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Towards Systematic Materials Design with ADDIE

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JALT 2015 Featured Speaker Lecture

Researchers have suggested that ELT materials should be created in a more systematic way. This presentation proposed a systematic creation process by introducing an Instructional Design model called ADDIE (Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement and Evaluate) and how it can be applied to the creation of ELT materials.

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Towards Systematic Materials Design with ADDIE

  1. 1. Towards(systema-c(materials(design( with(ADDIE JALT2015( 41st(Annual(Interna-onal(Conference(on(Language Teaching(and(Learning(&(Educa-onal(Materials(Exhibi-on Cameron(Romney Doshisha(University Faculty(of(Global(Communications((( November(22,(2015
  2. 2. @CameronRomney #JALT2015
  3. 3. @CameronRomney Commercial( and( nonOCommercial
  4. 4. @CameronRomney Teachers(=(Writers(=(Teachers Most(ESL(professionals(are(materials(developers Silberstein((1987),(p.(82 “ ”
  5. 5. @CameronRomney Lesson(Planning(=(Materials(Design(=( Lesson(Planning
  6. 6. @CameronRomney Materials(Wri-ng Instruc-onal(Design Syllabus(and(Curriculum(Design Lesson(Planning
  7. 7. @CameronRomney What(do(YOU(think( about(ELT(materials?
  8. 8. @CameronRomney ELT(coursebooks(evoke(a(range(of( responses,(but(are(frequently(seen(by( teachers(as(necessary(evils. “ ” Sheldon((1988),(p.(237 Most(teachers(are(dissa-sfied(with(the( materials(available(to(them “ ” Tomlinson((1998),(p.(261
  9. 9. @CameronRomney Amiryousefi(&(Ketabi((2011) PRO(Arguments: 1:((Culture(of(teaching(and(learning 2:(Organiza-on(and(content:( writers(and(editors(are(professionals
  10. 10. @CameronRomney ...a(textbook(is(an(effec-ve(repertoire(of(materials,( exercises(and(ac-vi-es,(a(reference(source,(a(preO determined(syllabus,(and(a(source(of(crea-vity( which(reflects(research(findings(and(students’(needs. “ ” Amiryousefi(&(Ketabi((2011),(p.(216
  11. 11. @CameronRomney Amiryousefi(&(Ketabi((2011) ANTI(Arguments: 1:((SocialOcultural(components 2:(Organiza-on(and(content:( theore-cal(problems(and(design(flaws
  12. 12. @CameronRomney textbooks(...(do(not(admit(the(winds(of(change(from( research,(methodological(experimenta-on,(or( classroom(feedback textbooks(have(been(in(many(respects(an(educa-onal( failure “ “ ” ” Sheldon((1988),(p.(239 Swales((1980),(p.(11
  13. 13. @CameronRomney many(coursebook(procedures(have(become( accepted(as(dogma(to(be(followed,(even(though( there(is(likle(research(or(even(anecdotal(evidence(to( support(them((((p.(20 theore-cally(unsubstan-ated((((p.20 there(is(a(weak(match(between(theory(and(prac-ce(((p.(15 Tomlinson((2013) “ “ “ ” ” ”
  14. 14. @CameronRomney ...writers(...(rely(heavily(on(retrieval(from(repertoire,( cloning(successful(publica-ons(and(spontaneous( ‘inspira-on’(( ...replica-ng(previous(materials,(adap-ng(ac-vity(types( which(had(worked(for(them(before(and(relying(upon( crea-ve(inspira-on. ...most(of(them(follow(their(intui-ons(rather(than(an( overt(set(of(objec-ves,(principles(and(procedures. Tomlinson((1998),(p.(4 Tomlinson((2012),(p.(152 “ “ ” ” “
  15. 15. @CameronRomney ELT(materials(have(a(PROBLEM They(are(NOT(being( systema-cally(developed
  16. 16. @CameronRomney Our(decisions(were(based(on(our(collec-ve( experience(as(teachers Graves((2001),(p.(1 “ ”
  17. 17. @CameronRomney randomly(occurring(‘ideas(for(things(to(do’(...(puong( them(together(...(so(that(they(become(‘plans(looking(for(a( goal’ the(most(important(thing(is(to(get(students(mo-vated,( keep(them(interested(and(do(something(worthwhile(in( class(...(if(this(is(achieved,(learning(will(inevitably(happen. Woods((1996),(p.(174 Woodward((2001),(p.(187 “ ” “ ”
  18. 18. @CameronRomney Many(teachers,(however,(first(concentrate(on(materials( and(ac-vi-es,(craping(useful,(interes-ng(lessons(without( thinking(too(much(about(goals(first.(Aper(teaching(they( may(reflect(on(what(happened(in(the(lesson(and(thus( draw(conclusions(about(what(goals(the(students(have( achieved. Woodward((2001),(p.(185 “ ”
  19. 19. @CameronRomney Teachers(are(collectors(of( ac-vi-es Writers(are(curators(of( ac-vi-es
  20. 20. @CameronRomney What(can(we(do(about(it?
