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What teachers need to know about visual design
 

What teachers need to know about visual design

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Slides from my presentation at the 2012 FEELTA Conference.

Slides from my presentation at the 2012 FEELTA Conference.

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What teachers need to know about visual design What teachers need to know about visual design Presentation Transcript

  • What teachers need to know about visual design Cameron Romney Center for Foreign Language Education Momoyama Gakuin University (St. Andrew’s University) November 4, 2012
  • Agenda• Introduction• Typography• Page Layout• Graphics
  • ConnectTheory and Practice with ‘Best Practices’
  • Do you know anything about typography/ page layout/graphics? Do you think it (they) are important? Why or why not?
  • “Unfortunately, most of the materials made athome, no matter how good in content, areatrocious in terms of layout. In my experienceswith both publishers and students, I have cometo the conclusion that layout is just as important as...no, even more important than...content” Curtis Kelly, 1998
  • Visual design effects on readers• Motivation Smiley (2004); Misanchuk (1992); Bell & Sullivan (1981)• Comprehension Gasser, Boeke, Haffernan, & Tan (2005); Romney (2004); Smiley (2004); Walker (2001), Hoener, Salend & Kay (1997); Garofalo (1988), Lewis & Walker (1989)• Recall Gasser, Boeke, Haffernan, & Tan (2005); Smiley (2004); Lewis & Walker (1989)• Efficiency/Speed Smiley (2004); Hoener, Salend & Kay (1997)
  • “...more easily perceiving ... text on apage ... less attentional resources arerequired for the process of reading. Moreattentional resources can then bedevoted to attending to the message inthe text, which results in deeperprocessing and an easier recall of theinformation presented.” (p. 185) Gasser, Boek, Haffernan & Tan (2005)
  • Does the visual appealof a classroom handout matter? YES!
  • Typeface i.e. font
  • “The font is the cookiecutter, and the typeface is the cookie.” (p. 29) Felici (2003)
  • What fonts do you know?Which ones do you use? Why? How? What’s your favorite font? Why do you like?
  • Categories of Fonts Style Purpose Historical• Old-style • Text • Renaissance• Modern • Display • Baroque• Slab serif • Decorative • Neoclassical• Sans serif • Romantic• Script • Realist• Decorative Williams (2008) Felici (2003) • Modernist Bringhurst (2004)
  • Serif and Sans-serifBowley (2009), Bringhurst (2004), Craig (1990), Felici (2003), Kirsanov (1998),Lupton (2004), Madison (2003), Miller (2002), Misanchuk (1992), Romney (2004),Walker & Reynolds (2003),White (2002), Williams (2008), etc.
  • EM EM
  • Legibility vs. Readability
  • Common Problems for L2 Learners
  • LC l and UC I
  • LC d, b, q and p
  • Lowercase i and j
  • Lowercase c and o
  • Lowercase f and t
  • Double story minuscules Images from Wikipedia
  • Best Practice #1Use the font students are FAMILIAR with
  • “people most easily read materialprinted in the typefaces withwhich they are most familiar.” (p. 32) Hoener, Salend & Kay (1997)
  • Copyright page
  • Identifont & WhatTheFont www.identifont.com http://new.myfonts.com/WhatTheFont (includes an iPhone app)
  • Best Practice #2set the typeface at a LARGER size
  • • Less skilled readers benefit from larger text Carter, Day & Meggs (2006); Petterson (1989)• 9-12 pt is standard for adults Carter, Day & Meggs (2006)• 18 pt for 1st grade, 14 pt for 3rd grade, 11 pt for 6th grade Hoener, Salend & Kay (1997)
  • Best Practice #3Use a font with good LEGIBILITY
  • “...serifed typefaces are easier toread than san serif” Felici (2003)
  • Bonus Tip Don’t forget thePRINTING & COPYNG
  • Best Practice #4 Use typography tosignal sections of the document
  • Example
  • Recommended Typefaces Serif Sans Serif• Georgia • Verdana• Lucida Bright • Tahoma• (Bembo) Schoolbook • Helvetica Textbook
  • GeorgiaImage from Identifont
  • Lucida Bright Image from Identifont
  • Bembo Schoolbook Image from Identifont
  • VerdanaImage from Identifont
  • TahomaImage from Identifont
  • Helvetica Textbook Image from Identifont
  • Page Layout
  • Best Practice #5Use INCREASED line spacing and WHITE space
  • Theory“...the reader has an effortlessreturn path to the left edge ... forthe next line.” (p. 115) White (2002)
  • Theory“Space attracts readers bymaking the page look accessible,unthreatening, and manageable” White (2002)
  • Best Practice #6Use lines & shapes toORGANIZE the page
  • Theory“...directing the readers eyearound the page, drawing attentionto specific parts... breaking copyinto sections” (p.86) Dabner (2004)
  • Best Practice #7Use MULTIPLE columns withSHORTER lines
  • Theory“When long lines are set...thereis a tendency of the reader toread the same line twice” (p. 86) Craig (1990)
  • Line Length Guides• 50 - 60 characters (White 2002)• 2 times the alphabet (Craig 1990)• 27 characters minimum, 40 optimum, 70 maximum (Felici 2003)
  • Graphics
  • Do you use images in your materials? Why or why not? Do images help students? How?
  • Levin’s (1981) Typology of images Decoration Increase attractiveness Remuneration Increase sales Motivation Increase interest Reiteration Additional exposures Representational Make more concrete Organization Make more integrated Interpretation Make more comprehensible Transformation Make more memorable
  • Levin’s (1981) Typology of images Decoration Increase attractiveness Remuneration Increase sales Motivation Increase interest Reiteration Additional exposures Representational Make more concrete Organization Make more integrated Interpretation Make more comprehensible Transformation Make more memorable
  • Best Practice #8Only use graphics with INSTRUCTIONAL purpose
  • “If instructional facilitation is nothighly probable, then ... graphicsshould not be used in instructionalmaterial.” (p. 239) Misanchuk (1992)
  • TheoryGraphics can be a distraction Evans, Watson and Willows (1987); Peeck (1987) Clark & Lyons (2011); Romney & Bell (2011)
  • Putting it all together A Before and After
  • Thank Youromney.cameron@gmail.com LinkedInTwitter: @CameronRomney CameronRomney.com