .
Intuitive Game Play  ---- Teaches behaviors of many objects and  ---- Teaches rules that relate many objects to each other Jerome Bruner, 1960, the Spiral Curriculum in the Process of Education. The Spiral Curriculum works:  We all know about equal and opposite forces when we start college  physics .
However, when we start college  biology   we do not know about random diffusion, stochastic behavior, genetic variation among individuals, or signal integration….  We also are not familiar with proteins or molecules as objects with inherent traits and with individual activities. Intuitive Game Play  ---- Teaches behaviors of many objects and  ---- Teaches rules that relate many objects to each other Jerome Bruner, 1960, the Spiral Curriculum in the Process of Education. The Spiral Curriculum works:  We all know about equal and opposite forces when we start college  physics .
Immune Attack:  Molecular Science for the Public Why teach the public about Molecular Science?  Why FAS? Interface between Scientists and the Public  Intuitive game play with molecules and cells Spiral Curriculum and why games teach How to present cells and molecules accurately Evaluation of learning technology Several possible evaluation questions DATA demonstrating learning and attitude increases
How can we teach the most advanced concepts to the average Americans?
Video Games 83% of students 8-18 have at least one video game in their home.  (Entertainment Software Association, 2008)  Black students 8-18 years old play games 90 minutes per day on average  (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2006)  40% of all video game players are female  (ESA, 2008).  How can we teach the most advanced concepts to the average Americans?  The average American is playing them:
Immune Attack teaches students cell biology Learning Evaluation Methods: 7th -12 grade teachers register on our website.  Students are randomly assigned to the test group or the control group.  Week one: Students play Immune Attack OR the control game for 40 minutes. Week two: Students play Immune Attack OR the control game for 40 minutes. The next day, students take online exam. I receive the students answers with no identifying information,  and the teachers submit a report describing the testing conditions.
How could we become familiar with proteins and cells as  objects with inherent traits, with individual activities?  Video Games
How could we become familiar with proteins and cells as  objects with inherent traits, with individual activities?  Video Games Which one is Pacman? What does Pacman do? How does he do it? Who are the colored guys? What do they do? What do they do to Pacman? What does Pacman do to them? Is their relationship static? What causes changes in their relationship? Does Pacman move randomly? Do the other guys move randomly? You know the answer to all these questions:
What’s wrong with this picture?
Can you find the  peak of Mt Everest? http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=3499 Peaks labeled by NASA From 5% of the Earth’s  diameter above  Mt Everest is a  two-dimensional speck
The Nanobot interacts with proteins   the Microbot shows the cell-level view  Nanobot Microbot
Scientific presentation of  the most mundane details  provides for intuitive learning.
First attempt at Immune Attack’s new look! Artery walls are not red. Microbot is only  light source
Immune Attack:  Molecular Science for the Public Why teach the public about Molecular Science?  Why FAS? Interface between Scientists and the Public  Intuitive game play with molecules and cells Spiral Curriculum and why games teach How to present cells and molecules accurately Evaluation of learning technology Several possible evaluation questions DATA demonstrating learning and attitude increases
Evaluation of a learning technology Is the new technology better than  nothing ? a lecture ? a movie? a book? Will the technology teach what a lecture alone cannot? problem solving fill in the blank rather than guessing teaching is available at moment of need  Will the technology provide familiarity with basic concepts in the field: random motion of molecules stochastic behavior importance of 3D arrangement 3D arrangement
Can video games really explain complex concepts   like signal integration, etc?  Videos games are: 3-dimensional interactive  require problem solving Video games are also competitive,  engaging  and create  motivation. By offering rewards and challenges in an optimized manner,  Flow : as defined by psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (1975). Video game keeps players  on task much longer  than a lecture or a essay on the same topic.  Video games are an efficient information delivery tool.  But what kind of information?
Immune Attack teaches students cell biology ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Immune Attack teaches students cell biology Monocyte transmigration is a multi-step process. Refer to the four figures and then choose the answer that lists the steps in the correct order.  3.
Immune Attack teaches students cell biology 4.
How to test for Confidence?
How to test for Confidence? How does this make you feel? Nature Reviews Immunology , 2007.  7 :678.
