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Elements of visual design for language learners

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Elements of visual design for language learners

  1. 1. Materials writers’ miscellanyElements of visual design for language learners Authentic materials & copyright Cameron Romney Center for Foreign Language Education Momoyama Gakuin University (St. Andrew’s University) January 29, 2012
  2. 2. Elements of visual design for language learners Cameron Romney Center for Foreign Language Education Momoyama Gakuin University (St. Andrew’s University) January 29, 2012
  3. 3. Agenda• Introduction• Typography• Page Layout• Graphics: Illustrations/Photographs, etc.
  4. 4. ConnectTheory and Practice with ‘Best Practices’
  5. 5. Do you know anything about typography/ page layout/graphics? Do you think it (they) are important? Why or why not?
  6. 6. “Unfortunately, most of the materials made athome, no matter how good in content, areatrocious in terms of layout. In my experienceswith both publishers and students, I have cometo the conclusion that layout is just as important as...no, even more important than...content” Curtis Kelly, 1998
  7. 7. Visual design effects on readers• Motivation Smiley (2004); Misanchuk (1992); Bell & Sullivan (1981)• Comprehension Gasser, Boeke, Haffernan, & Tan (2005); Romney (2004); Smiley (2004); Walker (2001), Hoener, Salend & Kay (1997); Garofalo (1988), Lewis & Walker (1989)• Recall Gasser, Boeke, Haffernan, & Tan (2005); Smiley (2004); Lewis & Walker (1989)• Efficiency/Speed Smiley (2004); Hoener, Salend & Kay (1997)
  8. 8. Visual design effects on readers• Motivation Smiley (2004); Misanchuk (1992); Bell & Sullivan (1981)• Comprehension Gasser, Boeke, Haffernan, & Tan (2005); Romney (2004); Smiley (2004); Walker (2001), Hoener, Salend & Kay (1997); Garofalo (1988), Lewis & Walker (1989)• Recall Gasser, Boeke, Haffernan, & Tan (2005); Smiley (2004); Lewis & Walker (1989)• Efficiency/Speed Smiley (2004); Hoener, Salend & Kay (1997)
  9. 9. “...more easily perceiving ... text on apage ... less attentional resources arerequired for the process of reading. Moreattentional resources can then bedevoted to attending to the message inthe text, which results in deeperprocessing and an easier recall of theinformation presented.” (p. 185) Gasser, Boek, Haffernan & Tan (2005)
  10. 10. Typeface i.e. font
  11. 11. “The font is the cookiecutter, and the typeface is the cookie.” (p. 29) Felici (2003)
  12. 12. What fonts do you know?Which ones do you use? Why? How? What’s your favorite font? Why do you like?
  13. 13. Categories of Fonts Style Purpose Historical• Old-style • Text • Renaissance• Modern • Display • Baroque• Slab serif • Decorative • Neoclassical• Sans serif • Romantic• Script • Realist• Decorative Williams (2008) Felici (2003) • Modernist Bringhurst (2004)
  14. 14. Serif and Sans-serifBowley (2009), Bringhurst (2004), Craig (1990), Felici (2003), Kirsanov (1998),Lupton (2004), Madison (2003), Miller (2002), Misanchuk (1992), Romney (2004),Walker & Reynolds (2003),White (2002), Williams (2008), etc.
  15. 15. EM EM
  16. 16. Legibility vs. Readability
  17. 17. EM EM
  18. 18. Common Problems for L2 Learners
  19. 19. LC l and UC I
  20. 20. Katakana and
  21. 21. Katakana and
  22. 22. LC d, b, q and p
  23. 23. Lowercase i and j
  24. 24. Lowercase c and o
  25. 25. Lowercase f and t
  26. 26. Double story minuscules Images from Wikipedia
  27. 27. Best Practices
  28. 28. Best Practice #1Use the font students are FAMILIAR with
  29. 29. “people most easily read materialprinted in the typefaces withwhich they are most familiar.” (p. 32) Hoener, Salend & Kay (1997)
  30. 30. Copyright page
  31. 31. Identifont & WhatTheFont www.identifont.com http://new.myfonts.com/WhatTheFont (includes an iPhone app)
  32. 32. Best Practice #2set the typeface at a LARGER size
