This is a seminar made on sustainable architecture, containing
RENEWABLE ENERGY GENERATION
Small is beautiful. The trend lately has been toward huge mansion-style houses. While these might fit the egos of those who purchase them, they don't fit with a sustainable life style. Large houses generally use a tremendous amount of energy to heat and cool. This energy usually comes from the combustion of fossil fuels, depleting these resources and emitting greenhouse gases and pollutants into the air. Also, the larger the house, the more materials go into its construction; materials which may have their own environmental consequences. A home should be just the right size for its occupants and their activities. My wife and I (and our two dogs) have happily lived in a forty foot bus for the last four years. The key to this is efficient use of space, good organization, and keeping possessions to a manageable level. We do look forward to spreading out some in the passive solar, earthbag home we are building. Heat with the sun. Nothing can be more comfortable for body and mind than living in a good solar-heated house. I say "good", because proper design is crucial to the comfort of such a house. You may have gone into a solar house and felt stifled by the glaring heat, or perhaps you shivered from the lack of it. Good passive solar design will provide just enough sunlight into the rooms to be absorbed by the surrounding thermal mass (usually masonry materials), so that the heat will be given back into the room when the sun goes down. The thermal mass is a kind of "heat battery" that stores the warmth, absorbing it to keep the room from getting too hot during the day. Equally important to thermal mass is insulation (such as straw bales or crushed volcanic rock) that will keep that heat inside. Thermal mass materials need to be insulated from the outside, or else they will just bleed that warmth right back out. A rock house might have tons of mass, but be uncomfortably cold because of this energy bleed. So a good solar design will utilize materials of the right type in the right places, blending thermal dynamics with utilitarian design. There is much more to be said about solar design, and there are many good books on the topic. Keep your cool. As I suggested above, a well designed solar house is both warm when you want it, and cool when you want it; that is to say, the temperature tends to stay fairly even. A good way to keep your cool is to dig into the earth. If you dig about six feet into the earth, you will find that the temperature there varies by only a few degrees year round. While this temperature (about 50-55 degrees F.) might be too cool for general living comfort, you can use the stability of the earth's temperature to moderate the thermal fluctuations of the house. If you dig into a south-facing hillside to build, or berm the north part of the house with soil, you can take advantage of this. The part of the house that is under ground needs to be well insulated, or the earth will continually suck warmth out of the house. Let nature cool your food. In the old days people relied on pantries and root cellars to help keep produce and other provisions fresh. Ice boxes made way for refrigerators, which are obviously much more convenient, but somehow the use of cool pantries and root cellars also fell by the wayside. This is too bad because these spaces have functions that a refrigerator simply can't replace. Root cellars can store large quantities of produce from the time of harvest until the next summer. Cool pantries can store some produce, but also all manner of other foodstuffs and kitchen supplies can be kept there. Cool, dry storage is the best way to preserve most food. The cool of the earth can keep a totally bermed pantry or root cellar cool; the night air can also be used to cool a storage room. The convenience and security of having ample provisions at your finger tips can not be beat. Be energy efficient. There are many ways to conserve the use of fossil fuel. Using the sun, wind, or water to produce electricity is one. If you choose to do this, you will be forced to be careful in the way you use your electricity because it is limited. Whether you get your electricity from alternative sources or from the grid, it pays to choose energy efficient appliances. Front-loading clothes washers, for instance, use much less electricity, water and soap than the top-loaders. Compact florescent lights use about a third of the electricity of standard bulbs. Many appliances use electricity by just being plugged in (known as phantom load); be sure to avoid this. Conserve water. The average person in the U. S. uses between 100 and 250 gallons of water a day. I know it is possible to get by just fine on one tenth that amount. The use of low water capacity toilets, flow restrictors at shower heads and faucet aerators are fairly common now. More radical conservation approaches include diverting gray water from bathing, clothes washing and bathroom sinks to watering plants; catching rain water from roofs and paved areas for domestic use and switching to composting toilets. These can be very effective and safe means of water conservation if done carefully to avoid bacterial infestation. Landscaping with drought tolerant, indigenous plants can save an enormous amount of water. Use local materials. There are several benefits to using local, indigenous materials. For one, they naturally fit into the "feeling" of the place. For another, they don't burn as much fossil fuel to transport them, and they are likely to be less processed by industry. An example of building materials found in our corner of Colorado would be rocks, sand, adobe and scoria (crushed volcanic rock). Use natural materials. Again, naturally occurring materials often "feel" better to live with. When you step onto an adobe floor, for instance, you feel the resilient mother earth beneath your feet. A major reason for choosing natural materials over industrial ones is that the pollution often associated with their manufacture is minimized. For every ton of portland cement that is manufactured, an equal amount of carbon dioxide is released into the air. And then there is the matter of your health; natural materials