How to test for Confidence? I would be able to understand this diagram if I read it and think about it.     1 Disagree definitely    2 Disagree somewhat    3 Neutral    4 Agree somewhat    5 Agree definitely Nature Reviews Immunology , 2007.  7 :678.
Immune Attack Increases Confidence  of students in grades 7th - 12th I would be able to understand this diagram if I read it and think about it.  1 2 3 4 5 Disagree Neutral Agree 2.77 3.25 Immune Attack players Control Game players Results are significant T-Test, 2 sided,  p value of 0.00012
Immune Attack Increases Confidence  of students in grades 7th - 12th
Increases in confidence occur in middle school- and high school students and are gender neutral. Control Immune Attack Difference Grades 7,8,9 Female 2.72 3.36 0.64 Male 2.69 3.18 0.49 Grades 10,11, 12 Female 2.66 3.15 0.50 Male 3.00 3.46 0.46 Total 2.77 3.25 0.57

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Immune Attack - The Concept

  • 1.
  • 2. Immune Attack: Molecular Science for the Public Why teach the public about Molecular Science? Why FAS? Interface between Scientists and the Public Intuitive game play with molecules and cells Spiral Curriculum and why games teach How to present cells and molecules accurately Evaluation of learning technology Several possible evaluation questions DATA demonstrating learning and attitude increases
  • 3. Federation of American Scientists Why should FAS care about Education and Training? Because we want civilian oversight over technology development Therefore, the civilians must be able to assess the impact of new technology on society Hans Bethe Atomic bomb, 1945
  • 4. Federation of American Scientists Why should FAS care about Education and Training? Because we want civilian oversight over technology development Therefore, the civilians must be able to assess the impact of new technology on society Hans Bethe Kary Mullis Atomic bomb, 1945 Polymerase Chain Reaction, 1983
  • 5. Federation of American Scientists Why should FAS care about Education and Training? Because we want civilian oversight over technology development Therefore, the civilians must be able to assess the impact of new technology on society Countless issues where government policy can not be assessed without an understanding of molecular science: Stem cells, bio terrorism, vaccination, designer viruses, the genome project, designer drugs, designer bacteria, AIDS, paternity, cancer, developmental biology, infectious disease, environmental contaminants, climate change.
  • 6. How to teach molecular Science to the public? Scientists and graduate students are called to spend more time educating.
  • 7. How to teach molecular Science to the public? Scientists and graduate students are called to spend more time educating. How to teach the average American about complex concepts in molecular science when scientists all have too much to do already? We need an efficient delivery system, and a means of extracting information from scientists quickly, yet still accurately. Solution: Hire a scientist to develop a video game.
  • 8. How to interact with scientists efficiently? The Scientific Advisory Group, SAG Listed on our website Community Outreach activity on their CV Fun Credit/Publicity for their work Melanie Stegman at FAS Request review of the game outline <4 times a year. Keep the game outline <4 pages Keep questions specific and clear (read a lot) Plain English + scientific footnotes
  • 9. Intuitive Game Play ---- Teaches behaviors of many objects and ---- Teaches rules that relate many objects to each other Jerome Bruner, 1960, the Spiral Curriculum in the Process of Education. The Spiral Curriculum works: We all know about equal and opposite forces when we start college physics .
  • 10. Intuitive Game Play ---- Teaches behaviors of many objects and ---- Teaches rules that relate many objects to each other Jerome Bruner, 1960, the Spiral Curriculum in the Process of Education. The Spiral Curriculum works: We all know about equal and opposite forces when we start college physics .
  • 11. However, when we start college biology we do not know about random diffusion, stochastic behavior, genetic variation among individuals, or signal integration…. We also are not familiar with proteins or molecules as objects with inherent traits and with individual activities. Intuitive Game Play ---- Teaches behaviors of many objects and ---- Teaches rules that relate many objects to each other Jerome Bruner, 1960, the Spiral Curriculum in the Process of Education. The Spiral Curriculum works: We all know about equal and opposite forces when we start college physics .
  • 12. Immune Attack: Molecular Science for the Public Why teach the public about Molecular Science? Why FAS? Interface between Scientists and the Public Intuitive game play with molecules and cells Spiral Curriculum and why games teach How to present cells and molecules accurately Evaluation of learning technology Several possible evaluation questions DATA demonstrating learning and attitude increases
  • 13. How can we teach the most advanced concepts to the average Americans?