  33. 33. • Less skilled readers benefit from larger text Carter, Day & Meggs (2006); Petterson (1989)• 9-12 pt is standard for adults Carter, Day & Meggs (2006)• 18 pt for 1st grade, 14 pt for 3rd grade, 11 pt for 6th grade Hoener, Salend & Kay (1997)
  34. 34. Best Practice #3Use a font with good LEGIBILITY
  35. 35. “...it has long been an article offaith that serifed typefaces areeasier to read than san serif” Felici (2003)
  36. 36. Best Practice #4 Don’t forget thePRINTING & COPYNG
  37. 37. Best Practice #5Use fonts with PURPOSE
  38. 38. Example
  39. 39. Recommended Typefaces Serif Sans Serif• Georgia • Verdana• Lucida Bright • Tahoma• (Bembo) Schoolbook • Helvetica Textbook
  40. 40. GeorgiaImage from Identifont
  41. 41. Lucida Bright Image from Identifont
  42. 42. Bembo Schoolbook Image from Identifont
  43. 43. VerdanaImage from Identifont
  44. 44. TahomaImage from Identifont
  45. 45. Helvetica Textbook Image from Identifont
  46. 46. Page Layout
  47. 47. Best Practice #1Use MULTIPLE columns withSHORTER lines
  48. 48. Theory“When long lines are set...thereis a tendency of the reader toread the same line twice” (p. 86) Craig (1990)
  49. 49. Line Length Guides• 50 - 60 characters (White 2002)• 2 times the alphabet (Craig 1990)• 27 characters minimum, 40 optimum, 70 maximum (Felici 2003)
  50. 50. Best Practice #2Use INCREASED line spacing
  51. 51. Theory“...the reader has an effortlessreturn path to the left edge ... forthe next line.” (p. 115) White (2002)
  52. 52. Best Practice #3 Use lots ofWHITE SPACE
  53. 53. Theory“Space attracts readers bymaking the page look accessible,unthreatening, and manageable” White (2002)
  54. 54. Best Practice #4Use lines & shapes toORGANIZE the page
  55. 55. Theory“...directing the readers eyearound the page, drawing attentionto specific parts... breaking copyinto sections” (p.86) Dabner (2004)
  56. 56. Before and After
  57. 57. Graphics
  58. 58. Do you use images in your materials? Why or why not? Do images help students? How?
  59. 59. Levin (1981)1.Decoration 5.Representation2.Remuneration 6.Organization3.Motivation 7.Interpretation4.Reiteration 8.Transformation
  60. 60. Three types of images1. Active learning images2. Passive learning images3. Decorative images
  61. 61. Levin’s (1981) Typology of images Decoration Increase attractiveness Remuneration Increase sales Motivation Increase interest Reiteration Additional exposures Representational Make more concrete Organization Make more integrated Interpretation Make more comprehensible Transformation Make more memorable
  62. 62. Levin’s (1981) Typology of images Decoration Increase attractiveness Remuneration Increase sales Motivation Increase interest Reiteration Additional exposures Representational Make more concrete Organization Make more integrated Interpretation Make more comprehensible Transformation Make more memorable
  63. 63. Best Practice #1Only use graphics with INSTRUCTIONAL purpose
  64. 64. “If instructional facilitation is nothighly probable, then ... graphicsshould not be used in instructionalmaterial.” (p. 239) Misanchuk (1992)
  65. 65. TheoryGraphics can be a distraction Evans, Watson and Willows (1987); Peeck (1987) Clark & Lyons (2011); Romney & Bell (2011)
  66. 66. Best Practice #2Use as FEW graphics as possible
  67. 67. Theory“The fear of ‘wasted space’ drivesdesign novices to fill in any emptyspace with unnecessary clipart.” (p. 37) White (2002)
  68. 68. Best Practice #3 Place the graphicNEXT TO the text
  69. 69. Theory“Split visuals and words have beenshown to depress learning” (p. 77) Clark and Lyons (2011)
  70. 70. Best Practices Typography Page Layout Graphics Familiar Shorter lines Instructional Larger Increased line space Few is better Legibility White Space Next toPrinting & Copying Organize Purpose
  71. 71. Thank Youromney.cameron@gmail.com LinkedIn & Google+ @CameronRomney CameronRomney.com

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