are much less likely to adversely affect your health. Save the forests. Having lived for many years in the Pacific Northwest, I can attest to the appalling degradation of national and private forests. While wood is ostensibly a renewable resource, we have gone way beyond sustainable harvesting and have ruined enormous ecosystems. Use wood as decoration. Cull dead trees for structural supports. Use masonry, straw bales, papercrete, cob, adobe, rocks, bags of volcanic rock, etc., instead of wood. Unfortunately it is difficult to get away from lumber in making a roof, so consider making a dome from materials that can be stacked. Domes are also more energy efficient and use less materials for the same space as a box. A conventional straw bale house only diminishes the amount of wood used by about 15%! Recycle materials. If the materials already exist, you might as well use them, because by doing so you are not promoting the creation of more of them. You might also be keeping them out of the landfill, or keeping them from being transported for further processing. Wood that is kept dry does not degrade much, nor does glass. All kinds of things can be used in a house. We're using old metal wagon wheels to support the window openings in our earthbag home. Build to last. There is an attitude in this throw-away society that an old house might as well be replaced by a new one. Unfortunately this is often true, because of shoddy construction or poor choice of materials, or lack of maintenance. A well made house can last for centuries, and it should. Moisture getting into a building can lead to ruin, and it is hard to avoid this, whether from the outside environment or from condensation from within. For this reason I am partial to the use of materials that are not degraded by moisture. Grow your food. Why not ask your house to help nourish you? With all of that south-facing glass, you might as well devote some of it to a greenhouse. Herbs and salad greens can be grown year round. What a pleasure! Share Facilities. A basic tenet of sustainability is to share what you have with others. Doing this can diminish the need for unnecessary duplication of facilities. In this way a group of people can not only have fewer tools or appliances or functional areas, but at the same time they can have available a greater variety of these facilities. This benefits both the environment (through less industrial activity) and the individual (by providing more options for living.)
Sustainable architecture is architecture that seeks to minimize
the negative environmental impact of buildings by efficiency and
moderation in the use of materials, energy, and development
space. Sustainable architecture uses a conscious approach to
energy and ecological conservation in the design of the built
Sustainability - Meeting the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs.
Reduces the negative impact on the environment and human
health, thus improving the performance during a building’s life
cycle. Careful consideration is given to water, energy, building
materials, and solid waste.
Green building is the practice of increasing the efficiency of
buildings and their use of energy, water, and materials, and
reducing building impacts on human health and the environment,
through better sitting, design, construction, operation,
maintenance, and removal — taking into account every aspect of
the complete building life cycle.
Sustainable development and sustainability are
integral to green building. Effective green building
can lead to
1) reduced operating costs by increasing
productivity and using less energy and water,
2) improved public and occupant health due to
improved indoor air quality,
3) reduced environmental impacts by using
NEED FOR SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE:
Architecture is an essential arena for sustainable innovation.
Our homes are one of the most important assets of our lives.
Our world needs help gaining popularity on that list. With the help
of sustainable architecture , a green design can successfully meld
beauty and functionality together to save our planet from us.
Increase of population day by day .
People migrating from rural to urban
Depletion of natural resources.
High energy and natural resources are
consumed due to huge population.
Effect on bio diversity.
NEED FOR SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE:
A CROWDED WORLD MIGRATION-
RURAL TO URBAN
HIGH ENERGY AND
EFFECT ON BIO
Economy of Resources
• Energy Conservation
• Water Conservation
• Materials Conservation
Life Cycle Design
• Pre-Building Phase
• Building Phase
• Post-Building Phase
• Preservation for Natural Conditions
• Urban Design and Site Planning
• Design for Human Comfort
METHODS FOR ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE
By economizing resources, the architect reduces the use of
Non-renewable resources in the construction and operation of
There is a continuous flow of resources, natural
and manufactured, in and out of a building.
This flow begins with the production of building materials and continues
throughout the building’s life span to create an environment for sustaining
human well-being and activities.
After a building’s useful life, it should turn into components for other
Economy of Resources:
The second principle of sustainable architecture is life cycle design (LCD).
This “cradle-to-grave” approach recognizes environmental consequences of the
entire life cycle of architectural resources, from procurement to return to nature.
LCD is based on the notion that a material transmigrates from one form of useful life
to another, with no end to its usefulness.
Life Cycle Design:
Life Cycle Design:
While economy of resources and life cycle design deal with efficiency and
conservation, humane design is concerned with the livability of all constituents of the
global ecosystem, including plants and wildlife.
This is deeply rooted in the need to preserve the chain elements of the
ecosystems that allow human survival.
ELEMENTS OF SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE:
1. Green roof:
A green roof can lower the temperature in your house, improve
local air quality and help add green space in urban areas
where concrete is the major material.
