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Plant recognition

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Plant recognition

  1. 1. Learning to recognise plants It is important to be able to recognise the plants that are used in agriculture. • If the plant is a weed, correct identification will assist in its control. • If the plant is a pasture grass or legume, correct identification will help to manage the plant to get optimum growth for grazing • If the plant is a crop species, correct identification will help to determine the right fertiliser treatment
  2. 2. Resources that help with plant identification • Books • Plant identification key • Local experts • internet
  3. 3. Recognise plants There is a large number and diversity of plants available to us for production and pleasure. Examples of this would be plants used for: • Food crops wheat, cabbage, canola, rice • Fibre crops, cotton, hemp • Pasture species to feed animals • Natural species in the region where you work • Cultivated garden plants • Cut flowers
  4. 4. Plant classification How do plants get classified? The plant kingdom is a name for all plants ranging from one-celled organisms, such as bacteria, to flowering land plants. It contains a very diverse collection of organisms. This kingdom is simplified by breaking it down into groups that show a relationship. The diagram shows you the main groups of plants and how they are related.
  5. 5. Why do we need to classify plants? Scientific Classification Biological classification involves grouping plants with similar characteristics together. The image below of grassy box woodland includes several varieties of Eucalypts. The aims of classification are: • Stability and consistency in naming (everyone in the world does it the same way so there is a common point of reference) • Managing large numbers of plants in a meaningful way
  6. 6. Naming Conventions Binomial Names The following table contains rules, (or conventions). The naming rules do not cover 'common names'. When we apply the naming rules, the genus and species names combined give us the name of the plant. This name (made up of two names) is called the binomial. It can also be called the scientific name or the botanical name. The binomial name for the Dandelion is Taraxacum officinalis. It is a member of the family Asteraceae. Species Name Meaning Species Name Meaning niveus Snow white chinensis From China Flavus Yellow Indica From India Cerasinus Cherry red Japonica From Japan pupurea Purple Sax atilis Growing on rocks viridus green melanoxylon Black wood
  7. 7. Family A plant family is a collection of plants that share similar characteristics, particularly of their flowers and fruits. The system of grouping and identifying plants is called botanical nomenclature and is an international language allowing an individual plant, wherever it grows, to be identified by one universal name. Families are then divided into one or more genera. Some Australian plant family names are Casuarinaceae (e.g. Casuarina), Myrtaceae (e.g. Eucalypts) and Mimosaceae (e.g. Acacias), Gramineae (e.g. grasses image Microlaena stipoides).
  8. 8. Genus Each plant has two names: a genus name (written first) and a species name (written second). These names are written in italics and the genus name is given a capital letter, as in Banksia ericifolia. The flower and fruit similarities are closer within a genus than they are in the family classification. A genus (plural - genera) name may be descriptive or it may be commemorative (named after someone). Within any genus there may be one or more species. Some genus names are Acacia, Eucalyptus, Banksia (named after Sir Joseph Banks.Capt.Cook’s botanist on the Endeavor), Hakea, Grevillea, Melaleuca, Callistemon. Melaleuca armarillis
  9. 9. Species This is the basic unit of classification. Plants in this grouping have common characteristics and qualities. A species can be described as ‘plants that freely interbreed producing recognisable offspring generation after generation. Species name is usually descriptive and is written in italics. E.g Callistemon viminalis Callistemon viminalis
  10. 10. Plant Botanical Name - summary Contains the plant’s Genus and Species written according to the rules of Naming Conventions e.g. Rubus fruticosus – blackberry Cultivars Some plants are grown and bred especially to suit a need or produce a new habit or flower. They are called Cultivars which is short for 'cultivated variety'. Plant Common Name The common name may vary from place to place. You may use the one you like or remember best. No one name is correct everywhere e.g. Microlaena stipoides, common names - weeping grass, weeping rice grass and weeping meadow grass Family name Remember that a Family is a group of Genera (plural of Genus) which have things in common. The name always ends in ‘aceae’. Origin This is the place where the plant naturally/ originally grew. It can be a country or area, or state.
  11. 11. Recognising and Naming Plants When identifying plants there are several characteristics used including: Flowers and fruit – these are the reproductive parts of the plant and are the main key to identifying the plant. Size, shape colour, fragrance, and the number of parts (e.g. petals). Leaves – vary in colour texture, shape, size and arrangement. Roots – used by plant for uptake and support and generally fall into tap roots and fibrous roots. Stems – support above ground structures; features include texture, colour, shape and flexibility. Habit – the shape, form, and size of a plant
  12. 12. Recognise the plants that you work with Look around your school farm or local area and be able to recognise: • 5 introduced or naturalised pasture species • 4 native grasses • 6 weeds

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