Abstract Integrating Sustainability Strategies in
Design and Practice As sustainability is becoming more and more a familiar topic in engineering practice and education, the problem remains on how to achieve sustainability in front of client, cost and construction industry challenges. The lecture proposes the integration of sustainability in design process, education and legislation. The lecture focuses on sustainability strategies that can be incorporated in practice and design process. The goal is to make sustainability an integral part of practice that influences both design and construction stages. Other attempts should be made to make sustainability an integral part of legislation and education.
Historical Development4 1960’s Vernacular
Architecture 1970’s Energy and Architecture 1980’s Ecological/Environmental Architecture 1990’s Sustainable Architecture (Economic, Environment, Equity) 2000’s Green Architecture 2010’s Integrated/Rated Sustainability (Systems, Smart, Strategy) 1960’s 1970’s 1980’s 1990’s 2000’s 2010 Vernacular Energy Ecological Sustainable Green Integrated
Sustainable Building Design“Sustainable design integrates
consideration of resource and energy efficiency, healthy buildings and materials, ecologically and socially sensitive land use and an aesthetic that inspires, affirms and enables” Union Internationale des Architectes’ Declaration of Interdependence for a Sustainable Future, Chicago, 19933 E’sEnvironment, Economy and Equitypillars of sustainable development
Introduction In their search for
models that incorporate sustainable principles of design, many designers and planners have looked to history and vernacular architecture in particular.
Traditional Solutions However, while such
lessons can and have been readily transferred from vernacular buildings to small modern building types such as houses, schools, community buildings, and the like. They are less easily transferable to large modern building types for which there are no historical precedents,
Approach• Pre-Design - This Stage
involves the development of the program and meeting the owners project requirements. -The green design should be stated as an objective at this stage or it would be more difficult to implement. -This stage is more of a sales effort than a design effort.
Approach• Conceptual Design -This stage
provides several design solutions and alternatives, where a solution picked by the client would be pursued. - Some form giving design strategies would be presented in drawing for the client.
Approach• Schematic Design -This phase
provides technical drawings reflecting the concept, and provides a verification of whether the project is feasible or within budget. -Its when the concept becomes a reality.
Approach• Design Development -In this
phase, schematic design decisions are validated, systems are optimized, details are developed, specific equipment selected, and drawings and specifications initiated.
Design Intent, Criteria and Method•
Intent - An intent is a general statement of expected outcome, for example: a green building, a low cost building, an efficient building, a comfortable building, a building with good air quality.
Design Intent, Criteria and Method•
Criteria -A design criterion is a benchmark that sets a minimum acceptable performance target for the issues addressed in the intent statements.
Active or Passive• Passive -Uses
no purchased energy (no electricity/natural gas etc.) -Uses components that are part of another system. (windows, floors) -Is closely integrated into the overall building fabric (not tacked on)
Active or Passive• Active -Uses
purchased energy. -Doesn’t use components that are part of another system. -Usually tacked on to the overall building fabric.
Integration and Sustainability Three types
of integration: 1. Physical integration Physical integration is fundamentally about how components and systems share space, that is, how they fit together. 2. Visual integration Visual integration involves development of visual harmony among the many parts of a building and their agreement with the intended visual effects of design. 3. Performance integration. Performance integration has to do with “shared functions” in which a load-bearing wall, for instance, is both envelope and structure, so it unifies two functions into one element.
key components ofan integrated design
process1. Whole-Systems Thinking: taking interactions between elements and systems into account, and designing to exploit their energies.2. Front-Loaded Design: thinking through a design early in the process, before too many decisions are locked in and opportunities for low-cost, high-value changes to major aspects for the design have dwindled.3. End-Use, Least-Cost Planning: considering the needs of a project in terms of the services (comfort, light, access) the end user will need, rather than in terms of the equipment required to meet those needs.4. Teamwork: coming up with solutions as a group and collaborating closely on implementing those solutions.
key components ofan integrated design
process1. Shape and Shadow: massing and orientation of the building as related to function, daylight, and structural considerations.2. Site Opportunities: location of building and its effect on the immediate context;3. Envelope: types of walls and locations of windows;4. Lighting Design: day lighting and electrical lighting;5. How the Building Breathes: natural ventilation and passive heating and cooling;6. Comfort System: heating and cooling loads and mechanicalsystems design;7. Materials: selection and composition; and8. Quality Assurance: review of building as a system.
Active heating and coolingDouble envelopemitigate
the surfacetemperature of theinterior glass, reducingthe mechanicalintervention required to Box window Corridor facadeprovide comfortableconditions under bothand cooling modes Multi-story facade Shaft-box
Daylight Zoning According to Location
and Orientation of a space. The Designer has control over the location and orientation of a space to maximize day-lighting, while function and usage schedule are based on the program.
Top Lighting Is a day
light strategy that uses openings located at the roof plane as the point of admission for the surrounding daylight.
Cross VentilationNatural ventilation is the
process of supplying and removing air through an indoor space by natural means.There are many type of natural ventilation :1) Single Sided Ventilation2) Single Sided Double Opening3) Cross Ventilation4) Stack Ventilation
Cross Ventilation Buildings will be
best naturally ventilated when they are very open to the wind and at the same time they are shaded from the solar radiation. The cross ventilation can easily introduce noise into a building so opening must be located to minimize the effect of noise.
Stack VentilationSTACK VENTILATION is a
passive cooling strategy which relies on TWO basic principles. - As air warms up, it becomes less dense and rises. - Fresh ambient air replaces the air that has risen.
Major challenges to the application
of Sustainability Survey1. Clients (Private Business & RE Companies)2. Cost & Finance3. Technology Availability4. Governments (Building Codes, Legislation and Laws)5. Rating Systems (LEED, QSAS, etc.)