Green roofs can be as simple as a couple of types of ground cover
or include a beautiful mix of moss, succulents, ground cover, and
even herbs and plants.
2. Solar shingles:
Solar panels are an excellent way to save energy and reduce energy
Solar shingles are a bit pricier to install than traditional solar
panels, since they not only help power the building, but they're
actually roof shingles.
3. Cob houses:
Cob is an ancient building material that's basically wet earth and
straw mixed together and rolled into loaf-sized pieces or cobs. The
mixture is very similar to clay, and what makes cob houses unique
and beautiful is the organic shape.
4. Rainwater harvesting:
The basic idea behind a rainwater harvesting system is to capture
water to irrigate your garden and sometimes to use in the home.
To install any sort of rainwater harvesting system, it's important to
check local laws first. Some areas don't allow any rainwater harvesting.
5. Shipping container buildings:
Like with cob houses, shipping container buildings address the high
impact associated with traditional building materials.
Instead of using new materials that have to be manufactured,
shipping container homes reclaim old shipping crates and use them to
create prefabricated structures. Shipping crates can be stacked vertically
or lined up side-by-side to create residential or commercial buildings.
PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE:
Small is beautiful.
Heat with the sun.
Let nature cool food.
Use of local materials.
Use of natural materials.
Save the forests.
Recycle materials .
Built to last.
Grow your food.
-SMALL IS GOOD
-PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN
-ACTIVE SOLAR DESIGN
-HIGH LEVELS OF INSULATION
-EFFICIENT HEATING OF AIR & WATER
-THROUGH DESIGNING IN MODULES
-RECYCLING WHILE BUILDING
-GREY WATER SYSTEMS
-LOW FLOW TAPS & SHOWERS
-USE OF RENEWABLE, NON TOXIC MATERIALS
-USE OF RECYCLABLE/RECYCLED MATERIALS
-LOCALLY SOURCED TO REDUCE TRANSPORT
HOW TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABLE DESIGN:
ENERGY DESIGN STRATERGY:
Optimize building envelope, minimize demand through serious
conservation, and supply energy with maximum efficiency
and using renewable:
Passive solar heating
Passive cooling and natural ventilation
Traditional vernacular -sustainability by default.
Symbiotic relationship with natural environment.
INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY:
Conventional standards seek stasis or ‘optimum’.
Change is the natural state of affairs.
People are more ‘forgiving’ of buildings which offer
Dynamic environments stimulate –within limits.
SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIALS:
Extraction, processing, manufacture.
Life cycle maintenance.
-NB composite materials.
Use structural elements manufactured with a minimum amount of high-grade wood.
Use certified sustainable lumber.
Use fast-growing materials like bamboo flooring.
Use re-cut lumber from recently dismantled buildings.
RECYCLED MANUFACTURED MATERIALS
Use materials manufactured with a high recycled content.
LONG-LIFE AND LOW-MAINTENANCE MATERIALS
Use materials that last, with minimum or no maintenance costs.
Use materials that require minimal energy to manufacture, transport, and grow.
RECYCLED AND ALTERNATIVE CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS
Cob (straw and earth) construction.
Pre-fabricated panel wall & roof systems.
Post and beam construction.
Construction methods that the owner can use to build the home themselves.
Sustainable architecture often incorporates the use of recycled or
second hand materials, such as reclaimed lumber and recycled copper.
The reduction in use of new materials creates a corresponding
reduction in embodied energy (energy used in the production of
Often sustainable architects attempt to retrofit old structures to
serve new needs in order to avoid unnecessary development.
When older buildings are demolished, frequently any good wood is
reclaimed, renewed, and sold as flooring. Any good dimension stone is
Existing buildings can remodel and install improved
mechanical components and update operating systems to
make a building green.
Many other parts are reused as well, such as doors, windows, mantels, and hardware, thus
reducing the consumption of new goods.
When new materials are employed, green designers look for materials that are rapidly
replenished, such as bamboo, which can be harvested for commercial use after only 6 years of
growth, sorghum or wheat straw, both of which are waste material that can be pressed into panels,
or cork oak, in which only the outer bark is removed for use, thus preserving the tree.
RENEWABLE ENERGY GENERATION:
Active solar devices such as photovoltaic solar panels help to provide
sustainable electricity for any use. Electrical output of a solar panel is
dependent on orientation, efficiency, latitude, and climate—solar gain
varies even at the same latitude.
Roofs are often angled toward the sun to allow photovoltaic panels to
collect at maximum efficiency.
Solar panels can produce adequate energy if aligned within 30° of south.
The use of undersized wind turbines in energy production in sustainable
structures requires the consideration of many factors.
In considering costs, small wind systems are generally more expensive
than larger wind turbines relative to the amount of energy they produce.
