GroupNonvascular Plants(Bryophytes) Phylum Common Name Estimated # of Species 1. Phylum Liverworts 9,000 Hepatophyta 2. Phylum Hornworts 100 Anthocerophyta 3. Phylum Mosses 15,000 Bryophyta
GroupVascular Plants: *Seedless Vascular PlantsPhylum Common Name Estimated # of Species4. Phylum Lycophytes 1,200lycophyta5. Phylum Pterophytes 12,000pterophyta
Vascular Plants *Seed Plants -Gymnosperms (seeds are not enclosed in a chamber) Phylum Common Name Estimated # of Species 6. Phylum Ginkgo 1 Ginkgophyta 7. Phylum Cycads 130 Cycadophyta 8. Phylum Gnetophytes 75 Gnetophyta 9. Phylum Conifers 600 Coniferophyta
Vascular Plants *Seed Plants -Angiosperms (seeds are contained) Phylum Common Name Estimated # of Species 10. Phylum Flowering plants 250,000 Anthophyta
1. Phylum Hepatophyta Some liverworts have flattened gametophytes while others have stemlike gametophytes. The gametophytes themselves are liver-shaped.
2. Phylum Anthocerophyta The sporophytes have a long, tapered shape. A hornwort sporophyte lacks seta and consists only of sporangium. Hornworts are often among the first to colonize open area with moist soils. They share a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria.
3. Phylum Bryophyta Bryophyta are nonvascular embryophytes that have no water-conducting tissues. Known as mosses, these organisms range in height from less than 1 mm to up to 2 m. Persistent unbranched sporophytes No vascular system
4. Phylum Lycophyta Many lycophytes grow on other plants as epiphytes (plants that use other plants as a substrate but are not parasites). Other species grow on forest floors. Others live below ground, gaining nutrients from fungi. It includes sporophytes, club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts.
5. Phylum Pterophyta Thisphylum includes ferns, horsetails, and whisk ferns and relatives. Ferns radiated from their Devonian origins and grew next to tree lycophytes and horsetails. They are most diverse in the tropics, but there are some species that have adapted to arid climates.
6. Phylum Ginkgophyta There is only one surviving species of this phylum, the Ginkgo biloba. This phylum, and species, has deciduous fanlike leaves that turn gold in the Fall. It tolerates air pollution well.
7. Phylum Cycadophyta The second largest group of gymnosperms, they have large cones and palmlike leaves. Cycads thrived during the Mesozoic era, known as the age of cycads and the age of dinosaurs.
8. Phylum Gnetophyta Have woody vascular system Consists of three genera: Gnetum, Ephedra, and Welwitschia. These have been grouped together based on molecular data.
9. Phylum Coniferophyta Thisphylum is by far the largest of the gymnosperms. Many are large trees. Most conifers are evergreens, remaining green all year round. When spring comes around, conifers already have fully developed leaves.
9. Phylum AnthophytaThisencompasses all angiosperms (flowering plants).The flower itself is a development used for sexual reproduction.Use fruit to encompass seeds.