The Lymphatic System


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The Lymphatic System

  1. 1. The<br />Lymphatic System<br />
  2. 2. The lymphatic system belongs to the circulatory system. This system provides one way for the blood to leave the heart, the arterial system, and two ways for it to return: the venous and lymphatic pathways. The lymph system is therefore a second pathway back to the heart, parallel to the blood system.<br />
  3. 3. Lymph Fluid<br />The lymphatic system is of primary importance in transporting fat from the intestines to the blood stream, in removing and destroying interstitial fluid(toxic substances), regenerating tissues and in maintaining a healthy immune system. It is comprised of three main elements: lymph fluid, vessels and nodes working together to accomplish these functions.Lymph is formed when high arterial pressure forces fluid out of the capillaries and into the tissue. <br />
  4. 4. Lymph and Lymph Vessels<br />In contrast to the blood circulation, which uses the pumping of the heart to circulate its flow, lymph is propelled through the vessels primarily by the rhythmic contractions of tiny muscular units (lymphangions) which form the lymph collectors. The lymphatic system has a slow rhythm, low velocity and low pressure. You have twice as many lymph vessels and capillaries as you have blood vessels and capillaries! <br />
  5. 5. Lymph Vessels<br />
  6. 6. The lymph vessels transport the lymph to the lymph nodes, which are soft, ovoid organs lying along the course of lymphatic vessels. They range in size from 2 - 25 mm. There can be from 400 - 700 nodes scattered throughout the human body. Half of them are located in the abdomen; many are in the cervical (neck) region. The main groups of nodes are found in the major articulations of the body, with the exception of the wrists.<br />
  7. 7. Lymph nodes filter the lymph and also contain large numbers of white blood cells (a big part of the immune system), which remove foreign cells and debris from the lymph. When you get certain infections, the lymph nodes swell with billions of white blood cells working to clear the foreign cells that are causing the infection. The filtered lymph then flows back into the blood stream at certain points. <br />One thing this explains is how a shot at the doctor's office works. The fluid of the shot is injected into the lymph, not the blood stream. But eventually it makes it to the bloodstream through the lymph system. <br />
  8. 8. Lymphatic Trunks <br /><ul><li>Intestinal Trunk</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Lumbar Trunk</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Bronchmediastinal Trunk</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Subclavian Trunk</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Jugular Trunks</li></li></ul><li>Major Lymphatic ducts<br /><ul><li>Thoracic duct:</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Right lymphatic duct</li></li></ul><li>Lymphocytes<br />Lymphocyte cells are produced in the bone marrow. There are two major classes: T cells processed in the thymus, and B cells which mature outside of the thymus. T cells act as messengers and destroyers against pathogens. B cells secrete antibodies that match a specific invading antigen. A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell which function is to find and eliminate bacteria, viruses, and other foreign materials.<br />
  9. 9. Lymphoiesis<br />The formation of lymphocytes or lymphatic tissue <br />
  10. 10. Lymphatic Structures<br />This complex system patrols and guards the body against attackers from without and within, regulating susceptibility to cancers, infectious diseases, allergies, and autoimmune disorders. The organs of the immune system include the bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, appendix and certain tissues in the small intestine (Peyer’s patches). These are known as the lymphoid organs as they are involved with the development and deployment of lymphocytes, the white blood cells that are crucial to the healthy functioning of the immune system.<br />
  11. 11. Lymph Node<br />Lymph nodes are filtration and purification stations for the lymph. In the nodes, specific immune cells destroy foreign or unwanted substances which can then be handled by the liver and flushed out of the body via the organs of elimination (digestive apparatus, urinary tract, skin and lungs). <br />Lymph nodes are not only part of the lymphatic system, but are also lymphoid organs, and are linked to the immune system. <br />
  12. 12. Lymph Diseases<br />There are multiple “stressors” that negatively affect the immune system: age, viruses and bacteria, drugs and certain medical therapies, allergies, autoimmune disorders, malignancies, immunodeficiency's, environmental toxins, and even thoughts and emotions.<br />
  13. 13. Hodgkin’s Disease<br />
  14. 14. Lymphedema<br />If not working properly, fluid builds in your tissues and causes swelling, called lymphedema. Other lymphatic system problems can include infections, blockage, and cancer.<br />
  15. 15. Keep you Lymphatic System Healthy<br />Did you know that the lymph system is twice the size of our other circulatory system? It true. Twice as much lymph as blood is present in our bodies, and we have twice as many lymph vessels and capillaries as blood vessels. The key to health is to keep your lymphatic system open and flowing freely.<br />
  16. 16. Keep your Lymphatic System Healthy<br />The lymphatic system is as essential to bodily function as the bloodstream it complements. To keep it clear, you need to increase its drainage capacity or reduce its intake of toxins. One can do both through diet, stress reduction, exercise and deep breathing. Deep breathing is important, because it makes your lymphatic system work better. <br />
  17. 17. The lymph collected throughout the body drains into the blood through two ducts situated at the base of the neck, the main one being the thoracic duct. Breathing drives this action. If you take a deep breath and exhale deeply, you’re massaging the thoracic duct upward into the neck so that the fluid flows generously. This duct empties the lymph into the veins, where it becomes part of the blood plasma. From there the lymph returns to the liver for metabolization, and finally to the kidneys for filtering.<br />
  18. 18. Prevention of disease by maintaining a healthy lymphatic system<br />Previously noted, the lymph system doesn’t have a heart to keep it flowing. It is dependent on contraction of the muscles and breathing. So, breathe deeply and exercise. No matter what exercise you choose, the important thing is to do it regularly and habitually. No matter what exercise you prefer, the key is consistency.<br />