• Gross anatomy: …
• Gross anatomy:
– Components of the lymphatic system: lymphatic plexuses, lymphatics, lymphoid tissue
– Plan of the lymphatic system: Superficial lymphatic vessels, deep lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, lymph trunks, cysterna chyli, lymph ducts: right lymph duct and thoracic duct.
– Lymphatic drainage of the lower limb
• Superficial inguinal lymph nodes: arrangement and drainage area.
• Deep inguinal lymph nodes: arrangement and drainage area. The popliteal lymph nodes
– Lymphatic drainage of the upper limb
• Superficial and deep lymphatics. Supratrochlear and infraclavicular lymph nodes.
• Axillary lymph nodes: arrangement and drainage area.
– Plan of the lymphatic drainage of the head and neck: deep cervical lymph nodes, inner and outer circle of lymph nodes.
• Deep cervical lymph nodes: location of the upper and lower groups, jugulodigastric node, jugulo-omohyoid, supraclavicular lymph nodes. Drainage area and efferent vessels.
• The outer circle of lymph nodes: submental, submandibular, buccal, mandibular, parotid, mastoid, occipital: location, drainage area and efferent vessels.
• The inner circle of lymph nodes: pretracheal, paratracheal and retropharyndeal.
• The tonsils and Waldeyer’s ring.
– Lymphatic drainage of the thorax:
• Lymph nodes of the chest wall: Parasternal, intercostal, and phrenic
• Lymph nodes of the mediastinum: Nodes around the division of the trachea and the main bronchi, anterior and posterior mediastinal nodes.
– Plan of lymphatic drainage of the abdomen: lumbar and intestinal lymph trunks.
• Pre-aortic lymph nodes: mesenteric, celiac, superior and inferior mesenteric lymph nodes.
• Para-aortic lymph nodes.
• MALT & Peyer’s patches.
– Lymphatic drainage in the pelvis: External and internal iliac lymph nodes, lymph nodes in fascial sheaths, sacral and common iliac lymph nodes.
• Applied anatomy
• Functional and clinical importance of the lymphatic system; Virchow’s lymph nodes; Retropharyngeal abscess; Clinical applications of enlarged thoracic lymph nodes: involvement of left recurrent laryngeal nerve and phrenic nerve. Pressure on the esophagus. Carinal lymph nodes and bronchoscopy; Communications of lymphatics between thorax and abdomen.
• Radiographic anatomy:
• Surface anatomy of palpable lymph node groups: superficial inguinal, axillary, infraclavicular, outer circle of crevical lymph nodes, deep cervical lymph nodes.