  21. 21. @CameronRomney Instruc-onal( Design
  22. 22. @CameronRomney Heinich,(Molenda,(Russell(&(Smaldino
  23. 23. @CameronRomney Dick,(Carey(&(Carey
  24. 24. @CameronRomney Morrison,(Ross,(Kalman(&(Kemp
  25. 25. @CameronRomney ADDIE
  26. 26. @CameronRomney ADDIE(is(not(a(specific,(fully(elaborated(model(in(its( own(right,(but(rather(an(umbrella(term(that(refers(to(a( family(of(models(that(share(a(common(underlying( structure Branch((2009),(p.(5 “ ”
  27. 27. @CameronRomney Analysis Design Development Implementa-on Evalua-on
  28. 28. @CameronRomney Analysis
  29. 29. @CameronRomney Analysis(is(used(to(iden-fy(the( performance(gap,(instruc-onal( situa-on(and(learning(outcomes
  30. 30. @CameronRomney What(the(students(need(to(learn
  31. 31. @CameronRomney ESP(Needs(Analysis the(specific(purposes(for(which(the(learner(will(use( the(language,(the(kind(of(language(to(be(used a(breakdown(of(what(learners(do(in(their(jobs Ellis(&(Johnson((1995) “ ” “ ” p.(72 p.(222
  32. 32. @CameronRomney ESP(Needs(Analysis Some(learners(have(very(specific(needs(...(for( example,(they(...(need(help(answering(the(company( telephone... ...learners(with(a(par-cular(roles(or(func-ons,( such(as(secretaries,(accountants,(or(technicians Frendo((2005),(p.(2 “ ” “ ”
  33. 33. @CameronRomney What(about(General(English? Is(it(possible(to(do(a(needs( analysis?
  34. 34. @CameronRomney What(about(General(English? It(is(open(argued(that(the(needs(of(the(General( English(learner((...(are(not(specifiable. Hutchinson(&(Waters((1987),(p.(53 “ ” ...‘to(improve(their(English‘(...((‘improve(your(conversa-on( skills’ Woodward((2001),(p.(184 “ ”
  35. 35. @CameronRomney What(about(General(English? language(learning(is(a(slow(process(that(happens( gradually(as(percep-on(ships,(as(knowledge(and( skill(slowly(improve(and(are(refined(...(students( open(plateau(for(long(periods(and(seem(to(have(an( internal,(natural(syllabus “ Woodward((2001),(p.(187 ”
  36. 36. @CameronRomney If(it(exists(in(English the(students(need(to( know(it
  37. 37. @CameronRomney Anecdote tag(ques-ons
  38. 38. @CameronRomney Other(kinds(of(analysis The(second(type(of(analysis,(task(analysis,(is( employed(to(specify(and(categorize(the(language( skills(required(to(carry(out(realOworld( communica-ve(tasks “ Nunan((1988),(p.(18 ”
  39. 39. @CameronRomney Another(kind(of(analysis Authen-c(Analysis
  40. 40. @CameronRomney Tag(Ques-ons Two(purposes: 1.(If(you(expect(the(listener(will(agree(with(you((falling(intona-on) 2.(Asking(for(informa-on((rising(intona-on) Richards((1991);(Murphy((1993);(Swan((1995);(Azar((2002)(
  41. 41. @CameronRomney Murphy((1993),(p.74
  42. 42. @CameronRomney BNC(Corpus(examples A:(That's(what(he(talked(about(at(the(S.W.G.(isn't(it?( B:(Yes(it(is.( A:(It's(hard(work(this(isn't(it?( B:((laughing)(I(need(some(tea!((laugh)(Anyone(need(a( cup(of(tea?
