Knowledge Management - By Joe Hessmiller


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  • Thanks to Amy and Tom for inviting me to meet with you today.
  • I’ll give you the ending first…this is a cultural initiative, not just a technology one. You must do what will succeed, and make what will succeed create value well in excess of the cost.
  • Here’s the usual list of “knowledge problems”. Is this what YOU are trying to address?
  • Here’s our agenda. At the end of this talk I hope you have a good handle on the key issues for KM success and at least a basic understanding of the approach I would recommend for you.
  • Whoa! Does anybody understand this…?
  • Well, we can always “dive deeper”….
  • Or, we could go with this one. That has only the most oblique reference to technology, “enouraging communication”, “opportunities to learn”, “sharing artifacts”…all can be done in person…right…or with the help of technology that SUPPORTS this cultural change.
  • There are a lot of benefits to KM. The one I want to focus on here is enhancing retention rates.
  • Here’s the hard dollar examples…
  • OK…we’ve been practicing knowledge management since we first passed along anything known. The caveman teaching his son to hunt was knowledge management; show, observe, correct, repeat. We still have ALL of these approaches…but now we have a new capability…”computer supported cooperative work”.
  • The ideas evolved slowly. Large, expensive products emerged to manage data and information. Expert systems, for example. Much was focused on using structured data. Later, E-discovery tools, and search tools focused on the unstructured data. BUT, these technical solutions, while enormously successful in many cases, did not address the tacit knowledge.
  • In the 2000’s we became more focused on ‘solializing’ knowledge in communities of practice, “yellow pages” etc. Toward the end of the decade, social media came to the fore and has taken off. And, not because of the ‘buzz’, but because it answered the challenge of putting the info you need next right where you are when you need it. A link away…internal, external. If there was no info to link to you could leave a blank page for someone to fill in . The blank page meant someone would value that info. Total value-only productivity. No waste creating “knowledge inventory” that no one will use.
  • It is not a technology problem. Many of the early…and even current…projects fail because they overreach.
  • The failures are NOT trivial.
  • Nor are they isolated…
  • But, they do have a lot in common. It’s about the people and the culture. It must be worth doing successfully. It must be worth it to the people for doing ‘extra work’. DO NOT try to do it all. Don’t overreach. AND, finally, the old adage…if it is to be…it’s up to me.

    Now, then, how much risk do you want to sign up for?
  • First, realize this is a culture shift. You aren’t out to manage knowledge. You’re out to fundamentally improve the organizations efficiency and effectiveness by removing roadblocks to knowledge availability and sharing.

    Welcome to TRS 2.0
  • The key to the new culture, and to effective KM, is people being willing to share what they know. That means making them want to share.

  • Recognition for knowledge sharing…topics covered, questions answered, etc. Should be lauded.
  • BEWARE: Don’t let the KM automation give people the feeling that “it” knows the answers and if they aren’t in it, well then, it just isn’t worth knowing.

    NO! KM should make people MORE creative, not more submissive.
  • Once we understand the people issues…no matter WHAT direction you go KM-toolwise, THEN you can look at IS requirements. Necause, what IS apps will be effective is determined by the culture that will use (or not) them.
  • SO, here’s the good news. YOU CAN HAVE IT ALL. Start small, but infinitely scalable. 100% value added as knowledge that is used is added to the system and less/never used information is not touched. Focus on the key PROBLEMS, not the hierarcy of information independent of REAL business problems/practices.