Building integrated wind turbine performance can be enhanced with the
addition of an aerofoil wing on top of a roof mounted turbine.
Solar water heating:
Solar water heaters, also called solar domestic hot water systems, can
be a cost-effective way to generate hot water for a home.
They can be used in any climate, and the fuel they use—sunshine—is
free. Solar water heaters, also called solar domestic hot water systems,
can be a cost-effective way to generate hot water for a home.
They can be used in any climate, and the fuel they use—sunshine—is
There are also two types of circulation, direct circulation systems and
indirect circulation systems. Direct circulation systems loop the domestic
water through the panels. . Indirect circulation loops glycol or some other
fluid through the solar panels and uses a heat exchanger to heat up the
With the use of solar collectors, the energy use is cut in half.
Air-source heat pumps are inexpensive relative to other heat pump
systems. However, the efficiency of air-source heat pumps decline when
the outdoor temperature is very cold or very hot; therefore, they are only
really applicable in temperate climates
Other types of heat pumps are water-source and air-earth. If the building is located near a body of
water, the pond or lake could be used as a heat source or sink. Air-earth heat pumps circulate the
building's air through underground ducts. With higher fan power requirements and inefficient heat
transfer, Air-earth heat pumps are generally not practical for major construction.
TYPES OF GREEN AND SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS:
Any type of building can incorporate green and sustainable design principles.
Depending on the function of the building, consideration is given to efficiency in
materials, mechanical systems, and operating cost in the design process.
•Commercial and public buildings.
•Health care facilities.
Sustainable buildings examples:
CII-Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre, Hyderabad.
Infinity Benchmark, Salt Lake City, Kolkata.
Suzlon One Earth, Pune.
Patni (i-GATE) Knowledge Center, Noida.
Great Lakes Institute of Management, Chennai.
ITC Royal Gardenia, Bangalore.
CII-Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre, Hyderabad:
This building is one of the world’s best example of passive
architectural design. (GBC) is unofficially world’s most environment
friendly construction for the use of water and energy efficient
technologies. The building is literally made completely out of
The building does not discharge any waste water and recycles all
the used water. The building design comprises of two air
The roof is covered with roof garden as well as solar photovoltaic
thereby reducing the energy consumption by almost 60% against a
comparable conventional building.
Infinity Benchmark, Salt Lake City, Kolkata:
Inaugurated in 2009, this 5,60,000 sq. feet of space spread over
20 floors was then to receive a LEED Platinum rating.
This building is equipped with CO2 monitoring sensors, intelligent
humidification controls, rainwater harvesting & waste water
recycling systems. The building design reduces the overall energy
costs by 30% .
Infinity Benchmark, Salt Lake City, Kolkata:
This headquarters of India’s largest green energy company truly lives up to the
expectations. Suzlon one earth is 100% powered by onsite and offsite renewable sources.
The campus has 18 hybrid wind turbines that fulfil 7% of the total energy consumption, the
rest of energy demand is met from offsite wind turbines.
90% of the occupied spaces in the campus have daylight exposure, all the lighting used is
also LED that reduces the overall consumption. Daylight sensors & occupancy sensors are
installed across the building that automatically controls the artificial lighting in presence of
daylight and turn off the lights when no one is around.
More than 70% of the building material used has a reduced carbon footprint. Jet fans are
installed in the basements that push out stale air and bring in fresh air from time to time,
this systems consumes 50% less energy as compared to conventional ducted basement
Even the pavements and roads within the campus are designed to enable water
percolation and thereby control storm water runoff thus, contributing towards an increased
water table level.
Patni (i-GATE) Knowledge Center, Noida:
This Noida office of Patni (now i-gate) is one of India’s largest
LEED Platinum certified office space. The building design utilizes
passive (architectural) and active (mechanical/ electrical)
strategies to minimize energy consumption. The building depth
has been optimally designed to capture daylight for more than
75% of the occupied interiors. More than 95% of the occupied
workspace in the building receives outdoor view. Almost 50% of
the land cover is green area and the building does not discharge
any waste recycling all its sewage water.
Great Lakes Institute of Management, Chennai:
Located at the scenic Chennai Pondicherry highway, the campus of
this b-school lives up to its name. The institute is of the few LEED
Platinum certified educational institutions in the world. Spread over 27
acres it certainly is the most energy efficient academic center in India.
ITC Royal Gardenia, Bangalore:
ITC Gardenia in Bangalore has reduced heat gain to large extent by
their design and have experienced serious energy savings. High
performance Envelope includes cavity walls which has two skins of
bricks with a hollow space in between which helps in slowly drawing
rainwater or even humidity into the wall.
This has also flavored the living walls that they have adopted by
decorating the walls in interiors with plants.