  • 14. Video Games 83% of students 8-18 have at least one video game in their home. (Entertainment Software Association, 2008) Black students 8-18 years old play games 90 minutes per day on average (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2006) 40% of all video game players are female (ESA, 2008). How can we teach the most advanced concepts to the average Americans? The average American is playing them:
  • 15. Immune Attack teaches students cell biology Learning Evaluation Methods: 7th -12 grade teachers register on our website. Students are randomly assigned to the test group or the control group. Week one: Students play Immune Attack OR the control game for 40 minutes. Week two: Students play Immune Attack OR the control game for 40 minutes. The next day, students take online exam. I receive the students answers with no identifying information, and the teachers submit a report describing the testing conditions.
  • 16. How could we become familiar with proteins and cells as objects with inherent traits, with individual activities? Video Games
  • 17. How could we become familiar with proteins and cells as objects with inherent traits, with individual activities? Video Games Which one is Pacman? What does Pacman do? How does he do it? Who are the colored guys? What do they do? What do they do to Pacman? What does Pacman do to them? Is their relationship static? What causes changes in their relationship? Does Pacman move randomly? Do the other guys move randomly? You know the answer to all these questions:
  • 18. What’s wrong with this picture?
  • 19. Can you find the peak of Mt Everest? http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=3499 Peaks labeled by NASA From 5% of the Earth’s diameter above Mt Everest is a two-dimensional speck
  • 20. The Nanobot interacts with proteins the Microbot shows the cell-level view Nanobot Microbot
  • 21. Scientific presentation of the most mundane details provides for intuitive learning.
  • 22. First attempt at Immune Attack’s new look! Artery walls are not red. Microbot is only light source
  • 23. Immune Attack: Molecular Science for the Public Why teach the public about Molecular Science? Why FAS? Interface between Scientists and the Public Intuitive game play with molecules and cells Spiral Curriculum and why games teach How to present cells and molecules accurately Evaluation of learning technology Several possible evaluation questions DATA demonstrating learning and attitude increases
  • 24. Evaluation of a learning technology Is the new technology better than nothing ? a lecture ? a movie? a book? Will the technology teach what a lecture alone cannot? problem solving fill in the blank rather than guessing teaching is available at moment of need Will the technology provide familiarity with basic concepts in the field: random motion of molecules stochastic behavior importance of 3D arrangement 3D arrangement
  • 25. Can video games really explain complex concepts like signal integration, etc? Videos games are: 3-dimensional interactive require problem solving Video games are also competitive, engaging and create motivation. By offering rewards and challenges in an optimized manner, Flow : as defined by psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (1975). Video game keeps players on task much longer than a lecture or a essay on the same topic. Video games are an efficient information delivery tool. But what kind of information?
  • 26.
  • 27. Immune Attack teaches students cell biology Monocyte transmigration is a multi-step process. Refer to the four figures and then choose the answer that lists the steps in the correct order. 3.
  • 28. Immune Attack teaches students cell biology 4.
  • 29. How to test for Confidence?
  • 30. How to test for Confidence? How does this make you feel? Nature Reviews Immunology , 2007. 7 :678.
  • 31. How to test for Confidence? I would be able to understand this diagram if I read it and think about it. 1 Disagree definitely 2 Disagree somewhat 3 Neutral 4 Agree somewhat 5 Agree definitely Nature Reviews Immunology , 2007. 7 :678.
  • 32. Immune Attack Increases Confidence of students in grades 7th - 12th I would be able to understand this diagram if I read it and think about it. 1 2 3 4 5 Disagree Neutral Agree 2.77 3.25 Immune Attack players Control Game players Results are significant T-Test, 2 sided, p value of 0.00012
  • 33. Immune Attack Increases Confidence of students in grades 7th - 12th
  • 34. Increases in confidence occur in middle school- and high school students and are gender neutral. Control Immune Attack Difference Grades 7,8,9 Female 2.72 3.36 0.64 Male 2.69 3.18 0.49 Grades 10,11, 12 Female 2.66 3.15 0.50 Male 3.00 3.46 0.46 Total 2.77 3.25 0.57

Editor's Notes

  1. Countless issues where gov policy can not be assess without scientific analysis : Climate change, stem cells, bioterroism, vaccination policy, designer viruses, genome project, designer drugs, designer bacteria, diagnosis of AIDS, paternity… Cancer, developmental biology, infectious disease, environmental contaminants, 40 year old Biology teacher graduated college in 1992
  2. Countless issues where gov policy can not be assess without scientific analysis : Climate change, stem cells, bioterroism, vaccination policy, designer viruses, genome project, designer drugs, designer bacteria, diagnosis of AIDS, paternity… Cancer, developmental biology, infectious disease, environmental contaminants, 40 year old Biology teacher graduated college in 1992 44 year old people graduated college before PCR was discovered.