  • Knowledge Management - By Joe Hessmiller

    1. 1. Presented by: Joe Hessmiller, Director, CAI- Texas Computer Aid, Inc. (512) 934-3898 Knowledge Management Overview It’s Not a Great Idea If You Can’t Implement It
    2. 2. “The gap between what's technically possible and what the corporate culture is willing and able to accept is often wider than many people automatically assume.” - Dion Hinchcliffe Choose Your Approach Well It’s Not a Great Idea if You Can’t Implement It
    3. 3. What Problem Are We Trying to Solve? Why Are We Here? • Keeping Up with Complex, Rapidly Changing Environment • Preventing Loss of Tacit Knowledge “Repositories” • Leveraging Tacit Knowledge for Organizational Benefit • Leveraging Explicit Knowledge Better • Enabling Creativity and Sharing
    4. 4. Why Are We Here Our Agenda • Common Understanding of Basics of Knowledge Management – What It Is – Value of KM – A Little History – Lessons Learned – The Wiki Way – Leading Products – Recommendations – Resources (w links)
    5. 5. Who Am I Computer Aid, Inc. • Joe Hessmiller • Director, CAI – Texas • CAI for 24 Years • Risk Management Services – Automated Project Office – VeriCenter – Managed Maintenance
    6. 6. What is Knowledge Management? More than Software… Knowledge Management caters to the critical issues of organizational adaption, survival and competence in face of increasingly discontinuous environmental change.... Essentially, it embodies organizational processes that seek synergistic combination of data and information processing capacity of information technologies, and the creative and innovative capacity of human beings. Malhotra, Yogesh. "Deciphering the Knowledge Management Hype," The Journal for Quality & Participation, July/August 1998
    7. 7. What is Knowledge Management? A LOT of Things…. Specific Categories Artificial Agents · Artificial Intelligence · Automatic Classification · Bayesian Analysis · Bayesian Nets · Best Practices · Bibliometrics · Brainstorming · Business Rules ·Business Intelligence · Case Based Reasoning · Classification · Cluster Analysis · Collaborative Technologies · Communities of Practice · Computational Linguistics · Computer Languages · Concept Mapping · Content Analysis · Content Management · Content Organization · Conferencing · Constraint Solving · Creativity Software · Data Analysis · Data Management · Data Mining · Data Storage · Data Warehousing · Decision Support· Digital Asset Management · Digital Dashboards · Distance Learning· Document Management · eLearning · e-Learning · e-Mail Processing · Enterprise Portals · Executive Information Systems · Evolutionary Computing · Fuzzy Logic · Fuzzy Systems · Genetic Algorithms · Groupware Systems · Collaborative Communication · Groupware Technologies · Image Processing · Information Mapping · Intranets · Knowledge Acquisition · Knowledge Discovery · Knowledge Engineering · Knowledge Exchanges · Knowledge Map · Knowledge Mapping · Knowledge Organization · Knowledge Processing · Knowledge Portals · Knowledge Retrieval · Knowledge Systems · Knowledge Tools · Machine Intelligence · Machine Learning · Meta Analysis · Meta Data · Natural Language Processing · Neural Networks · OLAP · Ontologies · Pattern Recognition · Project Management · Qualitative Analysis · P2P · Records Management · Scenario Planning · Search Algorithms · Semantic Analysis · Semantic Databases · Social Network Analysis · Summarization · Taxonomies · Taxonomy Software · Text Processing · Voice Recognition · Workflow Management · XML ·
    8. 8. “Knowledge management (KM) is an effort to increase useful knowledge within the organization. Ways to do this include encouraging communication, offering opportunities to learn, and promoting the sharing of appropriate knowledge artifacts.” McInerney, C. (2002). Knowledge management and the dynamic nature of knowledge. JASIST, 53 (2). What is Knowledge Management? Culture Change
    9. 9. • Foster innovation by encouraging the free flow of ideas • Improve decision making • Improve customer service by streamlining response time • Boost revenues by getting products and services to market faster • Enhance employee retention rates by recognizing the value of employees' knowledge and rewarding them for it • Streamline operations and reduce costs by eliminating redundant or unnecessary processes Value of Knowledge Management Benefits of Knowledge Management "Introduction to Knowledge Management". ment.html. Retrieved 15 January 2010
    10. 10. Although 65% of organizations that are currently implementing KM initiatives have not measured the impact of their performance, large revenue gains and efficiency improvements have been recorded by numerous major corporations. • Ford Motor Company accelerated its concept-to-production time from 36 months to 24 months. The flow on value of this has been estimated at US $1.25 billion, • The Dow Chemical Company saved $40 million a year in the re-use of patents, • Chase Manhattan, one of the largest banks in the US, used Customer relationship management KM initiatives to increase its annual revenue by 15%, and • Pfizer credits KM practices for discovering the hidden benefits of the Viagra drug. Value of Knowledge Management Benefits of Knowledge Management "Introduction to Knowledge Management". ment.html. Retrieved 15 January 2010
    11. 11. Traditional Knowledge Management • Discussion • Formal Apprenticeship • Forums • Libraries • Training Programs • Mentoring Programs Post-Computerizations Knowledge Management • Expert Systems • Knowledge Bases • Decision Support Systems • “Computer Supported Cooperative Work” History of Knowledge Management From Trogs to Blogs "Introduction to Knowledge Management". ment.html. Retrieved 15 January 2010
    12. 12. 70's, A number of management theorists have contributed to the evolution of knowledge management • Peter Drucker: information and knowledge as organizational resources • Peter Senge: "learning organization" • Leonard-Barton: well-known case study of "Chaparral Steel ", a company having knowledge management strategy 80's, • Knowledge (and its expression in professional competence) as a competitive asset was apparent • Managing knowledge that relied on work done in artificial intelligence and expert systems • Knowledge management-related articles began appearing in journals and books 90's, • A number of management consulting firms had begun in-house knowledge management programs • Knowledge management was introduced in the popular press, the most widely read work to date is Ikujiro Nonaka’s and Hirotaka Takeuchi’s The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation (1995) • The International Knowledge Management Network(IKMN) went online in 1994 • Knowledge management has become big business for such major international consulting firms as Ernst & Young, Arthur Andersen, and Booz-Allen Hamilton History of Knowledge Management The Early Years
    13. 13. History of Knowledge Management Where Are We Now?