  43. 43. @CameronRomney BNC(Corpus(examples A:(Well.(Infrastructure's(theirs(isn't(it? B:(Erm,(but(I(think(we(have(a(duty(to(our(organiza-on(to( determine(what(we(want(to(do. A:(You(want(me(to(see(if(I(can(find(Mick(don't(you?( B:(Mick(who? A:(Mick.((pause)(
  44. 44. @CameronRomney ((brief)(BNC(Corpus(results 1.(Almost(never(answered(gramma-cally 2.(Commonly(used(to(introduce(a(new(topic, (((((((ice(breakers,(or(transi-ons(in(conversa-on 3.(Commonly(used(to(confirm(agreement (((((((in(formal(situa-ons*(like(mee-ngs,(etc. 4.(Rarely(used(to(ask(for(informa-on
  45. 45. @CameronRomney Authen-c(Analysis Corpus(studies Pragma-cs Discourse(and(conversa-on(analysis Vocabulary(profilers((Lextutor)
  46. 46. @CameronRomney Design
  47. 47. @CameronRomney Design(is(crea-ng(objec-ves(for( learning(outcomes
  48. 48. @CameronRomney Objec-ves ...clear,(precise(statements(about(what(the(students(should( be(able(to(do(when(they(complete(their(instruc-on Dick,(Carey(&(Carey((2009),(p.(111 “ ”
  49. 49. @CameronRomney Many(teachers,(however,(first(concentrate(on(materials( and(ac-vi-es,(craping(useful,(interes-ng(lessons(without( thinking(too(much(about(goals(first.(Aper(teaching(they( may(reflect(on(what(happened(in(the(lesson(and(thus( draw(conclusions(about(what(goals(the(students(have( achieved. Woodward((2001),(p.(185 “ ” ...‘to(improve(their(English’(...((‘improve(your( conversa-on(skills’ Woodward((2001),(p.(184 “ ”
  50. 50. @CameronRomney NOT( precise(statements
  51. 51. @CameronRomney Two(kinds(of(Objec-ves Terminal(objec-ves( and( Enabling(objec-ves( Morrison,(Ross,(Kalman(&(Kemp((2011)
  52. 52. @CameronRomney Department(/(Degree Course(/(Syllabus Chapter(/(Unit Lesson Ac-vity
  53. 53. @CameronRomney CEFR(can(do(statements I(can(agree(and(disagree(politely,( exchange(personal(opinions,(nego-ate( decisions(and(ideas “ ” Imig(&(O’Dwyer((2010),(p.(7
  54. 54. @CameronRomney Students(can(agree(and(disagree(politely Terminal(Objec-ve
  55. 55. @CameronRomney How(do(English(speakers(speak(politely? Modals = Politeness
  56. 56. @CameronRomney Analysis: How(do(English(speakers(speak(politely? 161(distancing Certain(structures(can(be(used(to(make(a(speaker’s( requests,(ques-ons,(or(statements(seem(less(direct(,( more(‘distant’(from(reality((and(therefore(more(polite)... Another(way(of(distancing(sugges-ons(from(reality(is(to( make(them(condi-onal... Swan((1995),(pp.(158O160 “ ”
  57. 57. @CameronRomney It(would(be(beker(IF(we(took( the(3:00(train. I(want(to(take(the(3:00(train. VS
  58. 58. @CameronRomney Enabling(Objec-ves •Students(understand(the(concept(of(distancing •Students(can(recognize(condi-onal(statements(when(used( for(distancing •Students(can(gramma-cally(construct(condi-onal( statements(for(distancing •Students(can(use(condi-onal(statements(to(politely( disagree