  3. Countless issues where gov policy can not be assess without scientific analysis : Climate change, stem cells, bioterroism, vaccination policy, designer viruses, genome project, designer drugs, designer bacteria, diagnosis of AIDS, paternity… Cancer, developmental biology, infectious disease, environmental contaminants,
  4. Why teach molecular Science to the public? Citizens make personal decisions about their health Public decisions about environmental and healthcare policies, etc. Better understanding of research molecular science research may lead to a better appreciation (funding) for it. Why are reports often seemingly contradictory? Why are facts so difficult to prove? Concepts that would help understand these Genetic variation among individuals Stochastic behavior integration of signals, etc…
  5. Why teach molecular Science to the public? Citizens make personal decisions about their health Public decisions about environmental and healthcare policies, etc. Better understanding of research molecular science research may lead to a better appreciation (funding) for it. Why are reports often seemingly contradictory? Why are facts so difficult to prove? Concepts that would help understand these Genetic variation among individuals Stochastic behavior integration of signals, etc…
  6. Pool balls have certain inherent traits.
  7. Pool balls have certain inherent traits.
  8. Robert Curl, Harold Kroto and Richard Smalley. 1985 first Fullerene molecule made C60… Nanotubes
  9. The Landsat 7 pages says the satellite orbits at 705 Km. 705 Km high 2,312,992.1 feet high 4,380.6803 miles. 2,312,992.1 Orbit height / 41,849,280 feet Diameter of Earth = 0.05527. That is the Landsat7 satellite is only 5.53% of the diameter of the Earth away from the Earth.
  10. Civilization, Sim and Railroad Tycoon Demonstrate that complex concepts and reltionships among players, resources, land economics, etc…..
  11. I would be able to understand this diagram if I read it and think about it. 1 Disagree definitely 2 Disagree somewhat 3 Neutral 4 Agree somewhat 5 Agree definitely Girls: No Immune Attack: 2.64 Played Immune Attack: 3.42 Boys: No Immune Attack: 2.80 Played Immune Attack: 3.41 BOTH: No Immune Attack: 2.73 Played Immune Attack: 3.41
  12. I would be able to understand this diagram if I read it and think about it. 1 Disagree definitely 2 Disagree somewhat 3 Neutral 4 Agree somewhat 5 Agree definitely Girls: No Immune Attack: 2.64 Played Immune Attack: 3.42 Boys: No Immune Attack: 2.80 Played Immune Attack: 3.41 BOTH: No Immune Attack: 2.73 Played Immune Attack: 3.41
  13. I would be able to understand this diagram if I read it and think about it. 1 Disagree definitely 2 Disagree somewhat 3 Neutral 4 Agree somewhat 5 Agree definitely Girls: No Immune Attack: 2.64 Played Immune Attack: 3.42 Boys: No Immune Attack: 2.80 Played Immune Attack: 3.41 BOTH: No Immune Attack: 2.73 Played Immune Attack: 3.41
  14. I would be able to understand this diagram if I read it and think about it. 1 Disagree definitely 2 Disagree somewhat 3 Neutral 4 Agree somewhat 5 Agree definitely Girls: No Immune Attack: 2.64 Played Immune Attack: 3.42 Boys: No Immune Attack: 2.80 Played Immune Attack: 3.41 BOTH: No Immune Attack: 2.73 Played Immune Attack: 3.41
  15. I would be able to understand this diagram if I read it and think about it. 1 Disagree definitely 2 Disagree somewhat 3 Neutral 4 Agree somewhat 5 Agree definitely Girls: No Immune Attack: 2.64 Played Immune Attack: 3.42 Boys: No Immune Attack: 2.80 Played Immune Attack: 3.41 BOTH: No Immune Attack: 2.73 Played Immune Attack: 3.41