    14. 14. History of Knowledge Management Frightful Failures “Focusing exclusively on the technical issues of electronic collaboration is a sure way to a very expensive failure.” David Coleman, IBM Manager, San Francisco in Knowledge Management, a Real Business Guide, London:IBM, nd.
    15. 15. Karl Erik Sveiby, the author of The New Organizational Wealth: Managing and Measuring Knowledge-Based Assets, contends that the confusion between `knowledge' and `information' has caused managers to sink billions of dollars in technology ventures that have yielded marginal results. History of Knowledge Management How Frightful?
    16. 16. History of Knowledge Management It’s Not Just a Few Big Ones, Either. Some researchers peg the failure rate of knowledge management projects at 50%. But Daniel Morehead, director of organizational research at British Telecommunications PLC in Reston, Va., says the rate is closer to 70%.
    17. 17. Lessons Learned Common Mistakes • Mistake No. 1: The most common error is failing to coordinate efforts between information technology and human resources. Don't fall into the trap of framing the KM effort as either a technology problem or a people problem. It isn't an either/or situation - KM needs both to succeed • Mistake No. 2: Starting with a low-profile project. • Mistake No. 3: Not changing the compensation scheme to reward teamwork. • Mistake No. 4: Building the grand database in the sky to house all your company's knowledge. • Mistake No. 5: Assuming someone else will lead the charge.
    18. 18. Lessons Learned New Model: Control to Creativity, Cost to Quality Enablers & Constraints Model 1 KMS Model 2 KMS Business & Technology Strategy Pre-definition of Outcomes World of re-everything Organizational Control Control for Consistency Self-Control for Creativity Information Sharing Culture Based Upon Contracts Based Upon Trust Knowledge Representation Static and Pre-specified Dynamic and ‘Constructed’ Organization Structure Insular and Top-Down Inclusive and Self-Organized Managerial Command and Control For Achieving Compliance For Achieving Commitment Economic Returns Decreasing Returns Increasing Returns
    19. 19. Lessons Learned It’s About Wanting to Share • I don‘t know if anybody will ever need my knowledge. • I don‘t know how somebody will use my knowledge. • I‘d rather take care of really important things.
    20. 20. Lessons Learned It’s About Wanting to Share • Sharing knowledge is always voluntary, no one can ever be forced. • We share knowledge when we have the right audience, that motivates us and creates the right context. • Social Software alone is not the solution to the old problems of knowledge management.
    21. 21. As noted by Strassmann, elevating computerization to the level of a magic bullet may lead to the diminishing of what matters the most in any enterprise: educated, committed, and imaginative individuals working for organizations that place greater emphasis on people than on technologies. Lessons Learned It’s Not a Computer Issue, It’s a People Issue Malhotra, Yogesh. "Deciphering the Knowledge Management Hype," The Journal for Quality & Participation, July/August 1998
    22. 22. Lessons Learned It’s Not a Computer Issue, It’s a People Issue Develop the knowledge, then determine the platforms.
    23. 23. • Collaborate using modifiable web pages • Automatic web page linking and creation • Changes are INSTANTLY published • Page change notifications via email • Control user access and privileges • File sharing • Page index and full text search • List and restore previous page versions The Wiki Way What’s a Wiki?
    24. 24. • Make information easier to access • Better, faster communication • Information is saved in a central repository • Spend less time emailing & in meetings • Keep information up-to-date • Get more people involved • Quickly see who contributed information The Wiki Way Business Benefits
    25. 25. • Host an Intranet or Extranet • Organize and manage projects • Record meeting notes • Track deadlines • Gather requirements • Solve problems remotely • Co-author proposals • Communicate initiatives • Get team members involved The Wiki Way Representative Business Applications
    26. 26. • Read and navigate through pages like a regular web site. • Modify any page by clicking the "Edit" link on that page. Click "Save" and your changes are INSTANTLY published for others to see. • Link to another page by putting it's name between asterisks (eg. *NewPage*). If the page exists, it will be linked to. If the page does not exist, it will be automatically created and linked to. • Use asterisks linking to link to pictures, other web sites, uploaded files, wiki pages and email addresses. The Wiki Way How Does It Work?
    27. 27. • No complicated rules or languages to learn • Context sensitive help for beginners • Search all wikis or all pages in one wiki • Create, edit, delete, lock, and unlock pages • View page history and/or restore old versions of a page • Upload, download or list all files in a wiki • Link to files, other web sites, e-mail addresses and graphics • Select between 4 levels of security • Receive e-mail notifications when pages change • Send e-mail invitations to other users • My WikiWeb organizes owned wikis and wikis you are a private member in • Works with popular web browsers The Wiki Way Product Features
    28. 28. The Wiki Way So, What’s All This Cost?