  59. 59. @CameronRomney Development
  60. 60. @CameronRomney Development(is(taking( objec-ves(and(turning(them( into(learning(ac-vi-es
  61. 61. @CameronRomney Enabling(Objec-ve Students(understand(the(concept(of(distancing Direct(instruc-on(from(the(teacher,(e.g.(a(lecture Write(a(passage(about(distancing,(e.g.(a(reading(ac-vity
  62. 62. @CameronRomney Enabling(Objec-ve Students(can(recognize(condi-onal(statements( when(used(for(distancing Modeling(ac-vity,(e.g.(scripted(dialogue Analysis(ac-vity,(e.g.(decide(if(condi-onal(statement(is( distancing(or(not
  63. 63. @CameronRomney Enabling(Objec-ve Students(can(gramma-cally(construct( condi-onal(statements(for(distancing Grammar(ac-vi-es,(e.g.(fill(in(the(blank,(match(the( sentence(halves,(rewrite(the(sentences.
  64. 64. @CameronRomney Enabling(Objec-ve Students(can(use(condi-onal(statements(to( politely(disagree Role(plays,(e.g.(student(role(play(a(disagreement(situa-on( Wri-ng(ac-vity,(e.g.(students(write(disagreement(sentences
  65. 65. @CameronRomney Implementa-on
  66. 66. @CameronRomney Implementa-on(is(how(teachers( use(the(materials
  67. 67. @CameronRomney Materials(‘as(they(are’(...(‘materials(in( ac-on’ Liklejohn((1998),(p.(191 “ ”
  68. 68. @CameronRomney Teachers(Guides Write(a(teachers(guide
  69. 69. @CameronRomney Teachers(Guides Glorified(answer(keys
  70. 70. @CameronRomney Teachers(Guides Objec-ves
  71. 71. @CameronRomney Teachers(Guides NOT(very(user(friendly
  72. 72. @CameronRomney Evalua-on
  73. 73. @CameronRomney ...evalua-on(is(used(for(the(purposes(of(making( judgments(about(the(worth(or(success(of(...(lessons,( programs,(projects Morrison,(Ross,(Kalman(&(Kemp((2011),(p.(272 “ ”
  74. 74. @CameronRomney Evalua-on(is(to(determine(how( effec-ve(the(materials(are
  75. 75. @CameronRomney Forma-ve(evalua-on and( Summa-ve(evalua-on Morrison,(Ross,(Kalman(&(Kemp((2011),(p.(272
  76. 76. @CameronRomney Forma-ve(evalua-on a.k.a(pilo-ng ...there(is(less(pilo-ng(of(material(than(previously(and( straighzorward(reviewing(has(become(more(commonplace Amrani((2011),(p.(269 Publishers(want(and(need(feedback(from(poten-al(endO users(...(so(that(they(can(make(a(sale “ ” “ ”
  77. 77. @CameronRomney Summa-ve(evalua-on There(is(no(real(opportunity(to(gradually(review(and(refine( materials(already(in(use Amrani((2011),(p.(269 Once(printed,(the(materials(are(fixed(for(years... “ ”“ ”
  78. 78. @CameronRomney ...materials(whether(they(be(for(publica-on(or(tomorrow’s( lesson,(need(to(be(constantly(evaluated(and(revised.( Materials(should(keep(changing Tomlinson((1998),(p.(146 “ ” ...with(any(materials(development(pilo-ng(and(revision(are( essen-al(steps(in(the(process McGrath((2002),(p.(94 “ ”
  79. 79. @CameronRomney ADDIE
  80. 80. @CameronRomney Image(from(Wikipedia

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