    29. 29. The Wiki Way It’s Not Chaos, but Almost…
    30. 30. Leading Large Scale KM Products • Notes: • Intranet: • Intraspect: • Insight: • Verity: • Caucus: • Primus: • Exchange: • Inspiration: • Autonomy: • Abuzz: • GrapeVine?: • Multilingual terminologies: • KnowledgeX: • WebGrid II: • Documentum: • PC Docs: • Aliah: • Backweb: • Hyperknowledge: • WebMind: • Mediasurface: • LiveLink: • Livelinked ASP:
    31. 31. Leading Hosted Wiki Products • PBwiki – create your personal wiki in less than 30 seconds with this easy online service. • OttoWiki – build up your personal wiki to track projects or collaborate on documents online. • WikiSpaces – create simple web pages that groups, friends, and families can edit together. • WetPaint – build up public and private wikis and join one of the largest wiki communities. • ServerSideWiki – create a web-hosted wiki specifically designed for extremely fast load times. • StikiPad – a hosted wiki solution that gives you an easy way to organize your information and share it with others. • Netcipia – create free private wikis and blogs and invite your coworkers, familiy and friends. • Ziwiki – build up a free wiki site and collaborate with a large community of users. • Near-Time – create and customize collaborative wikis for your business, customers and friends. • LittleWiki – set up free public and private wiki pages that anyone can edit. • TiddlySpot – get your wiki with no installation required and make it private or public. • ProjectForum – create hosted wikis to share, discuss and review ideas collaboratively • Socialtext – build up a wiki in a few seconds. Different plans available for enterprises and smaller groups. • WikiBios – create a wiki page and edit your own biography. You will become part of a large social network. • Wiki – create free wikispaces of up to 5 members each with 25MB storage. • Wikidot – free and professional wiki publishing, collaboration and communication solutions. • Zoho Wiki – create free hosted group wikis and edit them collaboratively. • – create public or private wikis and easily integrate them with your existing website. • JotSpot – popular wiki creation service that is momentarily suspended after having been acquired by Google. • Wikia – a community of users that create, share and discover topics they are passionate about through wikis. • EditMe – wiki hosting service that helps non-technical users to quickly and easily build editable web sites. • Versionate – create collaborative spaces where you can share information and review it with other people.
    32. 32. Leading Self-Hosted Wiki Products • ProjectForum – software to create wikis to share, discuss and review ideas collaboratively • Kwiki – wiki software with over 200 plugins that let you customize the look of your wiki. • XWiki – open source wiki released under the LGPL license • Twiki – enterprise collaboration platform and knowledge management system based on wikis. • OpenWiki –lets you create workspaces that can be collaboratively edited by anyone or by selected users. • MediaWikiMediaWiki – free software wiki package originally written for Wikipedia. It’s available for everyone to use. • Confluence – enterprise wiki software that makes it easy for your team to collaborate and share knowledge.
    33. 33. • Instead of the traditional emphasis on controlling the people and their behaviors by setting up pre-defined goals and procedures, they would need to view the organization as a human community capable of providing diverse meanings to information outputs generated by the technological systems. • De-emphasize the adherence to the company view of 'how things are done here' and 'best practices' so that such ways and practices are continuously assessed from multiple perspectives for their alignment with the dynamically changing external environment. • Invest in multiple and diverse interpretations to enable constructive conflict mode of inquiry and, thus, lessen oversimplification of issues or premature decision closure. • Encourage greater proactive involvement of human imagination and creativity to facilitate greater internal diversity to match the variety and complexity of the wicked environment. • Give more explicit recognition to tacit knowledge and related human aspects, such as ideals, values, or emotions, for developing a richer conceptualization of knowledge management • Implement new, flexible technologies and systems that support and enable communities of practice, informal and semi-informal networks of internal employees and external individuals based on shared concerns and interests. • Make the organizational information base accessible to organization members who are closer to the action while simultaneously ensuring that they have the skills and authority to execute decisive responses to changing conditions. Recommendations Implementation Measures for Facilitating Knowledge Management
    34. 34. Recommendations • Understand What You Can Accomplish Before Starting
    35. 35. Recommendations The Need to Act is Now
    36. 36. The right culture is a goal, not a pre-condition. Recommendations Don’t Wait for the Culture to be “Right” for KM
    37. 37. Research Resources Useful Links for More In-depth Research Introduction to Knowledge Management Case Studies in Knowledge Management KnowledgeLinks In the News Community Lots of Links Knowledge Management Sites Related Sites Products and Services Conferences and Events University Sites International KM Knowledge Markets Periodicals Professional Organizations Search Engines and Portals KM Bookstore
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